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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25679.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25679.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25679.
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89 REFERENCES AASHTO. (2001). Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. In American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC (Vol. 1, pp. 990). Adrian. (1989a). Visibiliy of targets: Model for calculation. Lighting Research & Technology, 21(4), 181-188. Adrian. (1995). Change of visual acuity with age. Lighting for Aging Vision and Health. Adrian, W. (1989b). Visibility of targets: Model for calculation. Lighting Research & Technology, 21(4), 181-188. doi:10.1177/096032718902100404 Aulhorn, E. (1964). Über die Beziehung zwischen Lichtsinn und Sehschärfe. Albrecht von Graefes Archiv für Ophthalmologie, 167(1), 4-74. doi:10.1007/bf00684291 Avrenli, K., & Medina, J. (2012). LED Roadway Lighting Volume 1: Background Information. Bhagavathula, R., & Gibbons, R. (2015). A New Approach to Analyze Nighttime Roadway Visibility through Distribution Analysis of Detection Distances Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 28th Session of the CIE, Manchester, UK. Bhagavathula, R., & Gibbons, R. B. (2013). Role of Expectancy, Motion and Overhead Lighting on Nighttime Visibility. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. Bhagavathula, R., & Gibbons, R. B. (2018). Effects of Mounting Height, Offset Distance, and Number of Light Towers on Drivers’ Visual Performance and Discomfort Glare in Work Zones. Transportation Research Record, 2672(16), 105-112. doi:10.1177/0361198118782762 Bhagavathula, R., Gibbons, R. B., & Nussbaum, M. A. (2017). Effects of Intersection Lighting Design on Nighttime Visual Performance of Drivers. Leukos, 1-19. doi:10.1080/15502724.2017.1321485 Bhagavathula, R., Gibbons, R. B., & Nussbaum, M. A. (2018). Effects of Intersection Lighting Design on Nighttime Visual Performance of Drivers. Leukos, 14(1), 25-43. Bird, B. L., Branch, L. C., & Miller, D. L. (2004). Effects of coastal lighting on foraging behavior of beach mice. Conservation Biology, 18, 1435-1439. Borugain, M., Gallagher, R., Friessen, M., Switzer, T., & Aronson, K. (2005). Twenty-Four- Hour Light Exposure and Melatonin Levels Among Shift Workers. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 1268-1275. Boyce, P. (2009). Lighting for Driving: Roads, Vehicles, Signs, and Signals. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis Group. Brewer, M., Murillo, D., & Pate, A. (2014). Handbook for Designing Roadways for the Aging Population, FHWA-SA-14-015. Retrieved from: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/older_users/handbook/aging_driver_handbook_2014_final%2 0.pdf. Washington, DC Bruneau, J.-F., Morin, D., & Pouliot, M. (2001). Safety of Motorway Lighting. Transportation Research Board, 1758. Bullough, J., Donnell, E., & Rea, M. (2013). To illuminate or not to illuminate: Roadway lighting as it affects traffic safety at intersections. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 65-77. Bullough, J., Van Derlofske, J., Fay, C., & Dee, P. (2003). Discomfort glare from headlamps: interactions among spectrum, control of gaze and background light level Paper presented at the SAE 2003 World Congress & Exhibition, Detroit, MI.

90 Cai, H. (2015). Kansas Highway LED Illumination Manual: A Guide for the use of LED Lighting Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.ksdot.org/Assets/wwwksdotorg/bureaus/kdotlib/KU156.pdf. Topeka, KS Cajochen, C., Frey, S., Spati, J., Bues, M., Pross, A., Mager, R., . . . Stefani, O. (2011). Evening exposure to a light-emitting diodes (LED)-backlit computer screen affects circadian physiology and cognitive performance. Journal of Applied Phsiology, 1432-1438. Chang, A.-M., Aeschbach, D., Duffy, J. F., & Czeisler, C. A. (2015). Evening use of light- emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. CIE. (2010a). CIE 115:2010 Lighting of Roads for Motor and Pedestrian Traffic. Retrieved from: http://www.cie.co.at/publications/lighting-roads-motor-and-pedestrian-traffic. Vienna, Austria CIE. (2010b). CIE 191:2010 Recommended System for Mesopic Photometry Based on Visual Performance. Retrieved from: http://www.cie.co.at/publications/recommended-system- mesopic-photometry-based-visual-performance. Cisse, Y., Peng, J., & Nelson, R. (2016). Dim light at night prior to adolescence increases adult anxiety-like behaviors. Chronobiology International, 1473-1480. Cisse, Y., Peng, J., & Nelson, R. (2017). Effects of Dim Light at Night on Food Intake and Body Mass in Developing Mice. Frontiers in Neuroscience. Clanton & Associates Inc. (2010a). Advanced Street Lighting Technologies Assessment Project, City of San Jose. Retrieved from: https://emp.lbl.gov/sites/default/files/san-diego-street- light-research-report.pdf. San Jose, CA Clanton & Associates Inc. (2010b). Advances Street Lighting Technologies Assessment Project - City of San Diego. Retrieved from: https://emp.lbl.gov/sites/default/files/san-diego-street- light-research-report.pdf. San Diego, CA Clanton & Associates Inc. (2014). Seattle LED Adaptive Lighting Study. Retrieved from: https://neea.org/resources/seattle-led-adaptive-lighting-study. Seattle, WA Clanton & Associates Inc., & Virginia Tech Transportation Insitute. (2009). Street Lighting Survey for Commercial Areas in the Municipality of Anchorage. Retrieved from: https://trid.trb.org/view/910712. Anchorage, AK Clanton, N., Gibbons, R., Garcia, J., & Barber, M. (2014). Seattle LED Adaptive Lighting Study - NEEA. Retrieved from: https://neea.org/resources/seattle-led-adaptive-lighting-study. Seattle, WA Cope, K., & Bugbee, B. (2013). Spectral Effects of Three Types of White Light-emitting Diodes on Plant Growth and DevelopmentL Absolute vs Relative Amounts of Blue Light. HortScience. Coren, S., & Girgus, J. S. (1972). Density of the human lens pigmentation: In vivo measures over an extended age range. Vision Research, 2, 343-346. Cree (Producer). (2014, March 26). Cree First to Break 300 Lumens-Per-Watt Barrier. Cree News. Retrieved from http://www.cree.com/news-media/news/article/cree-first-to-break- 300-lumens-per-watt-barrier Dauchy, R., Xiang, S., Mao, L., Brimer, S., Wren, M., Yuan, L., . . . Hill, S. (2014). Circadian and Melatonin Disruption by Exposure to Light at Night Drives Intrinsic Resistance to Tamoxifen Therapy in Breast Cancer. Cancer Research, 4099-4110. Davoudian, N., Raynham, P., & Barrett, E. (2014). Disability glare: A study in simulated road lighting conditions. Lighting Research & Technology, 695-705.

91 DMD & Associates Ltd. (2013). Light Efficient Community Policy. Retrieved from: https://www.edmonton.ca/transportation/PDF/Light_Efficient_Community_Policy.pdf. Edmonton, Canada Donnell, E., Shankar, V., Porter, R., & Larson, T. (2009). Analysis of Safety Effects for the Presence of Roadway Lighting. Retrieved from: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/docs/NCHRP05-19_SafetyReport.pdf. Washington, DC Dyble, M., Narendran, N., Bierman, A., & Klein, T. (2005). Impact of dimming white LEDs: Chromaticity shifts due to different dimming methods. Paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on Solid State Lighting, Bellingham, WA. Echelon. (2016). Cambridge, MA: Seeting The Example For Adaptive Street Lighting. Retrieved from: https://www.echelon.com/assets/blt39b6475f3f7acf71/Cambridge%20Case%20Study.pdf . Cambridge, MA Eloholma, M., & Halonen, L. (2006). MOVE Mesopic optimisation of visual efficiency: Performance based model for mesopic photometry. Leukos, 263-293. Elvik, R. (1995). Meta-analysis of evalutations of public lighting as accident countermeasure. Transportation Research Board, 1485, 112-123. Escolar, S., Carretero, J., MC, M., & Chessa, S. (2014). Estimating Energy Savings in Smart Street Lighting by Using an Adaptive Control System. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks. Evans, D. L. (1997). High-Luminance LEDs replace incandescent lamps in new applications. Paper presented at the Proceedings Volume 3002, Light-Emitting Diodes: Research, Manufacturing, and Applications, San Jose, CA. Federal Highway Administration. (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Retrieved from: https://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/. Washington, DC Figueiro, M. (2017). Disruption of Circadian Rhythms by Light During Day and Night. Current Sleep Medicine Reports, 76-84. Fisher, D. (1991). Discomfort glare in interiors. Paper presented at the First International Symposium on Glare, Orlando, Florida, New York. Fonken, L., Aubrecht, T., Melendez-Fernandez, O., Weil, Z., & Nelson, R. (2013). Dim Light at Night Disrupts Molecular Circadian Rhythms and Increases Body Weight Journal of Biological Rhythms, 262-271. Fotios, S., & Cheal, C. (2009). Obstacle detection: A pilot study investigating the effects of lamp type, illuminance and age. Lighting Research and Technology, 41(4), 321-342. Fusheng Li, D. C., Xianjie Song, Yuming Chen. (2009). LEDs: A Promising Energy-Saving Light Source for Road Lighting. Paper presented at the 2009 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, Wuhan, China. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/4918460 Gaston, K. J., Davis, T. W., Bennie, J., & Hopkins, J. (2012). REVIEW: Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments. Journal of Applied Ecology, 49(6), 1256-1266. Gettman, D., & Head, L. (2003). Surrogate Safety Measures from Traffic Simulation Models. Retrieved from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/03050/03050.pdf. McClean, VA

92 Gibbons, R. (1993). Fields of Visibility for the Nighttime Driver. (Master of Science), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada. Gibbons, R., Edwards, C., Bhagavathula, R., Carlson, P., & Owens, D. (2012). Development of Visual Model for Exploring Relationship Between Nighttime Driving Behavior and Roadway Visibility Features. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2298. Gibbons, R., Guo, F., Median, A., Terry, T., Du, J., Lukevich, P., . . . Vetere, P. (2014). Guidelines for the Implementation of Reduce Lighting on Roadways. Retrieved from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/14050/. McLean, VA Gibbons, R., Meyer, J., Terry, T., Bhagavathula, R., Lewis, A., Flanagan, M., & Connell, C. (2015a). Evaluation of the Impact of Spectral Power Distribution on Driver Performance. Retrieved from: https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/35871. Washington, DC Gibbons, R., Terry, T., Bhagavathula, R., Meyer, J., & Lewis, A. (2016). Applicability of mesopic factors to the driving task. Lighting Research & Technology, 48(1), 70-82. doi:10.1177/1477153515624003 Gibbons, R. B. (2016). Lighting in the Rain and Fog. Paper presented at the Street and Area Lighting Conference, Hollywood, CA. Gibbons, R. B., Edwards, C. J., Williams, B. M., & Andersen, C. K. (2008). Informational report on lighting design for midblock crosswalks. Retrieved from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/08053/. Washington, DC Gibbons, R. B., Li, Y., & Meyer, J. (2015b). Assessment of the Performance of Light-Emitting Diode Roadway Lighting Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.virginiadot.org/vtrc/main/online_reports/pdf/16-r6.pdf. Charlottesville, VA Gil-de-Castro, A., Moreno-Munoz, A., & Rosa, J. d. l. (2013). LED street lighting: A power quality comparison among street light technologies. Lighting Research & Technology, 45(6). Girasole, T., Roze, C., Maheu, B., Grehan, G., & Menard, J. (1998). Visibility distances in a foggy atmosphere: Comparison between lighting installations by Monte Carlo simulation. Lighting Research and Technology, 30, 29-36. Goldstein, B. (2010). Sensation and Perception (8th ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Gransberg, D. D., Gilman, A., Senadheera, S., Culvalci, O., & Green, B. (1997). Evaluation of Roadway Lighting Systems Designed by STV Methods: A Review of the Design of Roadway Lighting by Small Target Visibility (STV) Methods (Report No. TX-97/0-1704- 3R). Retrieved from: https://library.ctr.utexas.edu/digitized/texasarchive/phase1/1704- 8.pdf. Lubbock, TX Hurley, S., Goldberg, D., Nelson, D., Hertz, A., PL, H.-R., Bernstein, L., & Reynolds, P. (2014). Light at Night and Breast Cancer Risk Among California Epidemiology, 697-706. IES. (2011). Projecting Long Term Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources. Retrieved from: https://www.ies.org/product/projecting-long-term-lumen-maintenance-of-led-light- sources/. New York, NY IES. (2014). Roadway Lighting Recommended Practices RP-8-14. In. Wall Street, New York: Illuminating Engineering Society. IES. (2016). RES-1-16 Measure and Report Luminaire Dirt Depreciation (LDD) in LED Luminaires for Street and Roadway Lighting Applications. Retrieved from:

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94 Lutkevich, P., McLean, D., & Cheung, J. (2012). FHWA Lighting Handbook. Retrieved from: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/roadway_dept/night_visib/lighting_handbook/. Washington DC Mayeur, A., Bremond, R., & Bastien, J. M. C. (2010). The effect of the driving activity on target detection as a function of the visibility level: Implications for road lighting. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 13(2), 115-128. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2009.12.004 McInnis, C., & Morton, T. (2015). Breaththroughts in Vision and Visibility for Highway Safety Workshop Summary Report. Retrieved from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/ear/15067/15067.pdf. McLean, VA McLean, D. (2016). Review of LED Health Issues. Retrieved from: https://www.tac- atc.ca/en/events-and-learning/webinars/led-street-lighting-colour-temperature-and-health- impacts. Surrey, BC Mortimer, R. G., & Jorgenson, C. M. (1974). Eye Fixations of Drivers in Night Driving with Three Headlight Beams. Retrieved from: https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/conference- proceedings-of-spie/0057/0000/Eye-Fixations-Of-Drivers-In-Night-Driving-With-Three- Headlamp/10.1117/12.954311.full. Ann Arbor, MI National Eye Institute (Producer). (2010). Facts About Refractive Errors. National Eye Institute. Retrieved from https://nei.nih.gov/health/errors/errors National Eye Institute (Producer). (2015a). Facts About Age-Related Macular Degeneration. National Eye Institute. Retrieved from https://nei.nih.gov/health/maculardegen/armd_facts National Eye Institute (Producer). (2015b). Facts About Diabetic Eye Disease. National Eye Institute. Retrieved from https://nei.nih.gov/health/diabetic/retinopathy National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2015). Older Population, DOT 812 372. Retrieved from: https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/Publication/812372. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2017, September 22). FARS Database. Retrieved from https://www.nhtsa.gov/research-data/fatality-analysis-reporting-system- fars Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance. (2014). Seattle LED Adaptive Lighting Study. Retrieved from: https://neea.org/resources/seattle-led-adaptive-lighting-study. Seattle Oya, H., Ando, K., & Kanoshima, H. (2003). Research on the Interrelation between Illuminance at Intersections and the reduction in traffic accidents. The Lighting Journal. Palmer, M., Gibbons, R., & Bhagavathula, R. (2017). Roadway Lighting's Impact on Altering Soybean Growth: Volume 1; FHWA-ICT-17-010. Retrieved from: https://apps.ict.illinois.edu/projects/getfile.asp?id=5252. Peters, A., & Verhoeven, K. (1994). Impact of Artificial Lightingon the Seaward Orientation of Hatchling Loggerhead Turtles. Journal of Herpetology, 28(1), 112-114. Portnov, B., Stevens, R., Samociuk, H., Wakefield, D., & Gregorio, D. (2016). Light at night and breast cancer incidence in Connecticut: An ecological study of age group effects. The Science of Total Environment, 1020-1024. Raphael, S., & Leibenfer, M. (2007). Models of mesopic photometry applied to the contrast threshold of peripheral and foveal objects. Paper presented at the 26th Session Of The CIE, Beijing, China. Rea. (2017). Beyond Illuminance and CCT: How Do We Measure the Health Impacts of Roadway Lighting? Paper presented at the 2017 TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.

95 Rea, M., & Bierman, A. (2014). Spectral considerations for outdoor lighting: Consequences for sky glow. Lighting Research & Technology, 920-930. Rea, M., Brons, J., & Figueiro, M. (2011). Measurements of light at night (LAN) for a sample of female school teachers. Chronobilogy International, 673-680. Rea, M., Bullough, J., Fay, C., Brons, J., Van Derlofske, J., & Donnell, E. (2009). Review of the Safety Benefits and Other Effect of Roadway Lighitng. Retrieved from: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/docs/NCHRP05-19_LitReview.pdf. Washington, DC Rea, M., Bullough, J., Freyssinier-Nova, J., & Bierman, A. (2004). A proposed unified system of photometry Lighting Research and Technology, 85-109. Rea, M., & Figueiro, M. (2016). Response to the 2016 AMA Report on LED Lighting [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.lrc.rpi.edu/resources/newsroom/AMA.pdf Rea, M., Figueiro, M., Bullough, J., & Bierman, A. (2005). A model of phototransduction by the human circadian system. Brain Research Reviews, 213-228. Rodrigues, C. R. B. S., Almeida, P. S., Soares, G. M., Jorge, J. M., Pinto, D. P., & Braga, H. A. C. (2010). An Experimental Comparison Between Different Technologies Arising for Public Lighting: LED Luminaires Replacing High Pressure Sodium Lamps. Paper presented at the 9th IEEE/IAS International Conference on Industry Applications, INDUSCON. Ross, J. E., Clarke, D. D., & Bron, A. J. (1985). Effect of age on contrast sensitivity function: uniocular and binocular. Bristish Journal of Ophthalmology, 69, 51-56. Rydell, J. (1991). Seasonal use of illuminated areas by foraging northern bats Eptesicus nilssoni. Holarctic Ecology, 14, 203-207. Schernhammer, E., Lade, F., Speizer, F., Willet, W., Hunter, D., Kawachi, I., . . . Colditz, G. (2003). Night-Shift Work and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study. Jounral of the National Cancer Institute, 825-828. Scott, P. P. (1980). The relationship between road lighting quality and accident frequency. Retrieved from: https://www.tib.eu/en/search/id/TIBKAT%3A52892883X/The- relationship-between-road-lighting-quality/. Shinar, D. (1985). The Effects of Expectancy, Clothing Reflectance, and Detection Criterion on Nighttime Pedestrian Visibility. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 27(3), 327-333. doi:10.1177/001872088502700308 Staplin, L., Lococo, K., Byington, S., & Harkey, D. (2001). Guidelines and Recommendations to Accommodate Older Drivers and Pedestrians. Retrieved from: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/intersection/other_topics/fhwasa09027/resources/Guidelines% 20and%20Recommendations%20to%20Accommodate%20Older%20Drivers.pdf. McLean, VA Stouch, J. (Producer). (2016, February 18). LED Versus High Pressure Sodium (HPS) and Low Pressure Sodium (LPS). Stouch Lighting LED Lighting Solutions. Retrieved from http://www.stouchlighting.com/blog/led-vs-hps-lps-high-and-low-pressure-sodium Tashiro, T., Kawanobe, S., Kimura-Minoda, T., Kohko, S., Ishikawa, T., & Ayama, M. (2015). Discomfort Glare for White LED light sources with different spatial arrangements. Lighting Research & Technology, 316-337. Terry, T. (2011). Comparing LED Lighting Systems in the Detection and Color Recognition of Roadway Objects. (Master of Science Masters Thesis), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA. Retrieved from https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/42871

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Providing light beyond the limits of the roadway travel lanes benefits drivers’ visual performance, spectral content of light-emitting diode (LED) sources should be a design consideration, and there are not currently any health impacts from properly designed roadway lighting are among the findings of this survey report.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's pre-publication draft of NCHRP Research Report 940: Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview determines the current guidance for the use of Solid State Lighting (SSL); identifies the research that still needs to be accomplished to assist in its proper implementation; and develops a comprehensive, easy to use, set of guidelines using currently available information and new research being proposed as part of this project.

Also see this guide's accompanying pre-publication draft, NCHRP Research Report 940: Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance.

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