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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Review of the
Department of Defense
Biokinetic Modeling Approach in
Support of Establishing an
Airborne Lead Exposure Limit

Committee to Review DoD’s Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Lead

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by a contract (W81K04-16-D-0036/W81K0418F0054) between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-67192-7
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-67192-2
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25683

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25683.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
×

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW DOD’S PROPOSED OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR LEAD

Members

Justin G. Teeguarden (Chair), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA

Jeffrey W. Fisher, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR

Gary L. Ginsberg, New York State Department of Health, Albany

Philip E. Goodrum, GSI Environmental Inc., Fayetteville, NY

Sheryl A. Milz, University of Toledo, OH

Roberta B. Ness (NAM), University of Texas Health Science Center (retired), Houston

Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD

Brad Reisfeld, Colorado State University, Fort Collins

Staff

Raymond A. Wassel, Project Director

Susan N. J. Martel, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology (until December 31, 2019)

Tamara Dawson, Program Associate

Sponsor

U.S. Department of Defense

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
×

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Members

William H. Farland (Chair), Colorado State University, Fort Collins

Lesa Aylward, Summit Toxicology, LLP, Falls Church, VA

Ann M. Bartuska, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC

Germaine M. Buck Louis, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA

E. William Colglazier, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC

Francesca Dominici, Harvard University, Boston, MA

George Gray, The George Washington University, Washington, DC

R. Jeffrey Lewis, ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., Annandale, NJ

Linsey C. Marr, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg

R. Craig Postlewaite, U.S. Department of Defense, Burke, VA

Reza J. Rasoulpour, Corteva Agriscience, Indianapolis, IN

Ivan Rusyn, Texas A&M University, College Station

Deborah L. Swackhamer, University of Minnesota, St. Paul

Joshua Tewksbury, Future Earth, Boulder, CO

Sacoby M. Wilson, University of Maryland, College Park

Staff

Clifford S. Duke, Director

Raymond A. Wassel, Scholar and Director of Environmental Studies

Susan N. J. Martel, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology (until December 31, 2019)

Laura Llanos, Finance Business Partner

Tamara Dawson, Program Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
×

Acknowledgments

In the course of preparing its report, the committee held a public information-gathering session on June 13, 2019, to hear presentations from James Brown (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), John Seibert (U.S. Department of Defense), Lisa Sweeney (UES, Inc.), and Kathleen Vork (California Environmental Protection Agency). Desmond Bannon (U.S. Department of Defense) served as the sponsor’s point of contact during the study and facilitated responses to committee requests for written information.

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Mark Cullen, Stanford University, and Michael McCawley, West Virginia University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
ACSL Advanced Continuous Simulation Language
AF absorption fraction
BLL blood lead level
CV coefficient of variation
DoD U.S. Department of Defense
DOEHRS Defense Occupational and Environmental and Health Readiness System
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
GFR glomerular filtration rate
GI gastrointestinal
GSD geometric standard deviation
ITC inhalation transfer coefficient
MATLAB Matrix Laboratory
OEL occupational exposure limit
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Pb lead
PBPK physiologically-based pharmacokinetic
PEL permissible exposure limit
RBC red blood cell
TB tracheo-bronchial
TLV threshold limit value
TWA time-weighted average
µg/dL microgram per deciliter
µg/m3 microgram per cubic meter
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25683.
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Biokinetic modeling provides a mathematical technique for estimating absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of chemicals, including particles and metals, in humans. Such models can be used to relate the amount of lead external exposure to the amount of lead found in the blood and other tissues at different points in time. At the request of the Department of Defense (DoD), Review of the Department of Defense Biokinetic Modeling Approach in Support of Establishing an Airborne Lead Exposure Limit evaluates whether the model used by DoD to derive airborne lead concentrations from blood lead levels is appropriate. This report also considers whether DoD's modifications to the model are appropriately justified, and whether the assumptions in and inputs to the model are reasonable.

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