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Page 78
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing the U.S. DOT Reasonable Modification Rule. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25430.
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Page 78
Page 79
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing the U.S. DOT Reasonable Modification Rule. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25430.
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Page 79
Page 80
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Implementing the U.S. DOT Reasonable Modification Rule. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25430.
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Page 80

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

78 49 C.F.R. Part 27. Available: http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title49/49cfr27_main_02.tpl [accessed Jun. 18, 2018]. 49 C.F.R. Part 37. Available: http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title49/49cfr37_main_02.tpl [accessed Jun. 18, 2018]. American Public Transportation Association, Letter to U.S. DOT Docket Operations, Docket Number OST-2006- 23985, Aug. 25, 2010 [Online]. Available: http://www.apta.com/gap/fedreg/Documents/APTAcomments_ DOT_2006_ADA.pdf [accessed Apr. 9, 2018]. Americans with Disabilities Act: Final Circular, 80 Fed. Reg. § 60,224-60,242 (Oct. 5, 2015). Available: http:// www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-10-05/pdf/2015-25188.pdf [accessed Dec. 18, 2017]. Day, J., “Reasonable Modification of Policy: New Final Rule,” slide presentation, Federal Transit Administration (FTA), June 2015 [Online]. Available: http://www.transit.dot.gov/sites/fta.dot.gov/files/docs/FTA_ADA_ Reasonable_Modification.pdf [accessed Dec. 15, 2017]. Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund (DREDF), “Origin to Destination Service in ADA Paratransit,” Topic Guides on ADA Transportation, DREDF for the Federal Transit Administration, June 2010 [Online]. Available: http://dredf.org/ADAtg/O-D.shtml [accessed Dec. 20, 2017]. Federal Transit Administration, “Complaint Letters of Finding According to Subject,” May 3, 2016 [Online]. http:// www.transit.dot.gov/regulations-and-guidance/civil-rights-ada/complaint-letters-finding-according-subject [accessed Apr. 15, 2018]. Federal Transit Administration, Americans with Disability Act (ADA): Guidance, FTA Circular C 4710.1, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 2015 [Online]. Available: http://www.transit.dot.gov/ regulations-and-guidance/fta-circulars/americans-disabilities-act-guidance-pdf [accessed Dec. 18, 2017]. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 10-0172, Apr. 29, 2010. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 14-0168, Jul. 29, 2014. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 14-0256, Oct. 1, 2014. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint Nos. 14-0262 and 15-0227, Oct. 15, 2015. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 15-0086, Apr. 27, 2015. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 15-0092, Feb. 11, 2015. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 15-0146, May 4, 2015. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 15-0241, Jan. 6, 2016. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 16-0041, Dec. 8, 2015. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 16-0048, Feb. 8, 2016. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 16-0093, Mar. 25, 2016. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 16-0152, Aug. 29, 2016. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 16-0259, Jul. 11, 2016. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 16-0261, Nov. 8, 2016. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 16-0353, Jun. 21, 2016. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 16-0481, Jan. 9, 2017. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 16-0497, Sep. 9, 2016. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 16-0502, Sep. 15, 2016. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 16-0544, Oct. 27, 2016. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 17-0032, Jul. 6, 2017. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 17-0033, Feb. 10, 2017. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 17-0070, Nov. 6, 2017. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 17-0169, Apr. 5, 2017. References

References 79 Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 17-0170, Mar. 13, 2017. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 17-0279, Nov. 6, 2017. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding in response to FTA Complaint No. 17-0280, Dec. 7, 2017. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding to Bay Area Rapid Transit District, in response to FTA Com- plaint No. 06-0135, Oct. 15, 2007 [Online]. Available: http://www.transit.dot.gov/regulations-and-guidance/ civil-rights-ada/bay-area-rapid-transit-district-san-francisco-ca-10-15-07 [accessed Dec. 15, 2017]. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding to City of Gadsden Department of Transportation, in response to FTA Complaint No. 16-0093, Mar. 25, 2016 [Online]. Available: http://www.transit.dot.gov/regulations- and-guidance/civil-rights-ada/city-gadsden-department-transportation-gadsden-al-3-25-16 [accessed Dec. 15, 2017]. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding to Niagara Frontier Transit Authority, in response to FTA Com- plaint No. 10-0172, Apr. 29, 2010 [Online]. Available: http://www.transit.dot.gov/regulations-and-guidance/ civil-rights-ada/niagara-frontier-transit-authority-buffalo-ny-4-29-10 [accessed Dec. 15, 2017]. Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding to Santa Cruz Metropolitan Transit District, in response to FTA Complaint No. 08-0106, Aug. 14, 2008 [Online]. Available: http://www.transit.dot.gov/regulations- and-guidance/civil-rights-ada/santa-cruz-metropolitan-transit-district-santa-cruz-ca-08 [accessed Dec. 15, 2017]. Golden, M., Transportation Update: Where We’ve Gone and What We’ve Learned, National Council on Disability, Washington, D.C., May 4, 2015 [Online]. Available: http://ncd.gov/publications/2015/05042015 [accessed Dec. 15, 2017]. National Aging and Disability Transportation Center (NADTC), 2016 Transportation Trends: A Look at the Year’s Top Mobility Challenges & Opportunities, NADTC, February 2017 [Online]. Available: http://www.nadtc.org/ wp-content/uploads/NADTC-Trends-Report-Mar-2017-FINAL.pdf [accessed Dec. 15, 2017]. Rabbittransit, Procedure on Reasonable Modification/Accomodations, March 10, 2017. Available: http:// www.rabbittransit.org/Portals/0/PDF/PROCEDURE%20ON%20REASONABLE%20MODIFICATION.docx. Transportation for Individuals with Disabilities, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 49 C.F.R. Parts 27, 37, and 38, 71 Fed. Reg. 9,761-9,770 (Feb. 27, 2006). Available: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2006-02-27/pdf/ 06-1658.pdf [accessed Apr. 9, 2018]. Transportation for Individuals with Disabilities: Reasonable Modification of Policies and Practices; Correction, 80 Fed. Reg. 26,196 (May 7, 2015) (to be codified at 49 C.F.R. pt. 37). Available: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/ pkg/FR-2015-05-07/pdf/2015-10991.pdf [accessed Apr. 9, 2018]. Transportation for Individuals with Disabilities; Reasonable Modification of Policies and Practices, 80 Fed. Reg. 13,253-13,263 (Mar. 13, 2015) (to be codified at 49 C.F.R. pts. 27, 37). Available: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/ pkg/FR-2015-03-13/pdf/2015-05646.pdf [accessed Jun. 18, 2018]. U.S. Department of Transportation, “Origin-to-Destination Service,” Disability Law Guidance, Federal Transit Administration, Sep. 1, 2005 [Online]. Available: http://www.transit.dot.gov/regulations-and-guidance/ civil-rights-ada/origin-destination-service [accessed Dec. 18, 2017].

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 142: Implementing the U.S. DOT Reasonable Modification Rule provides an overview of the current state of practice regarding transit systems implementation of the U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) regulation 49 C.F.R Part 37.

The report describes the experiences of agencies as they make reasonable modifications to their practices and policies in order to both respond to the regulation and ensure service to people with disabilities. The report also includes case examples of six transit systems, which present an in-depth analysis of the issues, opportunities, challenges, lessons learned, and keys to success in implementation of reasonable modifications . The need for future research is also discussed.

Under the U.S. DOT regulations for implementing the ADA and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (49 C.F.R. Parts 37 and 27), transportation service providers and recipients of federal funding are required to ensure their services do not discriminate against people with disabilities.

In 2015, the U.S. DOT amended 49 C.F.R. Parts 27 and 37 to require transportation entities to make “reasonable modifications/accommodations to policies, practices, and procedures to avoid discrimination and ensure that their programs are accessible to individuals with disabilities.” Effective July 13, 2015, 49 C.F.R. §37.169 of this final rule requires that public entity transit providers develop their own processes for making decisions and for providing reasonable modifications to their policies and practices.

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