National Academies Press: OpenBook

Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society (2019)

Chapter: Appendix D: Acronyms and Glossary of Terms

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25380.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25380.
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Page 314
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25380.
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Page 315
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25380.
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Page 316
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25380.
×
Page 317
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25380.
×
Page 318
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25380.
×
Page 319
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25380.
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Page 320

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Appendix D Acronyms and Glossary of Terms ADHD Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder AVF all-volunteer force BRAC base realignment and closures CBPR community-based participatory research CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CPT cognitive processing therapy CQI continuous quality improvement system DACOWITS U.S. Defense Department Advisory Committee on Women in the Services DADT Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell DEOMI Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute DMDC Defense Manpower Data Center DoD Department of Defense DoDEA Department of Defense Education Activity DODI Department of Defense Instruction DSF Dynamic Sustainability Framework EBP evidence-based practice EFMP Exceptional Family Member Program FAP Family Advocacy Program FOCUS Families OverComing Under Stress FY fiscal year GAO Government Accountability Office HP2020 Healthy People 2020 HQDA Headquarters, Department of the Army IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IEP Individual Education Plan IOM Institute of Medicine JITAI just-in-time adaptive intervention(s) LGB(T) lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS D-1 

MAVNI Military Accessions Vital to the National Interest MCEC Military Child Education Coalition MC&FP Military Community and Family Policy MFFM Military Family Fitness Model MFLC Military Family Life Counselor MFRS Military Family Readiness System MPP Military Personnel Policy MWR Morale, Welfare, and Recreation MyCAA My Career Advancement Account NASEM National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine NCO noncommissioned officer NDAA National Defense Authorization Act NIH National Institutes of Health NIMHD National Institute of Minority Health and Development NORTH STAR New Orientation to Reduce Threats to Health from Secretive Problems That Affect Readiness Program NRC National Research Council OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OEF/OIF Operation Enduring Freedom / Operation Iraqi Freedom OMB Office of Management and Budget OSD Office of Secretary of Defense OSN Office of Special Needs OUSD Office of the Under Secretary of Defense OXTR oxytocin receptor PCS Permanent Change of Station P-D-S-A Plan Do Study Act PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder PREP Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program RCT randomized controlled trial ROTC Reserve Officer Training Corps SEL social-emotional learning SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program TANF Temporary Assistance for Needy Families TBI traumatic brain injury TFF Total Force Fitness U.S.C. United States Code USCIS U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services USD P&R Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS D-2 

USO United Service Organization VA Department of Veterans Affairs VHA Veterans Health Administration WHO World Health Organization WIC Women, Infants, and Children Glossary “above and below the skin” – refers to observed behavior as well as physiological and biological processes that are the effect of or correlated with one’s experience of an adverse event or ongoing adverse events or maltreatment Adaptome – a proposed set of approaches, processes, and infrastructure needed to advance the science of intervention adaptation; implementation provides a methodology that can support the integration of evidence that includes both traditional standards of evidence and phases of evidence-based practice development and validation as well as addressing the need for locally acceptable prevention programs that sometimes leads local providers to design and deliver their own programs ahead of evidence for effectiveness Affective - emotional Agender - describes an individual whose personal identity is genderless Amygdala – one of the four basal ganglia; part of the limbic system; key role in processing emotions Asexual – lacking sexual feelings, associations, or behaviors Autonomic nervous system – controls bodily functions (e.g. heartrate, respiratory rate or volume, and digestion) unconsciously; protects the body against perceived threat(s) Bigender – describes an individual whose personal identity encompasses both male and female gender Child maltreatment – physical, emotional, or sexual abuse or educational or health neglect of a child by an adult, often a caregiver Chronosystem - the fifth level of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory; inclusive of the environmental events (e.g. sociohistorical) and transitions which impact the development or functioning of the microsystem (e.g. individual or child) Cisgender – describes individuals whose gender identity aligns with their biological sex Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) – an empirically-based therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, designed for the amelioration of adverse subjective experiences of trauma; usually 12 clinical sessions (individual or group) Compendiums – a brief collection of information or knowledge Contextual moderators – variables, elements, or aspects of the environment, or beyond the individual or group, that impact the functioning and/or perspectives of an individual or group Continuous quality improvement (CQI) – ongoing process(es) for proactive technical assistance for an established system or program; provides actionable data linked to various outcomes Continuous quality improvement (CQI) system – a necessary component to ensure that programs are data-driven with a clear direction toward cultivating adaptations and adjustments PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS D-3 

within services, programs, and resources. The goal of a CQI system is to provide actionable data that enables the system to address various outcomes (i.e., implementation, service, and client or customer outcomes) through specific identifiable adaptations or innovations. Cortisol – known as the stress hormone, a steroid hormone that regulates a range of physiological processes (i.e. metabolism, immune response, and stress response) Cultural adaptations – changes, often subtle, to the content of an intervention that are critical for perceived acceptability, relevance, and credibility of the intervention for the target population; include changes to culture-specific nomenclature of intervention materials (or vernacular) that may vary by geographic region or sub-populations essential to the implementation process Dating violence – physical, sexual, or psychological violence within a dating relationship Deployment – a short- or long-term relocation of an individual or group and required resources for the purpose of a military mission (i.e. war, conflict, humanitarian effort); can be domestic or international Developmental stage – describes the physiological, psychological, and/or emotional phase of one’s growth; usually refers to children Diathesis-stress model – a model that suggests that some youth are more vulnerable to their caregiving environments and that some youth fare worse in stressful circumstances, but do as well as others in routine, low-risk environments Donabedian framework – a method of assessing the quality of care; includes obtaining data on performance, analyzing patterns, generating a hypothesis for the pattern analysis, taking action based upon the hypothesis, and assessing the subsequent consequences Dynamic Sustainability Framework (DSF) – describes how the adaptation of interventions may occur over time and their role in facilitating the integration and sustainability of interventions to adapt to the ever-changing context in which they are delivered, including changes to the delivery setting, target population, evidence base, political context, and other key variables that are known to occur over time Dynamism – vitality Dysregulation – disrupted ability to regulate metabolic, physiological, and/or psychological processes Ecological approach – a way of thinking that focuses on intervention from the micro (individual) to macro (population) level via direct (e.g. psychotherapy) and indirect strategies (e.g., policy development) Ecological framework – framework for constructing practice, policy, and research based on the impact of reciprocal relational factors on human functioning, processes, and outcomes Ecological model – a theoretical design used to inform implementation that enables providers, installation services, and leaders to build on local capacities, strengths, and resources and to incorporate the local knowledge within the selection, adaptation, adoption and implementation of support services Epigenetic – related environmental impacts on gene expression Epinephrine (adrenaline) – a neurotransmitter that acts on alpha and beta receptors in the arteries; epinephrine increases blood sugar levels, heart rate, and heart contractility while also relaxing smooth muscle in the airways to improve breathing PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS D-4 

Equifinality – refers to the obverse of multifinality, namely that the same outcome (e.g., anxiety, social challenges or poor academic functioning) can be evident following exposure to disparate stressor events (i.e., prolonged parental separation, relocation, and bullying) Etiology – cause(s) of a disease or condition Evidence-based – in reference to knowledge, programs, or practices: derived from systematic empirical research Evidence-based intervention – deliberate efforts (clinical or non-clinical), based on empirical research and/or literature, designed to ameliorate the effects of a maladaptive process(es), problem(s), or event(s) after occurrence Evidence-based practice (EBP) – practice designed from empirical research and/or literature Evidence-based program – a (human service) program designed from empirical research and/or literature Exosystem – the third level of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory; inclusive of the environmental elements which impact the development or functioning of the microsystem (e.g. individual or child) Family diversity – refers to the variety of make-ups of families (e.g., nuclear, blended, single- parent, extended, same-sex) Family integration – the reunification and reconnection of a military family upon the return of the military member(s) from a deployment of long-term, temporary duty away from the home station; includes events and processes associated with reunification and reconnection Family stress model – a model that provides a conceptual framework for understanding how stressful contexts such as psychopathology, marital transitions, and socioeconomic conditions reverberate in the family and create complex effects among individuals (adults and children) in dyadic relationships (marital and parent-child), and more broadly within families Family wellness – a measure of family health that includes interpersonal interactions, bonds, trust, resiliency, and functioning Fraternization – relationships (e.g. romantic, sexual, friendship, business) between service members, which compromise or appear to compromise the chain of command, occupational environment, and/or mission execution or success; refers to DoD and service component-level policies prohibiting such relationships Frontal cortex – cortex of the frontal lobe of the cerebral hemisphere of the brain; associated with aggression and impulse control Gender-fluid – describes an individual whose personal identity is not fixed to either a male or a female gender Gender identity – one’s personal sense of identity and/or gender expression or lack thereof Glucocorticoids – used to treat conditions leading to inflammation (e.g. asthma, arthritis, allergies) Heteronormative – describes a perspective or worldview based upon heterosexual norms Hippocampus – brain region located in the medial temporal lobe as part of the limbic system; assists with short-term, long-term, and spatial memory Homeostasis – the tendency towards internal equilibrium Hyperarousal – defined by Merriam-Webster’s dictionary as “an abnormal state of increased responsiveness to stimuli that is marked by various physiological and psychological symptoms (such as increased levels of alertness and anxiety and elevated heart rate and PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS D-5 

respiration).” In addition, to be diagnosed with PTSD, “a person has to have been exposed to an extreme stressor or traumatic event to which he or she responded with fear, helplessness, or horror and to have three distinct types of symptoms consisting of reexperiencing of the event, avoidance of reminders of the event, and hyperarousal for at least one month.” Hypocortisolism – acute adrenal insuffiency; also referred to adrenocortical hypofunction; symptoms include decreased stress response, fatigue, joint and/or muscle pain or weakness, hypotension, and gastrointestinal problems Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis – the biological system most closely linked to stress, which releases the hormone cortisol when an individual experiences stress Intersectionality – the interconnectedness of social categorization and/or grouping (e.g. gender, socioeconomic status, race) Intervention – deliberate efforts (clinical or non-clinical) to ameliorate the effects of a maladaptive process(es), problem(s), or event(s) after occurrence Intrafamilial – occurring within a family system Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) – form of an adaptive intervention that aims to address in real time the rapidly changing needs of individuals or families Life course – refers to the entirety of developmental and life stages throughout the duration of a lifespan Life course model – an organized concept that in the aggregate describes the cycle of developmental processes and life stages throughout the duration of a lifespan Lived experience – the subjective perspective and associated functioning of an individual or group; includes contextual factors and interpersonal relations Longitudinal – a form of scientific research (to seek knowledge through examination, observation, or inference) which studies subjects or populations over a long period of time Macrosystem – the fifth level (cultural environment) of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory Maltreatment – physical, emotional, or sexual abuse or educational, financial or health care neglect of an individual by another, usually a caregiver Mastery-motivation – the drive to persist to achieve a difficult task or goal Mesosystem – the second level of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory; inclusive of the family, peers, and surrounding community mHealth interventions - mobile technology-based efforts, usually clinical, designed or organized to ameliorate the negative health effects of a maladaptive process(es), problem(s), or event(s) after occurrence Microaggression – subtle overt or covert acts by an individual or group that cause distress to another individual or group Microsystem – the first level (individual level) of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory Military dependent – a family member for whom a military service member is financially responsible and who is a recipient of military benefits (e.g., health care, base access, and services) Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM) – a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. The MFFM has three core components: (i) family demands, (ii) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (iii) family outcomes (including related metrics) PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS D-6 

Military family readiness – the capacity of a family to manage military lifestyle and functions (e.g., deployment, relocation, military trauma and/or strain) Military Family Readiness System (MFRS) – a complex adaptive system, informed by research and models from convergent fields Minority stress theory – a theory that describes minority group members’ unique experiences of chronic stresses stemming from social institutions in addition to everyday experiences of racial bias. When applied to sexual minorities, analysis tends to focus on stresses related to heteronormative bias and anti-LGBT experiences Multifinality – refers to the finding that one stressor (e.g., physical abuse) can have many different negative effects on neurodevelopmental conditions – intellectual and/or psychological conditions that develop in early childhood (e.g., autism, learning disabilities) Norepinephrine – a neurotransmitter that acts on alpha receptors in the arteries; increases blood sugar levels, heart rate, and heart contractility Operational tempo – the pace of military operations and/missions; descriptive of the demands on personnel to achieve operational or/or mission objectives Oxytocin – a neurotransmitter (hormone) produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the pituitary gland Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) – a protein that acts as a receptor for the neurotransmitter (hormone) oxytocin; can buffer the adverse impacts of social environments, events, or processes Pathogenesis – the development of events leading to a disease or pattern of disease Permanent change of station (PCS) – permanent relocation of a military member and/or family from one military installation to another Personnel tempo (perstempo) – refers to the amount of time individuals serve away from their home duty station, whether for deployments, sea duty, exercises, unit training or individual training. Population health framework – a conceptual, practice, or policy framework in which health, disease, and/or health risks are examined, treated, or mitigated based upon community or group health trends and needs Prolonged exposure (PE) – an empirically-based therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, designed for the amelioration of adverse subjective experiences of trauma; focuses on guided and graduated exposure to trauma-related events, details, fears, and/or avoided triggers Prosociality – the quality of prosocial behavior (e.g., donating, sharing, helping, caregiving, cooperating) Psychopathology – the study or presence of mental health disorder(s) Questioning – may refer to the status of an individual who questions his/her/their own gender status and/or sexual orientation Readiness – state of preparedness for military-related actions or defense (e.g. deployment, antiterrorism, installation defense) Resilience – the capacity of an individual or group to endure and/or overcome adversity; functions of intra-individual characteristics and associated with characteristics of the outside environment Self-efficacy – one’s personal sense of competence in general or in a given area Self-regulation – an individual’s ability to manage emotions, behaviors, and interactions for optimal functioning PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS D-7 

Sexual violence – the use of physical force to compel a person to witness or engage in a sexual act against his or her will. Sexual violence includes attempted or completed nonconsensual sex, unwanted sexual contact, and sexual harassment Stress regulatory systems – most commonly the nervous system and endocrine system Systems principle of homeostasis – principle of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory; idea that the whole system, inclusive of five levels, remains relative stable and/or seeks equilibrium upon disruption Taxonomy – classification or organization of individuals or groups Third gender – describes an individual whose personal identity is neither male nor female, not both male and female, and not any combination of male and female Total Force Fitness – a holistic concept for building and maintaining health, readiness, and optimal performance of the U.S. Armed Forces using the connection between mind, body, spirit, environment, and relationships. (See https://www.hprc-online.org/page/total- force-fitness) Transgender – describes individuals whose gender expression or identity does not match or is not limited to their biological sex Trauma-informed – health care, programs, or practices developed from and responsive to all types of trauma (e.g. military-related trauma, domestic or interpersonal violence, health crisis, threat to life or well-being) PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS D-8 

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The U.S. military has been continuously engaged in foreign conflicts for over two decades. The strains that these deployments, the associated increases in operational tempo, and the general challenges of military life affect not only service members but also the people who depend on them and who support them as they support the nation – their families.

Family members provide support to service members while they serve or when they have difficulties; family problems can interfere with the ability of service members to deploy or remain in theater; and family members are central influences on whether members continue to serve. In addition, rising family diversity and complexity will likely increase the difficulty of creating military policies, programs and practices that adequately support families in the performance of military duties.

Strengthening the Military Family Readiness System for a Changing American Society examines the challenges and opportunities facing military families and what is known about effective strategies for supporting and protecting military children and families, as well as lessons to be learned from these experiences. This report offers recommendations regarding what is needed to strengthen the support system for military families.

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