National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: References
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×

List of Interventions Across Levels

Intervention Level Goal Outcome (s) Tested in STEMM field? Citation
Bias literacy (Video Interventions for Diversity in STEM; VIDS) Individual level (behavioral intentions) Recruitment Reported behavioral intentions to recruit and mentor female students Yes – Faculty across science departments (Moss-Racusin et al., 2018)
Bias literacy workshop (faculty recruitment workshop; FRW) Individual level (attitudes and behavioral intentions) Recruitment Positive attitudes toward equitable search strategies from workshop attendees, intentions to use equitable strategies during search Not specifically, faculty across all departments (Sekaquaptewa et al., 2019)
Changing STEM classroom environments Individual level (changing students’ individual level beliefs about computer science Recruitment Reported interest in computer Yes – Computer science (Cheryan et al., 2009; Cheryan et al., 2011b)
Description of STEM male or female potential mentor (using communal words in ads) Individual level (interest in working with a STEM mentor) Recruitment Reported interest in working with STEM mentor Yes – Across STEM majors (Fuesting and Diekman, 2017)
Describing STEM jobs with communal of feminine words Individual level (interest in working at job) Recruitment Reported interest at working at jobs No – Female students generally (not specifically STEM majors) (Gaucher et al., 2011)
Describing biomedical research as fulfilling communal/helping goals Individual level (career motivation) Recruitment Reported motivation to pursue a career in biomedical sciences No – Male and female students generally (not specifically STEM majors) (Brown et al., 2015)
Having a female scientist describe career as fulfilling communal goals (helping others working with others) Individual level (interest in STEM) Recruitment Reported interest in STEM careers No – Female students generally (both college students and adolescent girls) (Diekman et al., 2011; Weisgram and Bigler, 2006)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Presenting students with female scientist role models Individual level (career motivation) Recruitment/retention Reported intentions to pursue a career in engineering Yes – Female college engineering majors (Stout et al., 2011)
Writing about favorite role models Individual level (sense of fit in STEM) Recruitment Reported sense of fit in the sciences No – Female middle school students attending a science summer camp (O’Brien et al., 2017)
Having Black female or male scientist in recruitment materials (i.e., on a school or company’s website) Individual level (anticipated belonging) Recruitment Anticipated belonging at company/or school Yes – Black women across STEM majors (Johnson et al., 2019; Pietri, 2018a)
Watching women scientists in television shows Individual level Recruitment Majoring in STEM, and entering a STEM career (participants respectively reported whether they watched the X-files with Agent Scully) Yes – Women currently working in STEM fields (Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media, 2018; Steinke et al., 2009)
Having a STEM graduate program emphasis that men and women work hard for success in the program Individual level (reported interest) Recruitment Reported interest in graduate program Yes – Female students generally, and female STEM graduate students (Smith et al., 2012)
Teaching female students that intelligence is malleable and can improve Individual level (career motivation, grades in Math) Recruitment Higher career motivations in math, higher grades in math No – Female middle school students (Blackwell et al., 2007; Good et al., 2003)
Bias literacy workshop (WISELI) Individual level behavior Retention Self-reported actions to promote equity in department (when > 25% of department attended) Yes – Departments in medicine, science, and engineering (Carnes et al., 2015)
Ensuring Black female students have Black woman role models Individual level (reported belonging) Retention Reported belonging in STEM Yes – Black female students across STEM majors (Johnson et al., 2019)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Intervention Level Goal Outcome (s) Tested in STEMM field? Citation
Having multiple allies in a STEM environment Individual level (reported belonging) Retention Reported belonging in STEM Yes – Black female STEM majors (Johnson et al., 2019)
Values affirmation–having women write about a valued aspect of their identity Individual level (grades and attitudes toward major) Retention Higher grades and positive attitudes toward engineering major/grades in a physics class Yes – Female engineering majors/female students enrolled in a physics class (Miyake et al., 2010; Walton et al., 2015)
Exposure to counter-stereotypical exemplars (female leaders) Individual level beliefs Advancement Women-leadership IAT No (student samples) (Dasgupta and Asgari, 2004)
Imagine contact (imagining a strong capable leader) Individual level beliefs Advancement Women-strength IAT No (student samples) (Blair et al., 2001)
Bias literacy workshop Individual level beliefs Advancement Women-leadership IAT Yes – Medicine faculty (Girod et al., 2016)
Bias literacy training (incorporated into week long workshop on improving STEM education) Relational/groups levels (STEM instructors’ beliefs about STEM courses) Recruitment Reported valuing of diversity in STEM classes Yes – STEM instructors across fields (Moss-Racusin et al., 2016)
Bias literacy workshop (interactive theater GEAR UP workshop) Group level behavior (search committees) Recruitment Search committees engaged in positive behavior Yes – Across all departments, with a focus on STEM (Shea, 2019)
Lab environments that promote perceptions that STEM is communal Relational/groups level (research mentors and lab environments) Recruitment Reported interest and career motivation in STEM Yes – Male and female research assistants across STEM laboratories (Allen et al., 2018; Thoman et al., 2017)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
STEM instructors with a growth mindset Relational/groups level (STEM instructors and STEM classes) Recruitment Interest in STEM career, motivation in classes, and grades in STEM courses Yes – Male and female students in STEM classes (Canning et al., 2019; Fuesting et al., 2019; Rattan et al., 2012)
Incorporating service learning projects into STEM courses Groups level (structuring STEM classes) Recruitment Interest in taking a STEM course No – Male and female college students’ interest in taking an engineering class (Belanger et al., 2017)
Peer Led Team Learning in introductory to computer science courses Relationship/groups level (structuring STEM classes) Recruitment/retention Entering and persisting in computer science major, higher grades in computer science Yes – female students in computer science (Horwitz et al., 2009)
Having a female mentor Relational (having female peer mentors) Recruitment/retention Reported belonging and self-efficacy, and interest in engineering career Yes – female engineering majors (Dennehy and Dasgupta, 2017)
Egalitarian norms intervention Groups level (STEM classes) Recruitment/retention Higher valuing of diversity and intentions to confront bias Yes – White male students in introductory engineering course (Bennett and Sekaquaptewa, 2014)
Having positive mentor relationships (or fostering positive mentor relationships) for female college students Relational level (the importance of mentor relationships) Retention Remaining in engineering majors/reported interest in major Yes – Female engineering majors/female STEM majors generally (Downing et al., 2005; Marra et al., 2009)
Culturally aware mentor training Relational (improving mentoring relationships) Retention Reported improved mentoring behaviors Yes – clinical and translational researchers (Pfund et al., 2013; Pfund et al., 2015)
Integrating active learning in STEM courses Relationship/groups level (structuring STEM classes) Retention Persisting in computer science major (Latulipe et al., 2018)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Intervention Level Goal Outcome (s) Tested in STEMM field? Citation
Having female majority activity groups in STEM classes Relationship/groups level (group composition) Retention Higher reported interest in STEM careers Yes – Female engineering majors (Dasgupta et al., 2015)
Having students watch a video of students behaving counter-stereotypically in project teams Relationship/groups level (student group intervention Retention Resulted in women and men contributing equal amounts in group work (rather than men speaking more than women) Yes – Students in STEM project teams (Lewis et al., 2019)
Research experiences in college Relationship/groups level (research mentors) Retention/advancement Persisting in biology major, graduating with biology degree, and earn higher grades in biology major. Yes – Male and female students who reported an interest in majoring in biology (Jones et al., 2010a)
Mentor relationships for STEM female faculty Relational level (positive mentor relationships) Advancement Helping build connections with regard to research and teaching (i.e., aspects of the job that help with promotion) Yes – Female faculty across the sciences (Misra et al., 2017)
Having a sponsor to promote women for leadership positions and prestigious awards Relationship/groups (sponsor relationships) Advancement More advancement opportunities No – Multiple review papers suggest sponsorship should be utilized in STEM (Hewlett et al., 2010; Huston et al., 2019; Serbin, 2018)
Bias literacy workshop (WISELI) Organizational level hiring Recruitment Increased hiring of women in STEMM departments by 18% Yes – Departments in medicine, science, and engineering (Devine et al., 2017)
Bias literacy workshop (faculty recruitment workshop; FRW) Organizational level norms Recruitment Positive attitudes toward equitable search strategies among department mentors who did not attend workshop (when a higher % of departmental faculty attended) No – Faculty across all departments (Sekaquaptewa et al., 2019)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Bias literacy workshop (interactive theater GEAR UP workshop) Organizational Level (hiring)) Recruitment % women hired in STEM departments went from 40% to 63.6% Yes – Across all departments, with a focus on STEM (Shea, 2019)
TRACS training for faculty search committees (relied on self-determination theory) Organizational Level (hiring) Recruitment Compared to control searches, searches in intervention were 6.3 times more likely to make an offer to a woman, and women were 5.8 times more likely to accept Yes – Across STEM departments (Smith et al., 2015)
Bias literacy workshop (WISELI) Organizational level (climate) Retention Fit perceptions in department, comfort in raising personal/professional conflict in department Yes – Departments in medicine, science, and engineering (Carnes et al., 2015)
Presence of gender-inclusive policies Organizational level (climate) Retention More positive cross-gender conversations and lower social identity threat Yes – Working engineers (Hall et al., 2018)
Project TRACS dedicated grant support staff, family advocate, equity advocates Organizational level (climate) Retention Increased autonomy, competence, relatedness, and job satisfaction Yes – STEM and non-STEM faculty (Smith et al., 2018)
TRACS grant-writing boot camp Organizational level (climate) Retention/Advancement Higher likelihood of submitting and receiving a grant Yes – Female STEM faculty (Smith et al., 2018)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Page 197
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Page 198
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Page 199
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Page 200
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Page 201
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Page 202
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Page 203
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: List of Interventions Across Levels." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25585.
×
Page 204
Next: Appendix B: Relevant Findings and Recommendations from National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Reports »
Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $55.00 Buy Ebook | $44.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Careers in science, engineering, and medicine offer opportunities to advance knowledge, contribute to the well-being of communities, and support the security, prosperity, and health of the United States. But many women do not pursue or persist in these careers, or advance to leadership positions - not because they lack the talent or aspirations, but because they face barriers, including: implicit and explicit bias; sexual harassment; unequal access to funding and resources; pay inequity; higher teaching and advising loads; and fewer speaking invitations, among others.

There are consequences from this underrepresentation of women for the nation as well: a labor shortage in many science, engineering, and medical professions that cannot be filled unless institutions and organizations recruit from a broad and diverse talent pool; lost opportunities for innovation and economic gain; and lost talent as a result of discrimination, unconscious bias, and sexual harassment.

Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine reviews and synthesizes existing research on policies, practices, programs, and other interventions for improving the recruitment, retention, and sustained advancement into leadership roles of women in these disciplines. This report makes actionable recommendations to leverage change and drive swift, coordinated improvements to the systems of education, research, and employment in order to improve both the representation and leadership of women.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!