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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guide to Truck Activity Data for Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25484.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guide to Truck Activity Data for Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25484.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guide to Truck Activity Data for Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25484.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guide to Truck Activity Data for Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25484.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guide to Truck Activity Data for Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25484.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guide to Truck Activity Data for Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25484.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guide to Truck Activity Data for Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25484.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2019 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 909 Guide to Truck Activity Data for Emissions Modeling Christopher Porter Timothy Grose Cambridge SyStematiCS, inC. Medford, MA John Koupal eaStern reSearCh group, inC. San Diego, CA Kanok Boriboonsomsin univerSity of California at riverSide Riverside, CA George Noel Andrew Eilbert volpe national tranSportation SyStemS Center Cambridge, MA Subscriber Categories Motor Carriers • Environment • Vehicles and Equipment Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 909 Project 08-101 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48036-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2019939494 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 909 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 08-101 PANEL Field of Transportation Planning—Area of Forecasting Charles M. Baber, Baltimore Metropolitan Council, Baltimore, MD (Chair) Tae-Gyu Kim, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh, NC S. Natalie Liljenwall, Oregon DOT, Salem, OR Matt M. Miyasato, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Matthew J. Pahs, Washington State DOT, Tumwater, WA Mohammad R. Tayyaran, Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON Christopher G. Voigt, Virginia DOT, Richmond, VA Quon Kwan, FMCSA Liaison Victoria Martinez, FHWA Liaison Darrell B. Sonntag, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Liaison Scott Babcock, TRB Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 909 provides guidance for transportation practitioners preparing inputs to the U.S. EPA’s Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) model. Goods movement is a vital part of the national economy, with freight movement growing faster than passenger travel. The growth in freight traffic is contributing to urban conges- tion, resulting in hours of delay, increased shipping costs, wasted fuel, and greater emissions of greenhouse gas and criteria pollutants. The limited national data on urban goods movement are insufficient for a thorough understanding of the characteristics of the trucks operating in metropolitan areas and the complex logistical chains that they serve. For instance, there are at least three different segments of urban freight—long haul, drayage, and pickup and delivery. It is believed that truck fleet characteristics differ between the segments, but only local registration data exist at a level of detail needed to support regional transportation plans, transportation improvement plans, and state implementation plans. The lack of data on all types of commercial trucks affects model estimation and results in inaccurate base year emissions inventories, limiting the ability to design and implement effective policies to reduce freight-related emis- sions. It is critical that research consider all types of commercial vehicles, not just heavy trucks, since small vehicles and vans are estimated to account for 40 percent of urban truck traffic. For NCHRP Project 08-101, Cambridge Systematics developed a guide for transportation practitioners on methods, procedures, and data sets needed to capture commercial vehicle activity, vehicle characteristics, and operations to assist in estimating and forecasting criteria pollutants, air toxics, and greenhouse gas emissions from goods and services movement. The research addressed the following topics: (1) recent freight and emissions modeling research that complements the NCHRP Project 08-101 research, (2) methods to collect and evaluate truck activity and operational data by different truck segments, (3) methods to collect truck vehicle characteristics and truck inventory data, (4) translation of truck fleet and activity data and forecasts into emissions model inputs, (5) sensitivity of emissions results to local versus default truck fleet and activity data inputs, and (6) implications for future emissions model development and application. NCHRP Web-Only Document 210: Input Guidelines for Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator Model (Porter et al., 2014a, 2014b, 2014c) provides guidance on developing local inputs to the MOVES mode. It covers all vehicle types, but is not specific to trucks. NCHRP Research Report 909 supplements NCHRP Web-Only Document 210 by describing the use of various data sources to obtain truck-specific inputs. Appendices A through G to NCHRP Research Report 909 are published as NCHRP Web-Only Document 261 and contain seven case studies that serve as the basis for much of the guidance provided in NCHRP Research Report 909. By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

NCHRP Web-Only Document 261 can be accessed at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/ 178906.aspx. NCHRP Research Report 909 is also supplemented by three MS Excel files that contain data from the case studies: • NCHRP08-101_Data_CS1+7_DriveCyc-OpMode.xlsx (Case Studies #1 and #7). • NCHRP08-101_Data_CS2_AgeDist.xlsx (Case Study #2). • NCHRP08-101_Data_CS3+4+6_Starts-Idle-Hotelling.xlsx (Case Studies #3, #4, and #6). These files can be accessed on the TRB web page for NCHRP Research Report 909 (http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/178921.aspx).

1 Section 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Purpose and Motivation 2 1.2 MOVES Inputs Considered 6 1.3 Outline of Guide 6 1.4 Related Resources 7 Section 2 Truck Fleet and Activity Data Sources 11 Section 3 Age Distributions 11 3.1 Overview 11 3.2 MOVES Embedded Data 11 3.3 Sensitivity/Importance 13 3.4 Generating Local Data 21 Section 4 Speeds 21 4.1 Overview 21 4.2 MOVES Embedded Data 21 4.3 Sensitivity/Importance 24 4.4 Generating Local Data 27 Section 5 Drive Schedules and OMDs 27 5.1 Overview 27 5.2 MOVES Embedded Data 28 5.3 Sensitivity/Importance 30 5.4 Generating Local Data 34 Section 6 Starts and Soak Times 34 6.1 Overview 37 6.2 MOVES Embedded Data 38 6.3 Sensitivity/Importance 39 6.4 Generating Local Data 49 Section 7 Hotelling 49 7.1 Overview 51 7.2 MOVES Embedded Data 52 7.3 Sensitivity/Importance 53 7.4 Generating Local Data 61 References 63 Abbreviations 65 Appendices A Through G C O N T E N T S Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 909: Guide to Truck Activity Data for Emissions Modeling explores methods, procedures, and data sets needed to capture commercial vehicle activity, vehicle characteristics, and operations to assist in estimating and forecasting criteria pollutants, air toxics, and greenhouse gas emissions from goods and services movement.

Goods movement is a vital part of the national economy, with freight movement growing faster than passenger travel. The growth in freight traffic is contributing to urban congestion, resulting in hours of delay, increased shipping costs, wasted fuel, and greater emissions of greenhouse gas and criteria pollutants. The limited national data on urban goods movement are insufficient for a thorough understanding of the characteristics of the trucks operating in metropolitan areas and the complex logistical chains that they serve.

For instance, there are at least three different segments of urban freight—long haul, drayage, and pickup and delivery. It is believed that truck fleet characteristics differ between the segments, but only local registration data exist at a level of detail needed to support regional transportation plans, transportation improvement plans, and state implementation plans. The lack of data on all types of commercial trucks affects model estimation and results in inaccurate base year emissions inventories, limiting the ability to design and implement effective policies to reduce freight-related emissions.

NCHRP Research Report 909 enumerates various sources of truck data and how they can be obtained and used to support emissions modeling.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 210: Input Guidelines for Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator Model (Porter et al., 2014a, 2014b, 2014c) provides guidance on developing local inputs to the MOVES mode. It covers all vehicle types, but is not specific to trucks. NCHRP Research Report 909 supplements NCHRP Web-Only Document 210 by describing the use of various data sources to obtain truck-specific inputs.

Appendices A through G to NCHRP Research Report 909 are published as NCHRP Web-Only Document 261 and contain seven case studies that serve as the basis for much of the guidance provided in NCHRP Research Report 909.

NCHRP Research Report 909 is also supplemented by three MS Excel files that contain data from the case studies:

Case Studies #1 and #7

Case Study #2

Case Studies #3, #4, and #6

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