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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk–Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25067.
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    PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Elizabeth A. Eide, Rapporteur Roundtable on Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Water Science and Technology Board Division on Earth and Life Studies   Prepublication—Subject to Further Editorial Revision

    THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation under grant no. G-2015-14016, the American Association of Petroleum Geologist Foundation, the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement under contract no. E15PC00008, the Colorado School of Mines, The Cynthia and George Mitchell Foundation, the Environmental Defense Fund, Flinders University, GE Oil and Gas, the Ohio State University, Schlumberger Limited, Texas A&M University, the U.S. Department of Energy under award no. DE-FE0027898, West Virginia University, and XTO Energy Inc. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: X-XXX-XXX-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: X-XXX-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25067 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Legacy Issues and Innovations in Managing Risk – Day 1: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25067   Prepublication—Subject to Further Editorial Revision

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.   Prepublication—Subject to Further Editorial Revision

    Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.   Prepublication—Subject to Further Editorial Revision

PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON ONSHORE UNCONVENTIONAL HYDROCARBON DEVELOPMENT: LEGACY ISSUES AND INNOVATIONS IN MANAGING RISK BRIAN J. ANDERSON, Co-Chair, West Virginia University JULIA HOBSON HAGGERTY, Co-Chair, Montana State University MELISSA BATUM, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior SUSAN L. BRANTLEY (NAS), The Pennsylvania State University JEFFREY J. DANIELS, The Ohio State University PAUL DOUCETTE, General Electric DAVID GLATT, North Dakota Department of Health and Environmental Council of the States’ Shale Gas Caucus STEVEN P. HAMBURG, Environmental Defense Fund JOE LIMA, Schlumberger Services, Inc. JAN MARES, Resources for the Future KRIS J. NYGAARD, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co. AMY PICKLE, Duke University THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE STAFF ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Board Director ED J. DUNNE, Program Officer (up to June 16, 2017) NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate YASMIN ROMITTI, Research Associate COURTNEY R. DeVANE, Administrative Coordinator ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant RAYMOND CHAPPETTA, Senior Program Assistant Prepublication—Subject to Further Editorial Revision v

  BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES GENE WHITNEY, Chair, Congressional Research Service (Retired), Washington, DC R. LYNDON (LYN) ARSCOTT (NAE), International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (Retired), Danville, California RODNEY C. EWING (NAE), Stanford University, Stanford, California CAROL P. HARDEN, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville T. MARK HARRISON (NAS) THORNE LAY (NAS), University of California, Santa Cruz ANN S. MAEST, Buka Environmental, Boulder, Colorado ZELMA MAINE-JACKSON, Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland MARTIN W. MCCANN, Jack R. Benjamin Associates and Stanford University, Menlo Park, California JAMES M. ROBERSTON, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (retired), Allouez, Michigan JAMES A. SLUTZ, National Petroleum Council, Washington, DC SHAOWEN WANG, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE STAFF ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Board Director ANNE M. LINN, Scholar DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate COURTNEY R. DeVANE, Administrative Coordinator YASMIN ROMITTI, Research Associate ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant RAYMOND CHAPPETTA, Senior Program Assistant CARLY BRODY, Senior Program Assistant Prepublication—Subject to Further Editorial Revision vi

WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD CATHERINE L. KLING (NAS), Chair, Iowa State University, Ames DAVID A. DZOMBAK (NAE), Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania WENDY D. GRAHAM, University of Florida, Gainesville ARTURO A. KELLER, University of California, Santa Barbara MARK W. LECHEVALLIER, Dr. Water Consulting, LLC DINAH LOUDA, Veolia Institute, Paris, France MARGARET PALMER, University of Maryland, College Park STEPHEN POLASKY (NAS), University of Minnesota, St. Paul DAVID L. SEDLAK (NAE), University of California, Berkeley DAVID WEGNER, Jacobs Engineering, Tucson, Arizona P. KAY WHITLOCK, Christopher B. Burke Engineering, Ltd., Rosemont, Illinois JAMES W. ZIGLAR, SR., Van Ness Feldman, Washington, DC THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE STAFF ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Board Director LAURA J. EHLERS, Senior Program Officer STEPHANIE E. JOHNSON, Senior Program Officer M. JEANNE AQUILINO, Financial and Administrative Associate BRENDAN R. MCGOVERN, Research Assistant/Senior Program Assistant CARLY BRODY, Senior Program Assistant Prepublication—Subject to Further Editorial Revision vii

 

  Preface A workshop on December 1 and 2, 2016 at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC, organized under the auspices of the National Academies’ Roundtable on Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development, comprised two parts related by the common element of managing risk related to the development of onshore unconventional oil and gas resources such as shale oil and shale gas. The first part of the workshop, on December 1, is described in this proceedings volume and addresses legacy issues associated with the environment (e.g., water, land, and air) and innovations in managing potential risks to the environment as unconventional hydrocarbon development proceeds. The second day of the workshop on December 2 addressed the topic of induced seismicity and managing the risk of induced seismic events associated with development of oil and gas fields. These topics are described in a companion proceedings volume entitled “Onshore Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development: Induced Seismicity and Innovations in Managing Risk – Day 2: Proceedings of a Workshop.” Prepublication—Subject to Further Editorial Revision ix

  Acknowledgments This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Tandis Bidgoli, Kansas Geological Survey Patrick Drohan, The Pennsylvania State University Kris J. Nygaard, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company Paul Segall, Stanford University Chi Ho Sham, Eastern Research Group, Inc. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Derek Elsworth, The Pennsylvania State University. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies. Prepublication—Subject to Further Editorial Revision xi

 

  Contents 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Workshop Overview and Objectives 2 2. UNDERSTANDING LEGACY ISSUES AND MANAGING RISK 5 Keynote Presentations 5 Moderated Discussion 15 3. INFRASTRUCTURE INVENTORIES, ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION, AND MANAGEMENT 17 Panel Presentations 17 Moderated Discussion 24 4. OBSERVATIONS, MONITORING, AND TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION FOR LEGACY ISSUES 27 Panel Presentations 27 Moderated Discussion 34 5. INTERSECTION OF TECHNOLOGY AND REGULATION: SMOOTHING THE INTERFACE THROUGH TIME 37 Panel Presentations 37 Moderated Discussion 45 6. PLENARY REMARKS AND DISCUSSION 49 REFERENCES 53 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 55 B Biographies of the Workshop Planning Committee 59 C Biographies of the Workshop Moderators and Presenters 63 D Members of the Roundtable on Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development 69 E Workshop Participants 71 Prepublication—Subject to Further Editorial Revision xiii

   

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Oil and gas well completion and stimulation technologies to develop unconventional hydrocarbon resources in the United States have evolved over the past several decades, particularly in relation to the development of shale oil and shale gas. Shale oil and shale gas resources and the technology associated with their production are often termed “unconventional” because the oil and gas trapped inside the shale or other low-permeability rock formation cannot be extracted using conventional technologies. Since about 2005, the application of these technologies to fields in the U.S. have helped produce natural gas and oil in volumes that allowed the country to reduce its crude oil imports by more than 50% and to become a net natural gas exporter. The regional and national economic and energy advances gained through production and use of these resources have been accompanied, however, by rapid expansion of the infrastructure associated with the development of these fields and public concern over the impacts to surface- and groundwater, air, land, and communities where the resources are extracted.

The intent of the first day of the workshop of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Roundtable on Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development was to discuss onshore unconventional hydrocarbon development in the context of potential environmental impacts and the ways in which the risks of these kinds of impacts can be managed. Specifically, the workshop sought to examine the lifecycle development of these fields, including decommissioning and reclamation of wells and related surface and pipeline infrastructure, and the approaches from industry practice, scientific research, and regulation that could help to ensure management of the operations in ways that minimize impacts to the environment throughout their active lifetimes and after operations have ceased. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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