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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25312.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25312.
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PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis Committee on Extraterrestrial Sample Analysis Facilities Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Grant/Contract No. XXXX with XXXXX. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25312 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25312. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

COMMITTEE ON EXTRATERRESTRIAL SAMPLE ANALYSIS FACILITIES ROBERTA L. RUDNICK, NAS,1 University of California, Santa Barbara, Chair GEORGE D. CODY, Carnegie Institution of Washington JAMES H. CROCKER, NAE,2 Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (retired) VINAYAK P. DRAVID, Northwestern University JOHN M. EILER, NAS, California Institute of Technology ABBY KAVNER, University of California, Los Angeles TIMOTHY J. MCCOY, Smithsonian Institution CLIVE R. NEAL, University of Notre Dame FRANK M. RICHTER,3 NAS, University of Chicago HANIKA RIZO, Carleton University KIMBERLY T. TAIT, Royal Ontario Museum Staff ABIGAIL A. SHEFFER, Senior Program Officer, Study Director SARAH C. BROTHERS, Associate Program Officer ANESIA WILKS, Senior Program Assistant CARSON BULLOCK, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern JONATHAN LUTZ, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 3 Resigned from the committee on April 13, 2018. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

SPACE STUDIES BOARD FIONA HARRISON, NAS, California Institute of Technology, Chair JAMES H. CROCKER, NAE, Vice Chair, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (retired) GREGORY P. ASNER, NAS, Carnegie Institution for Science JEFF M. BINGHAM, Consultant ADAM S. BURROWS, NAS, Princeton University MARY LYNNE DITTMAR, Dittmar Associates, Inc. JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara JOSEPH FULLER, JR., Futron Corporation SARAH GIBSON, National Center for Atmospheric Research VICTORIA E. HAMILTON, Southwest Research Institute CHRYSSA KOUVELIOTOU, NAS, The George Washington University DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles ROSALY M. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory STEPHEN J. MACKWELL, Universities Space Research Association DAVID J. McCOMAS, Princeton University LARRY PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, University of Toronto HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire MARK THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego ERIKA WAGNER, Blue Origin PAUL WOOSTER, Space Exploration Technologies EDWARD L. WRIGHT, NAS, University of California, Los Angeles Staff COLLEEN HARTMAN, Director (after August 6, 2018) MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director (until March 2, 2018) RICHARD ROWBERG, Interim Director (March 2, 2018 to August 6, 2018) CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator (until June 30, 2018) TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate MARGARET KNEMEYER, Financial Officer PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

Preface Five sets of extraterrestrial samples gathered by missions, both human and robotic, have been returned to Earth: lunar materials from NASA’s Apollo program, lunar materials from the USSR Luna program, solar wind particles from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Genesis mission, cometary dust grains and interstellar particles from NASA’s Stardust mission, and asteroid materials from the Japanese Space Agency’s (JAXA) Hayabusa mission. In addition, there are more than 50,000 named meteorites recovered from around the world. In the next decade, NASA’s OSIRIS-REx and JAXA’s Hayabusa2 mission will return samples from two more asteroids, and sample return missions to a comet surface, the Moon, the martian moons, and Mars are being considered. The field of returned sample analysis is active and growing. As part of preparing for the future influx of samples, NASA’s Planetary Science Division asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to assemble a committee to determine what capabilities will be required for curation and analyses of returned samples, where current capabilities exist and if they are accessible, and whether NASA’s investment strategy provides the resources to meet the analytical requirements in support of current and future sample return missions. The Committee on Extraterrestrial Sample Analysis was formed and began work on its task (see Appendix A for the full statement of task). The committee held three in person meetings: November 19-21, 2017, in Irvine, C.A., January 22-24, 2018, in Houston, T.X., and April 3-5, 2018, in Washington, D.C. At the first meeting, the committee heard briefings about the OSIRIS-REx mission, NASA’s current plans for a Mars sample return architecture, and overview of the NASA Johnson Space Center’s (JSC) Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office and Planetary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory. The committee also was briefed on the current mechanism for sample allocation to external laboratories for study, an overview of the Smithsonian Institution’s meteorite collection, two concepts for cometary sample return, the National Science Foundation’s Geosciences Instrumentation and Facilities Program, and a European project for returned sample curation (EURO-CARES). At the second meeting, the committee held panel discussions on the curation and analysis of challenging materials, laboratory management and viability, and technological developments and innovation with representatives from university laboratories, NASA, and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. The committee was briefed on the CAESAR comet surface sample return mission that had recently been selected for additional study as part of Planetary Science’s New Frontiers mission competition. The committee also toured JSC’s curation and sample analysis laboratory facilities. The committee’s third meeting had a short information-gathering session including briefings on the RELAB facility at Brown University, the Stardust Laboratory at University of California, Berkeley, and the NASA Goddard Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory, as well as additional discussion regarding the challenges of curation for organic and life detection studies, and a detailed update of the JSC Astromaterials Science and Exploration Science (ARES) Facility strategy. The remainder of the meeting was held in closed session for committee discussion and writing. The committee held two additional open teleconference meetings, a discussion with then NASA Planetary Science Division Director James Green on October 31, 2017, before the committee’s first in person meeting, and briefings on the sampling system and curation and analysis plans for JAXA’s Hayabusa2 mission and the Martian Moons Exploration mission concept on May 10, 2018. The committee requested information from U.S. and international laboratories and museums on their major instrumentation and facilities, staffing, funding models, and major equipment upkeep. The committee would like to thank the 22 U.S. and 15 international respondents to this request (see Appendix B and C). The committee would also like to thank the many planetary science researchers who discussed their work and opinions on the future of returned sample analysis research with the committee. Special thanks are given to the staff of JSC who graciously spent their first afternoon back in the office following PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

a government shutdown giving tours of their facilities and also to the Lunar and Planetary Institute for hosting the committee’s Houston visit. The report summarizes the history, planned future, and potential future of returned sample analysis missions as well as the current state of relevant laboratory facilities. Sample return from the surface of Mars is not expected until the late 2020s or early 2030s and will require extensive additional planning for special curation and research needs. The committee’s recommendations are focused primarily on the near-future needs for analytical and curation capabilities and the longer-term underpinnings for maintaining a vibrant sample analysis research community; thus, this report only briefly discusses the additional complications for curation and analysis of Mars surface samples. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION viii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Peter Buseck, Arizona State University, Barbara Cohen, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Katherine H. Freeman, NAS,1 Pennsylvania State University, Christopher Herd, University of Alberta, Stephen J. Mackwell, Universities Space Research Association, Ujjwal Raut, Southwest Research Institute, Roger Summons, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Stephen Sutton, University of Chicago. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Rodney C. Ewing, NAE,2 Stanford University. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Contents SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Committee Charge and Scope 2 PREVIOUS SAMPLE RETURN MISSIONS AND OTHER COLLECTIONS 2.1 Sample Return Missions 2.1.1 USA - Apollo 2.1.2 USSR - Luna 2.1.3 USA - Genesis (launched August 8, 2001 – returned September 9, 2004) 2.1.4 USA - Stardust (launched February 7, 1999 – returned January 15, 2006) 2.1.5 Japan - Hayabusa (launched May 9, 2003 – returned June 13, 2010) 2.2 Other Collections 2.2.1 Meteorite Collections and Their Current Curation 2.2.2 Cosmic Dust 2.2.3 Analog Materials, Analytical Standards, and Witness Plates 3 CURRENT SAMPLE RETURN MISSIONS, AND NEAR-FUTURE PRIORITIES OUTLINED IN THE PLANETARY SCIENCE DECADAL SURVEY 3.1 Current Sample Return Missions 3.1.1 OSIRIS-REx—NASA 3.1.2 Hayabusa2—JAXA 3.2 Priorities for Sample Return Missions Outlined in the 2013-2022 Decadal Survey 3.3 Potential Future Missions Guided by the Decadal Survey 3.3.1 Down-selected: Comet Surface Sample Return via CAESAR—NASA 3.3.2 Martian Moons Exploration (MMX)—JAXA 3.3.3 Mars Sample Return 3.3.4 Lunar Sample Return 3.4 Additional Considerations for Current and Future Sample Return Missions 3.4.1 Missions Returning Thermally Unstable Samples 3.4.2 Planetary Protection Requirements 4 CURRENT LABORATORIES AND FACILITIES 4.1 Retrieval, Curation, and Characterization of Returned Extraterrestrial Samples 4.2 Facilities for Curation, Triaging, and Description of Returned Samples 4.3 Sample Distribution 4.4 Analytical Equipment 4.4.1 Classifications and Overview of Analytical Instrumentation 4.4.2 NASA Center Analytical Laboratories and Facilities 4.4.3 Keck/NASA Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) 4.4.4 U.S. Laboratories External to NASA or Other Government-Supported Facilities 4.4.5 Other U.S. Government-Funded Facilities PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

4.5 Overview of International Facilities 4.6 Laboratory and Facility Conclusions 5 CURRENT AND FUTURE INSTRUMENTATION AND INVESTMENTS FOR EXTRATERRESTRIAL SAMPLE ANALYSIS 5.1 Overview of NASA Funding Programs 5.2 Current NASA Planetary Science Investments 5.2.1 Instrumentation 5.2.2 Technical Staff 5.2.3 Sample Curation 5.3 Future NASA Planetary Science Investments 5.3.1 Instrumentation 5.3.2 Staffing Required for Future Sample Return Analysis 5.3.3 Future NASA Planetary Science Investments for Sample Curation 5.4 Sustaining a System of Planetary Science Laboratories APPENDIXES A Statement of Task B A Sampling of United States Laboratories Engaged in Extraterrestrial Sample Analysis C A Sampling of International Laboratories Engaged in Extraterrestrial Sample Analysis D Biographies of Committee Members and Staff E Acronyms and Glossary PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xii

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The United States possesses a treasure-trove of extraterrestrial samples that were returned to Earth via space missions over the past four decades. Analyses of these previously returned samples have led to major breakthroughs in the understanding of the age, composition, and origin of the solar system. Having the instrumentation, facilities and qualified personnel to undertake analyses of returned samples, especially from missions that take up to a decade or longer from launch to return, is thus of paramount importance if the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to capitalize fully on the investment made in these missions, and to achieve the full scientific impact afforded by these extraordinary samples. Planetary science may be entering a new golden era of extraterrestrial sample return; now is the time to assess how prepared the scientific community is to take advantage of these opportunities.

Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis assesses the current capabilities within the planetary science community for sample return analyses and curation, and what capabilities are currently missing that will be needed for future sample return missions. This report evaluates whether current laboratory support infrastructure and NASA’s investment strategy is adequate to meet these analytical challenges and advises how the community can keep abreast of evolving and new techniques in order to stay at the forefront of extraterrestrial sample analysis.

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