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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25272.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25272.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25272.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25272.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25272.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25272.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25272.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25272.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25272.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25272.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

  Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Interim Report Committee on Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies A Consensus Study Report of  

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract No. DE-EP0000026/DE-DT0013548 between the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48500-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-48500-2 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25272 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Acad- emies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25272.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contri- butions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www. nationalacademies.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recom- mendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s delibera- tions. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

  COMMITTEE ON DISPOSAL OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT ROBERT C. DYNES (Chair), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla LISA M. BENDIXEN, ICF, Fairfax, Virginia MICHAEL S. BRONZINI, George Mason University (emeritus), Mount Juliet, Tennessee GEORGE E. DIALS, Pajarito Scientific Corporation (retired), Santa Fe, New Mexico1 LEONARD W. GRAY, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (retired), Brentwood, California MICHAEL R. GREENBERG, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey DAVID W. JOHNSON, JR., Journal of the American Ceramic Society (retired), Bell Laboratories (retired), Bedminster, New Jersey ANNIE B. KERSTING, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California M. DAVID MALONEY, Jacobs Engineering Group (emeritus), Denver, Colorado S. ANDREW ORRELL, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria WILLIAM C. OSTENDORFF, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland TAMMY C. OTTMER, Colorado State Patrol, Golden CECIL V. PARKS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee MATTHEW K. SILVA, Environmental Evaluation Group (retired), Albuquerque, New Mexico Staff JENNIFER HEIMBERG, Senior Program Officer RICHARD ROWBERG, Senior Advisor TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative and Financial Associate DARLENE GROS, Senior Program Assistant KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Technical Editor REBECCA MORGAN, Senior Librarian 1 Resigned from the committee on September 20, 2018. v

NUCLEAR AND RADIATION STUDIES BOARD GEORGE APOSTOLAKIS (Chair), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (emeritus), Los Angeles, California JAMES A. BRINK (Vice Chair), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston STEVEN M. BECKER, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia AMY BERRINGTON DE GONZÁLEZ, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland DAVID J. BRENNER, Columbia University, New York, New York MARGARET S.Y. CHU, M.S. Chu & Associates, LLC, New York, New York TISSA H. ILLANGASEKARE, Colorado School of Mines, Golden CAROL M. JANTZEN, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina NANCY JO NICHOLAS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico HENRY D. ROYAL, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri DANIEL O. STRAM, University of Southern California, Los Angeles WILLIAM H. TOBEY, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts SERGEY V. YUDINTSEV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Staff CHARLES D. FERGUSON, Director JENNIFER HEIMBERG, Senior Program Officer OURANIA KOSTI, Senior Program Officer TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative and Financial Associate LAURA D. LLANOS, Administrative and Financial Associate DARLENE GROS, Senior Program Assistant vi

Acknowledgments A number of people and organizations contributed to the successful completion of this report. The committee wishes to thank the study sponsor, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), for supporting this project, and especially the following staff: William Kilmartin, Lyndsey Adams, Sachiko McAlhany, Virginia Kay, and Peter Hanlon. The committee also ex- tends its thanks to Betsy Forinash, DOE’s Office of Environmental Management, and Todd Shrader, DOE’s Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The committee also thanks the presenters and speakers who gave high-quality presentations during the public meetings as listed in Appendix B. In particular, the committee is thankful for the assistance provided for site visits and tours by the following individuals: Richard V. Lee, Jr., State of South Carolina Governor's Nuclear Advisory Council, for hosting a public session at the South Carolina State House in Columbia; Thomas Canty, Savannah River Site (SRS), for planning and coordinating the committee’s site visit and tours at SRS, South Carolina; William Goodrum, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), for planning and coordinating the committee’s visit and tour at LANL, New Mexico; and Todd Shrader, CBFO manager, and George Basabilvazo, CBFO chief scientist, for planning and organizaing the committee’s visit and tour at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the public session in Carlsbad, New Mexico. In addition, the committee is grateful for submitted public comments, which were useful in helping the committee better understand the public’s concerns and views. The committee is grateful for the outstanding assistance provided by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine staff in preparing the report especially Toni Greenleaf, financial as- sociate, for her assistance; Darlene Gros, senior program assistant, for logistical planning for all of the committee’s meetings and project administration; Richard Rowberg, senior advisor, for his guidance and his participation in the classified meetings and tour; Kevin Crowley, technical editor, for his work negoti- ating and designing the study with DOE and for editing an early version of the interim report; and Jenny Heimberg, study director, for managing the study. The chair is especially thankful for the opportunity to lead this distinguished committee. He would like to thank the members of the committee for their dedication, willingness to teach and to learn, and for their time and energy. vii

Reviewer Acknowledgments This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and crit- ical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Mark D. Abkowitz, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee Lake H. Barrett, independent consultant, Venice, Florida Craig H. Benson, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Matthew G. Bunn, Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, Cambridge, Massachusetts Rodney C. Ewing, Stanford University, Stanford, California Christine M. Gelles, Longenecker and Associates, Las Vegas, Nevada Lindsay A. Lovejoy, Jr., attorney, Santa Fe, New Mexico William H. Tobey, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Carloyn Huntoon, Consultant, Retired U.S. Government, and Chris Whipple, ENVIRON (Retired). They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. viii

Contents SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................ 6 2 DISPOSITION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM BY THE UNITED STATES ......................................... 8 2.1 Conceptual Plans for Dilute and Dispose, 11 2.2 Current Status of DOE-NNSA Dilute and Dispose Planning Effort, 16 3 COMMITTEE ASSESSMENT OF DOE-NNSA’S CONCEPTUAL PLANS FOR DILUTE AND DISPOSE PROCESS........................................................................................................ 19 3.1 Availability of WIPP for Disposal of 34 MT of Diluted Plutonium, 21 3.2 Unclear Strategy for Development of the NEPA Environmental Impact Statement, 27 3.3 Dilute and Dispose Is Not an Approved Method for Eliminating Surplus Plutonium in the PMDA, 30 3.4 Assessment of Conceptual Plans and Public Outreach, 33 3.5 Questions for DOE-NNSA, 35 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................. 37 APPENDIX A: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES.................................................................... 40 APPENDIX B: INFORMATION-GATHERING SESSIONS ...................................................................... 48   ix

 

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Disposal of Surplus Plutonium at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Interim Report evaluates the general viability of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration’s (DOE-NNSA’s) conceptual plans for disposing of 34 metric tons (MT) of surplus plutonium in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a deep geologic repository near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This report evaluates DOE-NNSA’s plans to ship, receive, and emplace surplus plutonium in WIPP and its understanding of the impacts of these plans on WIPP and WIPP-bound waste streams. This report, the first of two to be issued during this study, provides a preliminary assessment of the general viability of DOE-NNSA’s conceptual plans, focusing on some of the barriers to their implementation.

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