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75 Glossary 14 C.F.R. Part 107: Small Unmanned Aircraft Rule, which allows commercial operators to use UA weighing less than 55 lb. The rule has numerous requirements that must be followed. A summary of these requirements can be found at https://www.faa.gov/uas/media/Part_107_ Summary.pdf. Advisory Circular (AC): Provides FAA guidance in accordance with federal regulations. Autonomous aircraft: An unmanned aircraft that does not allow pilot intervention in the management of the flight. Beyond visual line-of-sight (BVLOS) operation: An operation in which the remote crew is not able to remain in visual contact with the aircraft to manage its flight and meet separation and collision avoidance responsibilities. Allows for first-person-view piloting, where the remote pilot sees what the UA sees as it flies, enabling an alternative to line-of-sight flying. Certificate of waiver or authorization (COA): An operator may apply for a waiver from certain sections of 14 C.F.R. Part 107 or apply for authorization to conduct operations outside of Part 107. The COA is an authorization issued by the air traffic organization to a public operator for a specific UA activity. Command-and-control link: The data link between the remotely piloted aircraft and the remote pilot station for the purposes of managing the flight. Commercial operation: An aircraft operation conducted for business purposes (mapping, security surveillance, wildlife survey, aerial application, etc.) other than commercial air transport, for remuneration or hire. Control station: An interface used by the remote pilot to control the flight path of the UA. Controlled airspace: An airspace of defined dimensions within which ATC service is provided to IFR (instrument flight rules) flights and to VFR (visual flight rules) flights in accordance with the airspace classification. A generic term that covers the different classification of airspace (Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E airspace) and defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification. Crewmember [UAS]: In addition to the crewmembers identified in 14 C.F.R. Part 1, a UAS flightcrew member often includes pilots, sensor/payload operators, and visual observers, but may include other persons as appropriate or required to ensure safe operation of the aircraft. Detect and avoid (DAA): The capability to see, sense, or detect conflicting traffic or other hazards and take the appropriate action to comply with the applicable rules of flight. This also incorpo- rates the ability to be detected by other aircraft, through transponders.
76 Current Landscape of Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Airports Geofencing: Using GPS coordinates of restricted airspace and maximum flight path altitudes, a virtual fence can be created over which the UAS will not cross without specific permission (i.e., in the vicinity of an airport). Geofencing can be used to contain UA within a certain area or prevent it from accessing a specific area. âOne or more location-specific, programmed flight restrictions or limitations designed to prevent or restrict UAS flights over or near areas that would create a security or safety riskâ (Wallace et al. 2018, p. 22). International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO): A United Nationsâ specialized agency, established by States in 1944 to manage the administration and governance of the Conven- tion on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention). It works with the Conventionâs 192 Member States and industry groups to reach consensus on international civil aviation stan- dards and recommended practices (SARPs) and policies in support of a safe, efficient, secure, economically sustainable, and environmentally responsible civil aviation sector. Light detection and ranging (lidar): Light detection and ranging is used to detect and measure the distance of an object or surface from an optical source. Lidar employs an active laser system. Letter of authorization (LOA): Manner by which FAA grants authorization for specific activities, generally a specific UA activity. Line of sight (LOS): Within visual sight of operator, which enables âsee and avoidâ to occur. Lost link: The loss of command-and-control link contact with the remotely piloted aircraft such that the remote pilot can no longer manage the aircraftâs flight. Low-altitude authorization and notification capability (LAANC): A collaboration between FAA and Industry that directly supports UAS integration into the airspace. It provides access to controlled airspace near airports through near real-time processing of airspace authorizations below approved altitudes in controlled airspace. Model aircraft: An unmanned aircraft that is (a) capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere, (b) flown within VLOS of the person operating the aircraft, and (c) often flown for hobby or recreational purposes. Recreational users may fly UA (a) under the Special Rule for Model Aircraft, with adherence to certain guidelines, or (b) under 14 C.F.R. Part 107. National airspace system (NAS): The common network of U.S. airspaceâair navigation facili- ties, equipment, and services; airports or landing areas; aeronautical charts, information, and services; rules, regulations, and procedures; technical information; and human resources and material. Next-generation air transportation system (NextGen): According to the FAAâs Desti- nation 2025 (2011): âNextGen is a series of inter-linked programs, systems, and policies that implement advanced technologies and capabilities to dramatically change the way the current aviation system is operated. NextGen is satellite-based and relies on a network to share information and digital communications so all users of the system are aware of other usersâ precise locations.â Person manipulating the controls: A person other than the remote pilot in command (PIC) who is controlling the flight of sUAS under the supervision of the remote PIC. Photogrammetry: The science of making measurements from photographs, using passive light. The output from photogrammetry is typically a map, a drawing, or a 3-D model of some real-world object or land mass. Remote ID: Provides the FAA the ability to identify and track UA. Possibilities include direct broadcast (transmitting data in one direction only with no specific destination or recipient) and network publishing (transmitting data to an Internet service or group of services).
Glossary 77 Remote pilot in command: The pilot in command of a remotely piloted aircraft, or UA. Although this is not unique to sUAS, 14 C.F.R. Part 107 references the remote pilot in command as the individual who (a) must ensure that the sUA will pose no undue hazard to other people, other aircraft, or other property in the event of a loss of control of the aircraft for any reason; (b) must ensure that the sUAS operation complies with all applicable regulations; and (c) must have the ability to direct the sUA to ensure regulatory compliance. Remotely piloted aircraft: An aircraft in which the flying pilot is not on board the aircraft. Remotely piloted aircraft system: A set of configurable elements consisting of a remotely piloted aircraft, its associated remote pilot station(s), the required command-and-control links, and any other system elements that may be required, at any point during flight operation. Sense and avoid (SAA): More sophisticated than DAA, sense and avoid provides the UAS capa- bility to sense other aircraft and avoid those aircraft, potentially without input from the pilot. Small unmanned aircraft (sUA): An unmanned aircraft weighing less than 55 lb on takeoff, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft. Small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS): A small unmanned aircraft and its associated elements (including remote pilot, visual observers, communication links, and the components that control the sUA) that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the sUA in the national airspace system. Tethered unmanned aircraft: The term âactively tethered unmanned aircraft systemâ means an unmanned aircraft system in which the unmanned aircraft component (a) weighs 4.4 lb or less, including payload but not including the tether; (b) is physically attached to a ground station with a taut, appropriately load-rated tether that provides continuous power to the unmanned aircraft and is unlikely to be separated from the unmanned aircraft; and (c) is controlled and retrieved by such ground station through physical manipulation of the tether. Uncontrolled airspace: Class G airspace (uncontrolled) is that portion of airspace that has not been designated as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace. Unmanned aircraft (UA): An aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human inter- vention from within or on the aircraft. Unmanned aircraft system (UAS): An unmanned aircraft and its associated elements related to safe operations, which may include crew, control stations (ground, ship, or air based), control links, support equipment, payloads, flight termination systems, and launch/recovery equipment. This term refers to the entire system necessary to support operation of the UA. Vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL): The ability of UA to take off and land vertically, often associated with a rotary-wing UA. Visual line-of-sight (VLOS) operation: An operation in which the remote crew maintains direct visual contact with the aircraft to manage its flight and meet separation and collision avoidance responsibilities. Visual observer: A person who is designated by the remote pilot in command (PIC) to assist the remote PIC and the person manipulating the flight controls of the UAS to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground. Appropriate for both small and large UAS.