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2018 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 197 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation â¢ Environment Tools for a Sustainable Transit Agency Frank Gallivan icF San Francisco, CA i n a s s o c i at i o n w i t h Jemae Hoffman via architecture Seattle, WA a n d s u p p o r t f r o m nelson\nygaard New York, NY thomson consulting Philadelphia, PA
TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 197 Project H-53 ISSN 2572-3782 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-39032-3 Â© 2018 national academy of Sciences. all rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The national academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The national academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The national academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the national academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.tRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under TCRP Project H-53. ICF was the prime contractor for the project, with VIA Architecture, Nelson\Nygaard, and Thomson Consulting as subcontractors. Frank Gallivan of ICF was the Principal Investigator. Jemae Hoffman of VIA Architecture was Co-Principal Investigator. Larry Gould of Nelson\Nygaard and Barbara Thomson of Thomson Consulting were core members of the project team. James Choe, Eliot Rose, and Maya Bruguera of ICF, and Kate Howe and Daniel Kennedy of VIA Architecture contributed to researching and building the tools created. CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 197 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Daniel J. Magnolia, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Heidi Willis, Editor TCRP PROJECT H-53 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Amy Shatzkin, Sound Transit, Seattle, WA (Chair) Aliesa Marie Adelman, Wendel, Williamsville, NY Rebecca R. Collins, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA), Philadelphia, PA Michael Donaghy, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, Boston, MA Projjal K. Dutta, New York State Metropolitan Transportation Authority, New York, NY Bruce E. Hamilton, Amalgamated Transit Union, New York, NY Rachel M. Healy, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC Ileana S. Ivanciu, Dewberry, Parsippany, NJ Jeanne Krieg, Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority, Antioch, CA Emmanuel C.B. âCrisâ Liban, Los Angeles County (CA) Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles, CA G. Scott Rutherford, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Antoinette Quagliata, FTA Liaison Richard Weaver, APTA Liaison Stephen J. Andrle, TRB Liaison
TCRP Research Report 197: Tools for a Sustainable Transit Agency presents the research that developed two practical tools for improving sustainability at transit agencies: â¢ The Sustainability Routemap. An interactive PDF, similar to a website, that guides the user to improve a transit agencyâs sustainability program through application of change management principles, best practice examples, and references to online tools. A check- list of possible actions is included with the Routemap that will help users prioritize strategies and track progress. â¢ The S+ROI Calculator. An Excel workbook that quantitatively evaluates potential sustainability projects in terms of financial, social, and environmental returns. The work- book is accompanied by two completed examples. Both tools are available for download from TCRPâs website at www.trb.org/Publications/ Blurbs/177296.aspx. Guidance for use of the tools is embedded in the tools themselves. TCRP Research Report 197 explains the ICF teamâs user-centered design process and key decisions and provides the basis for the design of future tools for sustainable transit agencies. The purpose of this report is three-fold: 1) Demonstrate the use of user-centered research and design in a TCRP project, so that others might copy it 2) Share what was learned along the way, so that others might use the findings in their own research and to create additional tools 3) Discuss challenges and innovations in creating the two tools so that they can live on and be continuously improved. TCRP Project H-53, âTools for a Sustainable Transit Agency,â was conceived out of a desire to create better ways to achieve sustainable outcomes across the transit industry. Since there is considerable knowledge both within and outside of the transit industry about sus- tainability practices, and there are some tools in use, this project aimed to build on existing knowledge and tools as much as possible. In short, the principal challenge of this project was not to develop dramatically new knowledge or methods, but to simplify, translate, and implement existing knowledge in new ways. In the course of the project, the researchers talked to sustainability managers and prac- titioners at a wide range of transit agencies to understand what tools would help them the most. The tools ultimately produced in this project are a response to the particular needs and challenges researched in this project. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 5 Chapter 2 User-Centered Design Process 5 2.1 Phase I: Inquiry 5 Qualitative Research (Interviews) 7 Identification of Core Needs (Analysis and Desirability Check) 8 Feasibility Check (Development of First Iteration Tool Ideas) 8 Prioritize and Propose Tools (Development of Second Iteration Tool Ideas) 12 2.2 Phase II: Design 12 Sustainability Routemap 15 S+ROI Calculator 16 2.3 Phase III: Dissemination (APTA Sustainability and Multimodal Planning Workshop) 17 Part I: Meet the Sustainability Routemap 19 Part II: Meet the S+ROI Calculator 20 Outcomes 21 Chapter 3 Final Tools 21 3.1 Introducing the Sustainability Routemap 21 Purpose of the Routemap 21 What Is in the Routemap? 22 What Are the Eight Principles? 22 How to Use the Routemap 23 3.2 Introducing the S+ROI Calculator 23 What Is S+ROI? Evaluating the Triple Bottom Line 24 How to Use the Calculator 24 The Resource Library 24 3.3 Looking Toward Version 2.0 24 Sustainability Routemap v2.0 25 S+ROI Calculator v2.0 26 Chapter 4 Conclusion 27 Appendix A First Iteration Tool Design Briefs 37 Appendix B Second Iteration Tool Proposals 51 Appendix C Proposals for Tools Developed 64 Appendix D Task 2 Memo on Interviews with Transit Agency Sustainability Staff 73 Appendix E Review of Climate Adaptation Tools and Guidance C O N T E N T S