National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

Integrating Oral and
General Health Through
Health Literacy Practices

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

Steve Olson and Alexis Wojtowicz, Rapporteurs

Roundtable on Health Literacy

Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

Health and Medicine Division

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and AbbVie Inc.; American Association for Dental Research; American Dental Association; American Dental Education Association; Bristol-Myers Squibb; California Dental Association; East Bay Community Foundation (Kaiser Permanente); Eli Lilly and Company; Health Literacy Media; Health Literacy Partners; Health Resources and Services Administration (HHSH25034011T); Institute for Healthcare Advancement; Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.; National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; National Library of Medicine; Northwell Health; Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (HHSP23337043); Pfizer Inc.; and UnitedHealth Group. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-49348-2
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-49348-X
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25468

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating oral and general health through health literacy practices: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25468.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

Image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process, and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON INTEGRATING ORAL AND GENERAL HEALTH THROUGH HEALTH LITERACY PRACTICES1

KATHRYN ATCHISON, Professor, School of Dentistry and Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles

PHYLLIS BEEMSTERBOER, Professor of Dentistry and Medicine; Director, Program in Compassionate Communication; and Associate Director, Center for Ethics in Health Care, Oregon Health & Science University

SUSAN FISHER-OWENS, Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Clinical Professor of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California, San Francisco

NICOLE HOLLAND, Assistant Professor and Director of Health Communication, Education, and Promotion, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine

ALICE HOROWITZ, Research Associate Professor, Horowitz Center for Health Literacy, University of Maryland, College Park, School of Public Health

DUSHANKA V. KLEINMAN, Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Associate Dean for Research, University of Maryland, College Park, School of Public Health

IRA B. LAMSTER, Clinical Professor, School of Dental Medicine, Stony Brook University

GAYLE MATHE, Director, Community Health Policy and Programs, California Dental Association

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

ROUNDTABLE ON HEALTH LITERACY1

BERNARD M. ROSOF (Chair), Chief Executive Officer, Quality in Health Care Advisory Group, LLC, and Professor of Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell

ANNLOUISE R. ASSAF, Senior Director, Global Medical Impact, Worldwide Medical and Safety, Pfizer Inc., and Adjunct Professor, Brown University School of Public Health

SUZANNE BAKKEN, Alumni Professor of Nursing and Professor of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University

GEMIRALD DAUS, Public Health Analyst, Office of Health Equity, Health Resources and Services Administration

TERRY C. DAVIS, Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

CHRISTOPHER DEZII, Director, Healthcare Quality and Performance Measures, Bristol-Myers Squibb

JENNIFER DILLAHA, Medical Director for Immunizations, and Medical Advisor, Health Literacy and Communication, Arkansas Department of Health

JAMES DUHIG, Head, Risk Communication and Behavioral Systems, Office of Patient Safety, AbbVie Inc.

ALICIA FERNÁNDEZ, Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Director, UCSF Latinx Center of Excellence, and General Internist, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center

LISA FITZPATRICK, Senior Medical Director, DC Department of Health Care Finance, and Professorial Lecturer, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University

LORI K. HALL, Director of Health Literacy, Global Medical Strategy and Operations, Eli Lilly and Company

LINDA HARRIS, Director, Division of Health Communication and eHealth Team, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

NICOLE HOLLAND, Assistant Professor and Director of Health Communication, Education, and Promotion, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine

ELLEN MARKMAN, Lewis M. Terman Professor of Psychology, Stanford University

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

JOHANNA MARTINEZ, Graduate Medical Education Director of Diversity and Health Equity, Northwell Health

MICHAEL MCKEE, Assistant Professor of Family Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School

LAURIE MYERS, Global Health Literacy Director, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

CATINA O’LEARY, President and Chief Executive Officer, Health Literacy Media

MICHAEL PAASCHE-ORLOW, Professor of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine

TERRI ANN PARNELL, Principal and Founder, Health Literacy Partners

LINDSEY A. ROBINSON, Diplomate, ABPD, California Dental Association

STEVEN RUSH, Director, Health Literacy Innovations, UnitedHealth Group

OLAYINKA SHIYANBOLA, Assistant Professor, Division of Social and Administrative Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison School of Pharmacy

VANESSA SIMONDS, Assistant Professor, Community Health, Montana State University

CHRISTOPHER TRUDEAU, Associate Professor of Medical Humanities, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, and Associate Professor of Law, William H. Bowen School of Law, University of Arkansas at Little Rock

EARNESTINE WILLIS, Kellner Professor in Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin

AMANDA J. WILSON, Head, Engagement and Training, National Library of Medicine

MICHAEL S. WOLF, Professor, Medicine and Learning Sciences, and Associate Division Chief, Research Division of General Internal Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University

WINSTON F. WONG, Medical Director, Disparities Improvement and Quality Initiatives, Kaiser Permanente

Health and Medicine Division Staff

MELISSA G. FRENCH, Senior Program Officer

ALEXIS WOJTOWICZ, Research Associate

ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Senior Board Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

ANNA W. MARTIN, Administrative Assistant

Consultant

LAWRENCE SMITH, Dean, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, and Executive Vice President and Physician-in-Chief, Northwell Health

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

SHARON BARRETT, School of Community Health and Policy, Morgan State University

JENNIFER HOLTZMAN, Bureau of Health Workforce, Health Resources and Services Administration

JENNIFER JENTSCH, National Library of Medicine

R. GARY ROZIER, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by NANCY FUGATE WOODS, School of Nursing, University of Washington. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

Acknowledgments

The sponsors of the Roundtable on Health Literacy made it possible to plan and conduct the workshop Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices, which this Proceedings of a Workshop summarizes. Federal sponsors from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are the Health Resources and Services Administration, National Library of Medicine, and Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Nonfederal sponsorship was provided by AbbVie Inc.; Bristol-Myers Squibb; California Dental Association; East Bay Community Foundation (Kaiser Permanente); Eli Lilly and Company; Health Literacy Media; Health Literacy Partners; Institute for Healthcare Advancement; Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.; Northwell Health; Pfizer Inc.; and UnitedHealth Group. Additional support for this workshop was provided by the American Association for Dental Research, American Dental Association, American Dental Education Association, and National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research.

The workshop presentations were interesting and stimulated much discussion, and the Roundtable on Health Literacy would like to thank each of the speakers and moderators for their time and effort. Speakers and moderators were Amit Acharya, Kathryn Atchison, Meg Booth, Kelly Close, Susan Fisher-Owens, Anita Glicken, Alice Horowitz, Ronald Inge, Renée Joskow, Dushanka Kleinman, Ira Lamster, Wendy Mouradian, Dean Schillinger, Hugh Silk, John Snyder, George Taylor, Jane Weintraub, and Cassandra Yarbrough. The roundtable would also like to thank Brian Hill, who was unable to attend the workshop, but generously offered his insight during its planning.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ADA American Dental Association
CDT Code on Dental Procedures and Nomenclature
CME continuing medical education
FQHC federally qualified health center
GDM gestational diabetes mellitus
HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
HPV human papillomavirus
HRSA Health Resources and Services Administration
IMB Into the Mouths of Babes
IOM Institute of Medicine
MORE Care Medical Oral Expanded Care
NIDCR National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
OHCC Oral Health Coordinating Committee
PDA Permanente Dental Associates
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
RIDE Regional Initiatives in Dental Education
TMD temporomandibular joint disorder
TMJ temporomandibular joint
UCLA University of California, Los Angeles
UCSF University of California, San Francisco
WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R18
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R19
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25468.
×
Page R20
Next: 1 Introduction and Overview »
Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices: Proceedings of a Workshop Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $50.00 Buy Ebook | $40.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Oral health care and medical health care both seek to maintain and enhance human health and well-being. Yet, dentistry and primary care in the United States are largely separated and isolated from each other. Each has its own siloed systems for education, service delivery, financing, and policy oversight. The result has been duplication of effort, a cultural gap between the two professions, and lost opportunities for productive collaboration and better health.

On December 6, 2018, in Washington, DC, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop titled Integrating Oral and General Health Through Health Literacy Practices. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!