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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 9 References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Field Test of BMPs Using Granulated Ferric Oxide Media to Remove Dissolved Metals in Roadway Stormwater Runoff. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25669.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 9 References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Field Test of BMPs Using Granulated Ferric Oxide Media to Remove Dissolved Metals in Roadway Stormwater Runoff. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25669.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 9 References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Field Test of BMPs Using Granulated Ferric Oxide Media to Remove Dissolved Metals in Roadway Stormwater Runoff. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25669.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 9 References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Field Test of BMPs Using Granulated Ferric Oxide Media to Remove Dissolved Metals in Roadway Stormwater Runoff. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25669.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 9 References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Field Test of BMPs Using Granulated Ferric Oxide Media to Remove Dissolved Metals in Roadway Stormwater Runoff. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25669.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 9 References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Field Test of BMPs Using Granulated Ferric Oxide Media to Remove Dissolved Metals in Roadway Stormwater Runoff. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25669.
×
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Page 79
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 9 References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Field Test of BMPs Using Granulated Ferric Oxide Media to Remove Dissolved Metals in Roadway Stormwater Runoff. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25669.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 9 References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Field Test of BMPs Using Granulated Ferric Oxide Media to Remove Dissolved Metals in Roadway Stormwater Runoff. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25669.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

73 Chapter 9 References Abbasi, S.A., and Koskelo, A. 2013. NCHRP Synthesis 444: Pollutant Load Reductions for Total Maximum Daily Loads for Highways. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Barrett, M., Katz, L., Taylor, S., Sansalone, J., and Stevenson, M. 2014. NCHRP Report 767: Measuring and Removing Dissolved Metals from Storm Water in Highly Urbanized Areas. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Barr Engineering, 2017. Quality Assurance Project and Sampling and Analysis Plan. Prepared for NCHRP Project 25-54, “Field Testing of BMPs Using Granulated Ferric Oxide Media to Remove Dissolved Metals in Roadway Stormwater Runoff.” http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=4068 Cismasu, A. C., Williams, K. H., and Nico, P. S. 2016. Iron and Carbon Dynamics During Aging and Reductive Transformation of Biogenic Ferrihydrite. Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 25–35. Cooley, Jr., L. A., Brumfield, J. W., Mallick, R. B., Mogawer, W. S., Partl, M., Poulikakos, L., and Hick, G. 2009. NCHRP Report 640: Construction and Maintenance Practices for Permeable Friction Courses. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Dupuis, T. V. 2002. NCHRP Report 474: Assessing the Impacts of Bridge Deck Runoff Contaminants in Receiving Waters, Volume 1: Final Report. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Erickson, A. J., Gulliver, J. S. and Weiss, P. T. 2012. Capturing Phosphates with Iron Enhanced sand Filtration. Water Research, Vol. 46, No. 9, pp. 3032–3042. Genc-Fuhrman, H., Mikkelsen, P.S., and Ledin, A. 2007. Simultaneous Removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from Stormwater: Experimental Comparison of 11 Different Sorbents. Water Research, Vol. 41, pp. 591 – 602. Granato, G.E. 2013. Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM) Version 1.0.0: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 4, chap. C3, 112 p., on CD-ROM. Granato, G. E., and Jones, S. C. 2019. Simulating Runoff Quality with the Highway Runoff Database and the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No.2673, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., pp. 136– 142.

74 Hausner, D.B, Bhandari, N., Pierre-Louis, A.M., Kubicki, J.D., and D.R. Strongin. 2009. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. Ferrihydrite reactivity toward carbon dioxide. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 337, pp. 492-500. Homer, C. H., Fry, J. A., and Barnes, C. A. 2012. The National Land Cover Database, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet, 2012. https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20123020. Huber, W. C. and Dickinson, R. E. 1988. Storm Water Management Model. User’s Manual Ver. IV., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - https://hdsc.nws.noaa.gov/hdsc/pfds/ Accessed: May 2017. Niyogi, S., and Wood, C. M. 2004. The Biotic Ligand Model, a Flexible Tool for Developing Site-Specific Water Quality Guidelines for Metals. Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 38, pp. 6177-6192. Ponthieu, M., Juillot, F., Himestra, T., van Riemsdijk, W.H., and M.F. Benedetti. 2006. Metal Ion Binding to Iron Oxide. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 70, pp. 2679-2698. Putman, B., 2012, Evaluation of Open-Graded Friction Courses: Construction, Maintenance, and Performance. Report No, FSWA-SC-12-04. Schultz, M. F., Benjamin, M. M., and Ferguson, J. F. 1987. Adsorption and Desorption of Metals on Ferrihydrite: Reversibility of the Reaction and Sorption Properties of the Regenerated Solid. Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 21, pp. 863–869. Smith, K.S. 1999. Metal Sorption on Mineral Surfaces: An Overview with Examples Relating to Mineral Deposits. Reviews in Economic Geology, Volumes 6A and 6B. The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits. Part A: Processes, Techniques, and Health Issues. Part B: Case Studies and Research Topics. Society of Economic Geologists, Inc. Stumm, W., and Morgan, J. J. 1996. Aquatic Chemistry. Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters, 3rd ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Taylor, S., Barrett, M., Leisenring, M., Sahu, S., Pankani, D., Poresky, A., Questad, A., Strecker, E., Weinstein, N., and Venner, M. 2014. NCHRP Report 792: Long-Term Performance and Life-Cycle Costs of Stormwater Best Management Practices. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. https://doi.org/10.17226/22275. Thomson, N. R., McBean, E. A., Snodgrass, W., and Monstrenko, I. B. 1997. Highway Stormwater Runoff Quality: Development of Surrogate Parameter Relationships. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 93: 307- 347. Urbonas, B. R. 1999. Design of a Sand Filter for Stormwater Quality Enhancement. Water Environment Research Vol. 71, No. 1 (Jan. - Feb., 1999), pp. 102-113.

75 Wanielista, M., Kersten, R., and Eaglin, R. 1997. Hydrology. Water Quantity and Quality Control, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Watershed Protection Techniques. 1994. Performance of Delaware Sand Filter Assessed. Article 107. Technical Note #61. Vol. 2, No.1, pp. 291-293. Zanzo, E., Balint, R., Prati, M., Celi, L., Barberis, E., Violante, A., and Martin, M. 2017. Aging and Arsenite Loading Control Arsenic Mobility from Ferrihydrite-Arsenite Coprecipitates. Geoderma. Vol. 299, pp. 91-100.

76 Appendix A Report for the Development of Two Porous HMA Mix Designs and Preparation of Samples

550 Cleveland Avenue North | Saint Paul, MN 55114 Phone (651) 659-9001 | (800) 972-6364 | Fax (651) 659-1379 | www.amengtest.com | AA/EEO March 7, 2018 Dr. Raul A. Velasquez Geotechnical Engineer Barr Engineering Co. 4300 Market Pointe Drive, Suite 200 Minneapolis, MN RE: Report for the Development of two Porous HMA Mix Designs and Preparation of Samples Barr Engineering - NCHRP 25-54 AET Project No. 28-01371 Dear Mr. Velasquez: Attached are the mix design reports for the two porous Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) mix designs that we developed for your NCHRP 25-54 study. The two non-carbonate aggregate sources identified for and agreed to by you for this project were: • Granite from Martin Marietta, St. Cloud, MN and • Quartzite from New Ulm, MN Immediately upon receiving your authorization to proceed with the proposed aggregate sources and work- plan, we collected the required mix components including aggregates from the two sources, a PG 64-22 asphalt binder manufactured by Flint Hills Resources, and a commercially available stabilizing additive "Insulmax Cellulose Insulation." The aggregate structure for the granite mixture was obtained by combining 3/4” and 1/2” stone, and 3/8” sand aggregates from the Martin Marietta source. While the aggregate structure for the quartzite mixture was obtained by combining 3/4” and 1/2” stone, and no. 8 sand aggregates from the New Ulm source. Sample photographs of the aggregates from the two sources are illustrated in Figures 1 and 2. The optimal percentages of the individual aggregate fractions required to meet the MnDOT gradation specification (MnDOT Specification: 2360 Hot Mixed Asphalt - Porous Pavement) were determined in the laboratory and are included in the attached reports. The aggregate blends were then used to prepare porous HMA samples at three asphalt binder contents that were expected to enclose the optimum binder content. The loose HMA mixtures were compacted using a ServoPac Gyratory Compactor (SGC) into cylindrical specimens of diameter 6-in and height 4.5- in by applying 50 gyrations. The air voids of the specimens were measured according to ASTM D6552 MnDOT modified (CoreLok) method. The optimum asphalt binder contents were found to be 5.7% and 5.9%, respectively for the granite and quartzite HMA mixtures.

Report for the Development of two Porous HMA Mix Designs and Preparation of Samples Barr Engineering - NCHRP 25-54 AET Project No. 28-01371 March 7, 2018 Page 2 of 4 50 Cleveland Avenue North | Saint Paul, MN 55114 Phone (651) 659-9001 | (800) 972-6364 | Fax (651) 659-1379 | www.amengtest.com | AA/EEO As per your request, we have delivered to you a total six volumetric specimens at the optimum asphalt contents (three for each aggregate source) and eight trial specimens (4 for each aggregate source) for your preliminary testing. Figure 1. Granite aggregates Figure 2. Quartzite aggregates We thank you for the opportunity to assist you on this project. Should you have any questions or require additional information, please contact us directly. A detailed report of the test results is provided in the attachment. Sincerely, American Engineering Testing, Inc. Eyoab Zegeye Teshale Pavement and Materials Engineer Phone: 651-295-0828 ezegeye@amengtest.com Peer Review By: David L. Rettner, P. E. President/ Principal Engineer Phone: 651-755-5795

REPORT OF TEST OF BITUMINOUS MIXTURE PROJECT: REPORT TO : POROUS PAVEMENT MIX DESIGN BARR ENGINEERING AND PREPARATION OF SAMPLES AET PROJECT NUMBER: 28-01371 ATTN: Dr. Raul A. Velasquez DATE: MNDOT 2360 Porous Pavement Martin Marietta Martin Marietta Martin Marietta MATERIAL Granite Granite Granite 3/4" w/ Chips 1/2" w/ Chips 3/8" Unwashed Sand % Aggregate 45 44 11 Composite Design Blend Bands SIEVE SIZE 3/4" (19.0mm) 100 100 100 100 100 1/2" (12.5mm) 65 100 100 84 85-100 3/8" (9.5mm) 33 92 100 66 55-75 #4 (4.75mm) 5 20 94 21 10-25 #8 (2.36mm) 2.0 3.0 72 10 5-10 #16 (1.18mm) 1.5 2.0 51 7 -- #30 (600µm) 1.0 1.0 35 5 -- #50 (300µm) 0.6 0.7 23 3 -- #100 (150µm) 0.6 0.7 15 2 -- #200 (75µm) 0.6 0.7 10.2 1.7 2-4 Gsb * * * * *Gsb values from 2017 MNDOT Tests were not available Asphalt Content,% 5.7 5.5-6.5 (AET) Design Field ITEM PROCEDURE ( Mixture Properties) Requirements Requirements Asphalt Source NA Flint Hills Asphalt Grade NA PG 64-22 PG 64-22 PG 64-22 Design Number of Gyrations MNDOT 2360 50 50 50 Air Voids, % Asphalt Institute Manual Series No. 2 18.7 17.0-19.0 17.0-19.0 A B A B C A B Bulk Specific Gravity 1.983 1.968 2.006 2.008 2.004 2.041 2.037 Max Specific Gravity 2.485 2.485 2.469 2.469 2.469 2.462 2.462 % Air Void 20.2% 20.8% 18.8% 18.7% 18.8% 17.1% 17.3% ITEM PROCEDURE Aggregate Properties Requirements % +#4- 1Face Crushed ASTM D5821 100 55 Min % +#4- 2 Face Crushed ASTM D5821 100 -- Coarse Aggregate Absorption AASHTO T85, MNDOT MODIFIED Not Provided <2.0 LA Abrasion ASTM C131 Not Provided 35 Max REMARKS : Report Prepared By: American Engineering Testing, Inc. Lee McLaughlin Project Manager March 7, 2018 Test Data 5.2%AC 5.7%AC (Optimum) 6.2%AC

REPORT OF TEST OF BITUMINOUS MIXTURE PROJECT: REPORT TO : POROUS PAVEMENT MIX DESIGN BARR ENGINEERING AND PREPARATION OF SAMPLES AET PROJECT NUMBER: 28-01371 ATTN: Dr. Raul A. Velasquez DATE: MNDOT 2360 Porous Pavement N.U.Q.Q. N.U.Q.Q N.U.Q.Q MATERIAL Manufactured 3/4" Rock 1/2" Rock Sand-Bin 8 % Aggregate 30 60 10 Composite Design Blend Bands SIEVE SIZE 3/4" (19.0mm) 100 100 100 100 100 1/2" (12.5mm) 65 100 100 90 85-100 3/8" (9.5mm) 33 63 100 58 55-75 #4 (4.75mm) 1.8 2 100 12 10-25 #8 (2.36mm) 0.7 1.0 97 11 5-10 #16 (1.18mm) 0.6 1.0 85 9 -- #30 (600µm) 0.5 1.0 63 7 -- #50 (300µm) 0.4 0.2 35.2 4 -- #100 (150µm) 0.3 0.2 17.9 2 -- #200 (75µm) 0.2 0.2 14.2 1.6 2-4 Gsb * 2.633 2.638 2.624 2.635 *Gsb values from 2017 MNDOT Tests Asphalt Content,% 5.9 5.5-6.5 (AET) Design Field ITEM PROCEDURE ( Mixture Properties) Requirements Requirements Asphalt Source NA Flint Hills Asphalt Grade NA PG 64-22 PG 64-22 PG 64-22 Design Number of Gyrations MNDOT 2360 50 50 50 Air Voids, % Asphalt Institute Manual Series No. 2 18.4 17.0-19.0 17.0-19.0 A B A B C A B Bulk Specific Gravity 1.956 1.968 1.988 2.000 1.994 2.083 2.059 Max Specific Gravity 2.457 2.457 2.444 2.444 2.444 2.431 2.431 % Air Void 20.4% 19.9% 18.7% 18.2% 18.4% 14.3% 15.3% ITEM PROCEDURE Aggregate Properties Requirements % +#4- 1Face Crushed ASTM D5821 100 55 Min % +#4- 2 Face Crushed ASTM D5821 100 -- Coarse Aggregate Absorption AASHTO T85, MNDOT MODIFIED 0.6 <2.0 LA Abrasion ASTM C131 22 35 Max REMARKS : Report Prepared By: American Engineering Testing, Inc. Lee McLaughlin Project Manager March 7, 2018 Test Data 5.4%AC 5.9%AC (Optimum) 6.4%AC

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There are several best management practices that are good at removing particulate-bound pollutants by settling, filtering, and, in the case of wetlands, settling, uptake, and incorporation of pollutants into biological matter (e.g., natural organic matter). However, a longstanding goal of stormwater treatment is the removal of the stormwater pollutant fraction that cannot be readily settled or filtered.

While there are several media that may be employed to remove dissolved metals from stormwater, the media chosen for the TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Web-Only Document 265: Field Test of BMPs Using Granulated Ferric Oxide Media to Remove Dissolved Metals in Roadway Stormwater Runoff is ferric oxide. Field scale testing of ferric oxide was recommended as an outcome of NCHRP Report 767: Measuring and Removing Dissolved Metals fromStorm Water in Highly Urbanized Areas (2014), a laboratory study that considered several metals and media with testing focused on the capacity of ferric oxide to remove copper and zinc from synthetic and natural highway stormwater runoff.

Highlights of the project are summarized in a PowerPoint presentation.

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