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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 210 2020 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Passenger Transportation â¢ Terminals and Facilities Innovative Solutions to Facilitate Accessibility for Airport Travelers with Disabilities Laurel Van Horn Eric Lipp Katherine OâReilly Pat Pound Open DOOrs OrganizatiOn Chicago, IL Jens Vange Shane Wirth alliiance Minneapolis, MN Jason Shevrin arOra engineers Chadds Ford, PA Shu Cole inDiana University Bloomington, IN
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 210 Project 01-31 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48109-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2019957419 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research upon which this report is based was performed under ACRP Project 01-31 by Open Doors Organization (ODO). ODO was supported by Alliiance, Arora Engineers, Shu Cole of Indiana University, Steve Wareham of Trillion Aviation, and Rosalie Crabbe of United Airlines. Laurel Van Horn was the prin- cipal investigator and author. The co-authors of the report are Eric Lipp, Katherine OâReilly, and Pat Pound of ODO; Jens Vange and Shane Wirth of Alliiance; Jason Shevrin of Arora Engineers; and Shu Cole of Indiana University. Editorial assistance was provided by Nancy Verrall Warren. The research team would like to thank the airports and other entities that participated in the study: Airports Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Amsterdam, Netherlands BaltimoreâWashington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Baltimore, Maryland CincinnatiâNorthern Kentucky International Airport, Hebron, Kentucky Gerald R. Ford International Airport, Grand Rapids, Michigan Greater Rochester International Airport, Rochester, New York Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, California Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida MinneapolisâSaint Paul International Airport, Minneapolis, Minnesota Orlando International Airport, Orlando, Florida Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, Phoenix, Arizona Rochester International Airport, Rochester, Minnesota San Francisco International Airport, San Francisco SeattleâTacoma International Airport, SeattleâTacoma, Washington Southwest Florida International Airport, Fort Myers, Florida Vancouver International Airport, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Non-Airports Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, Miami, Florida Walt Disney World Resort, Orlando, Florida CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 210 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Megan Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Cassandra Franklin-Barbajosa, Editor ACRP PROJECT 01-31 PANEL Field of Administration Jeannette M. Hilaire, Denver International Airport, Denver, CO (Chair) Rick Belliotti, San Diego International Airport, San Diego, CA Vicki Curtis, The Boeing Company, Stanwood, WA Stuart R. Garrett, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO Craig Leiner, Leiner Aviation, Natick, MA Meg Robertson, Massachusetts Commission for the Blind, Boston, MA William R. Botten, U.S. Access Board Liaison Doug Mullen, Airlines for America Liaison Aneil Patel, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Melissa Sabatine, American Association of Airport Executives Liaison Richard C. Bornhorst, FAA Liaison Lillian Miller, FAA Liaison
ACRP Research Report 210 provides guidance and information to airports and their stakeholders on innovative solutions to facilitate accessibility for passengers with a variety of physical, sensory, and/or cognitive challenges. This guidance is applicable to all types and sizes of airports and includes leveraging digital or physical innovation at passenger touchpoints and throughout the course of the journey, including at remote terminals. The guidance starts with an understanding of the needs of older adults and travelers with disabilities and continues with the various journey segments: from arriving at the airport by ground transportation through Security to gate, disembarkation, terminal exit, and leaving the airport. It also includes architecture and design, as well as information technology and assistive technologies. Airports strive to make their facilities more user-friendly by going beyond compliance to respond to the changing demographics and unique needs of the 21st-century traveler. Air transportation has become a more affordable option for all types of travelers. In addi- tion, travelers have become more independent and willing to travel, regardless of age, dis- ability, or limitations in mobility. The airport industry has adopted specific design codes in response to state and federal regulatory requirementsâincluding the Americans with Disabilities Actâto accommodate employees and travelers with disabilities. These design codes include general architectural guidelines and technology adapted for transporta- tion facilities. Airports need guidance on current and potential innovations, technologies, business practices, and partnerships with stakeholders to better address the needs of passengers who have a variety of physical, sensory, and/or cognitive challenges. Open Doors Organizationâin association with Alliiance, Arora Engineers, Trillion Aviation, and Indiana Universityâled research under ACRP Project 01-31. The research included a thorough literature review and outreach with at least 15 domestic and inter- national airports, as well as focus groups, user needs surveys, and airport case examples. Several non-airportsâincluding a medical establishment, a cruise line, and an entertain- ment resortâwere also reviewed for their applicable practices and technology. Airport Case Study Highlights and the User Needs Survey report can be found at www. trb.org by searching for âACRP Research Report 210.â The Wayfinding Accessibility Audit Checklist can be found at www.trb.org by searching for âACRP Research Report 177.â F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Purpose of the Report 3 1.2 Overview of the Report 4 1.3 Research Approach 7 1.4 Intended Benefits of the Report 8 Chapter 2 Understanding the Needs of Travelers with Disabilities and of Older Adults 8 2.1 Introduction 10 2.2 Disability Travel Market: Open Doors Organization Studies 11 2.3 Disability Definition, Types, and Incidences 13 2.4 User Needs in Aviation 20 2.5 Older Adults 23 Chapter 3 Pretrip Planning 23 3.1 Customer Experience 24 3.2 Access to Information: Web and Mobile Web 31 3.3 Access to Information: Mobile Applications 34 3.4 Access to Information: Interactive Communication 36 3.5 Prebooked Services 37 3.6 Familiarization Programs 39 Chapter 4 Arriving at Airport by Ground Transportation 39 4.1 Customer Experience 40 4.2 Ground Transportation Regulations and Airport Oversight 43 4.3 Public Transportation 45 4.4 Private Transportation 51 4.5 Airport-Provided Transportation 53 4.6 Adjacent and Remote Parking 54 4.7 Rental Car Facilities 55 4.8 Remote Baggage Check-In and Delivery 56 4.9 Assistance from Arrival Point 61 Chapter 5 From Terminal Curbside Through Security 61 5.1 Customer Experience 62 5.2 Assistance Services 67 5.3 Access to Information 71 5.4 Check-In and Bag Drop 76 5.5 Pre-Security Amenities 77 5.6 Airport Mobility Devices 81 5.7 Moving from Terminal Entrance to Security 82 5.8 Security Screening Process and Technology C O N T E N T S
88 Chapter 6 From Security Checkpoint to Gate and from Gate to Gate 88 6.1 Customer Experience 89 6.2 Moving from Security to the Gate 94 6.3 Access to Assistance 94 6.4 Access to Information 97 6.5 New Concourse Concessions, Amenities, and Services 104 6.6 Separate Hold Rooms for Assisted Customers 105 6.7 Hold Room and Furniture Design 108 6.8 Concourse Design for Travelers Who Are Blind or Who Have Low Vision 109 6.9 Emergencies and Irregular Operations 111 Chapter 7 BoardingâDisembarking and Stowing âRetrieving Assistive Devices 111 7.1 Customer Experience 111 7.2 Access to Information: Assistive Devices 112 7.3 Moving to and from the Plane 113 7.4 Means of Access/Boarding Equipment 115 7.5 Innovations in Boarding and Disembarking 121 7.6 Traveling with an Assistive Device 122 7.7 Specialized Equipment for Stowing and Retrieving Assistive Devices 125 Chapter 8 From Arrival Gate to Terminal Exit and Interterminal Connections 125 8.1 Customer Experience 125 8.2 Access to Information 126 8.3 Access to Assistance 127 8.4 Customs and Border Protection 129 8.5 Ground Handling 129 8.6 Baggage Claim 130 8.7 Concessions, Amenities, and Services 131 8.8 Moving Between Terminals 132 Chapter 9 From Terminal Exit to Leaving the Airport 132 9.1 Customer Experience 132 9.2 Moving to the Departure Point 133 9.3 Ground Transportation Waiting Areas 134 9.4 Access to Information 134 9.5 Access to Assistance 135 Chapter 10 Management Practices 135 10.1 Introduction and Overview 137 10.2 Role of Senior Management in Fostering Inclusion and Accessibility 138 10.3 Measuring the CostsâBenefits of Inclusion 138 10.4 Regulatory Requirements Under Americans with Disabilities Act Section 504 140 10.5 Americans with Disabilities Act Section 504 Coordinator Tasks and Duties 141 10.6 Airport Accessibility Committees 143 10.7 Self-Evaluation 143 10.8 Training 144 10.9 Planning for Emergencies and Irregular Operations 145 10.10 Fostering Innovation
146 Chapter 11 Architecture and Design 146 11.1 Accessibility Design Versus Universal Design 156 11.2 Impact of Current Trends in RenovationâConstruction and Layout on Accessibility 159 11.3 Other Considerations 165 11.4 New Accessible Amenities 169 11.5 Looking to the Future 170 Chapter 12 Information Technology and Assistive Technologies 170 12.1 Biometrics and People-Processing Technologies 176 12.2 Navigation Pads for Accessible Self-Service Kiosks 178 12.3 Wayfinding Assistance: New Technologies 182 12.4 Personal, Assistive, and Communicative Technologies 183 12.5 Service-Provider Software 185 12.6 Third Age Suit: Design Tool for Older Adults 187 References and Bibliography 194 Glossary 196 Acronyms Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.