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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25679.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25679.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25679.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25679.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25679.
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79 AASHTO. (2018a). Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 7th ed. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO. (2018b). Roadway Lighting Design Guide, 7th ed. Publication Code GL-7. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO. (2010). Highway Safety Manual. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Trans- portation Officials. Adrian, W. (1989). Visibility of Targets: Model for Calculation. Lighting Research and Technology, 21(4):181–188. Adrian, W. (1995). Change of Visual Acuity with Age. In Lighting for Aging Vision and Health (W. Adrian, ed.), New York: Lighting Research Institute. Adrian, W. K., and Gibbons, R. B. (1999). Influence of Pavement Reflection on Target Visibility. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, 28:2, 102–112. Aulhorn, E. (1964). Über die Beziehung zwischen Lichtsinn und Sehschärfe. Albrecht von Graefes Archiv für Ophthalmologie, 167(1):4–74. Avrenli, K. A., Benekohal, R. F., and Medina, J. C. (2012). LED Roadway Lighting: Volume 1: Background Infor- mation. Research Report FHWA-ICT-12-012. Urbana, IL: Illinois Center for Transportation, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. Bhagavathula, R., and Gibbons, R. B. (2013). Role of Expectancy, Motion and Overhead Lighting on Nighttime Visibility. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 57(1):1963–1967. Bhagavathula, R., and Gibbons, R. (2015). A New Approach to Analyze Nighttime Roadway Visibility through Distribution Analysis of Detection Distances. Presented at 28th Session of the CIE, Manchester, UK. Bhagavathula, R., and Gibbons, R. B. (2018). Effects of Mounting Height, Offset Distance, and Number of Light Towers on Drivers’ Visual Performance and Discomfort Glare in Work Zones. Transportation Research Record, 2672(16):105–112. Bhagavathula, R., Gibbons, R. B., and Nussbaum, M. A. (2018). Effects of Intersection Lighting Design on Nighttime Visual Performance of Drivers. Leukos, 14(1):25–43. Bird, B. L., Branch, L. C., and Miller, D. L. (2004). Effects of Coastal Lighting on Foraging Behavior of Beach Mice. Conservation Biology, 18:1435–1439. Borugian, M. J., Gallagher, R. P., Friesen, M. C., Switzer, T. F., and Aronson, K. J. (2005). Twenty-Four-Hour Light Exposure and Melatonin Levels Among Shift Workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 47(12):1268–1275. Boyce, P. (2009). Lighting for Driving: Roads, Vehicles, Signs, and Signals. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis Group. Brewer, M., Murillo, D., and Pate, A. (2014). Handbook for Designing Roadways for the Aging Population. FHWA-SA-14-015. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Bruneau, J.-F., Morin, D., and Pouliot, M. (2001). Safety of Motorway Lighting. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1758:1–5. Bullough, J. D., Donnell, E. T., and Rea, M. S. (2013). To Illuminate or Not to Illuminate: Roadway Lighting as It Affects Traffic Safety at Intersections. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 53:65–77. Bullough, J., Van Derlofske, J., Fay, C., and Dee, P. (2003). Discomfort Glare from Headlamps: Interactions Among Spectrum, Control of Gaze and Background Light Level. SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0296. https:// doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-0296. Cai, H. (2015). Kansas Highway LED Illumination Manual: A Guide for the Use of LED Lighting Systems. Report No. K-TRAN: KU-15-6. Topeka, KS: Kansas Department of Transportation. References

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The findings of this survey report show that providing light beyond the limits of the roadway travel lanes benefits drivers’ visual performance and that the spectral content of light-emitting diode (LED) sources should be a design consideration. The study also found that, at present, there are no health impacts from properly designed roadway lighting.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 940: Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 2: Research Overview determines the current guidance for the use of Solid State Lighting (SSL); identifies the research that still needs to be accomplished to assist in its proper implementation; and develops a comprehensive, easy to use, set of guidelines using currently available information and new research being proposed as part of this project.

Also see this guide's accompanying report, NCHRP Research Report 940: Solid-State Roadway Lighting Design Guide: Volume 1: Guidance.

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