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Valuing Wildlife Crossings and Enhancements for Mitigation Credits 49 6.0 REFERENCES Adriaensen, F., J.P. Chardon, G. De Blust, E. Swinnen, S. Villalba, H. Gulinck, and E. Matthysen. 2003. “The Application of ‘Least-Cost’ Modeling as a Functional Landscape Model.” Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 64, No. 4, pp. 233–247. Ament, R., A. Clevenger, A. Kociolek, T. Allen, M. Blank, R. Callahan, M. McClure, and S. Williams. 2015. Development of Sustainable Strategies Supporting Transportation Planning and Conservation Priorities Across the West. Report prepared for Federal Highway Administration, pursuant to Cooperative Agreement DTFH61-13-H-00005. August 28, 2015. Ament, R., P. McGowen, M. McClure, A. Rutherford, C. Ellis, and J. Grebenc. 2014. Highway Mitigation for Wildlife in Northwest Montana, Estimating the Impacts of Exurban Growth and Traffic Demand on Grizzly Bears and Other Key Wildlife Species. Sonoran Institute, Northern Rockies Office, Bozeman, MT. 84 pp. Ament, R., and R. Callahan. 2019. “Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (Fast) Act & Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21) – Synopsis of Wildlife Provisions.” Center for Large Landscape Conservation. http://largelandscapes.org/wp- content/uploads/2019/06/FAST_Act_MAP- 21_Synopsis_of_Wildlife_Funding_Provisions_FINAL.pdf (As of May 28, 2019). Anderson, M., and M. Clark. 2012. Modeling Landscape Permeability: A Description of Two Methods to Model Landscape Permeability. The Nature Conservancy-Eastern Conservation Science. https://www.conservationgateway.org/ConservationByGeography/NorthAmerica/UnitedStates/ed c/Documents/ModelingLandscapePermeability.pdf (As of May 28, 2019). Andis, A.Z., M.P. Huijser, and L. Broberg. 2017. “Performance of Arch-Style Crossing Structures from Relative Movement Rates of Large Mammals.” Frontiers of Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 5 pp. 122. DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2017.00122. ARC Solutions. 2017. Highway Crossing Structures for Wildlife: Benefits of a National Commitment to Increase Driver and Animal Safety. ARC Special Publication Vol. 1, No. 1, 20 pp. https://largelandscapes.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/ARC-Special_Publication- Highway_Crossing_Structures_for_Wildlife.pdf (As of July 8, 2019). Arizona Game and Fish Department. 2019. Personal communication between S. Sprague and K. Knuston, Arizona Game and Fish Department wildlife biologists, and Louis Berger staff, regarding efforts to value wildlife crossings and other connectivity enhancements. May 30, 2019. Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 2012. Teaming with Wildlife Committee, State Wildlife Action Plan (Swap) Best Practices Working Group. Best Practices for State Wildlife Action Plans— Voluntary Guidance to States for Revision and Implementation. Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, Washington, D.C. https://www.fishwildlife.org/application/files/3215/1856/0300/SWAP_Best_Practices_Report_N ov_2012.pdf

Valuing Wildlife Crossings and Enhancements for Mitigation Credits 50 Austin, J., K. Viani, and F. Hammond. 2006. Vermont Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis: A GIS-Based, Landscape-Level Identification of Potentially Significant Wildlife Linkage Habitats Associated with State of Vermont Roadways. Vermont Agency of Transportation, Montpelier, VT. Vermont Department of Transportation Research Advisory Council No. RSCH008-967. http://www.aot.state.vt.us/documents/archivedresearch/2006%20- %20MAY%20Vermont%20Wildlife%20Linkage%20Habitat%20Analysis.pdf (As of June 3, 2019). Bager, A., and C. da Rosa. 2011. “Influence of Sampling Effort on the Estimated Richness of Road- Killed Vertebrate Wildlife.” Environmental Management, Vol. 47, pp. 851–858. Baigas, P.E., J.R. Squires, L.E. Olson, and J.S. Ivan. 2017. “Using Environmental Features to Model Highway Crossing Behavior of Canada Lynx in the Southern Rocky Mountains.” Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 157, pp. 200–213. Bardi, E., M.T. Brown, K.C. Reiss, and M.J. Cohen. 2004. UMAM, Uniform Mitigation Assessment Method Training Manual. Web-based training manual for Chapter 62-345 FAC for wetlands permitting. Prepared by the Center for Wetlands, University of Florida. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, FL. http://sfrc.ufl.edu/ecohydrology/UMAM_Training_Manual_ppt.pdf (As of June 3, 2019). Barnum, S.A. 2003. Identifying the Best Locations Along Highways to Provide Safe Crossing Opportunities for Wildlife. Colorado Department of Transportation Research Branch, Report No. CDOT-DTD-UCD-2003-9. August 2003. Bateman, I.J., and K.G. Willis. 2001. Valuing Environmental Preferences: Theory and Practice of the Contingent Valuation Method in the US, EU, and Developing Countries. Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003. https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/0199248915.001.0001/acprof-9780199248919 (As of June 3, 2019). Beatley, T. 1992. “Balancing Urban Development and Endangered Species: The Coachella Valley Habitat Conservation Plan.” Environmental Management, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 7–9. Beier, P., D.R. Majka, and S.J. Newell. 2009. “Uncertainty Analysis of Least-Cost Modeling for Designing Wildlife Linkages.” Ecological Applications, Vol. 9, No. 8, pp. 2067–2077. Beier, P., D.R. Majka, and W.D. Spencer. 2008. “Forks in the Road: Choices in Procedures for Designing Wildland Linkages.” Conservation Biology, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 836–851. Beier, P., D.R. Majka, J. Jenness, B. Brost, and E. Garding. 2007. CorridorDesign – What to Connect: Prioritizing Potential Linkages. http://corridordesign.org/designing_corridors/pre_modeling/prioritizing_linkages (As of May 28, 2019). Beier, P., K. Penrod, C. Luke, W. Spencer, and C. Cabañero. 2005. South Coast Missing Linkages: Restoring Connectivity to Wildlands in the Largest Metropolitan Area in the United States. Invited Chapter in K. R. Crooks and M. A. Sanjayan, editors. Connectivity and Conservation, Cambridge University Press. Bennett, G., M. Gallant, and K. Kate. 2017. State of Biodiversity Mitigation 2017, Markets and Compensation for Global Infrastructure Development. Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace, Washington, D.C.

Valuing Wildlife Crossings and Enhancements for Mitigation Credits 51 Benz, R.A., M.S. Boyce, H. Thurfjell, D.G. Paton, M. Musiani, C.F. Dormann, and S. Ciuti. 2016. “Dispersal Ecology Informs Design of Large‐Scale Wildlife Corridors.” PLoS ONE, Vol.11, e0162989. Beringer, J.J., S.G. Siebert, and M.R. Pelton. 1990. “Incidence of Road Crossing by Black Bears on Pisgah National Forest, North Carolina.” International Conference on Bear Research and Management. Vol. 8, pp. 85–92. Bissonette, J.A., P.C. Cramer, S. Rosa, and C. O’Brien. 2008a. Evaluation of the Use and Effectiveness of Wildlife Crossings. Prepared by J.A. Bissonette and P.C. Cramer, for the National Cooperative Highway Research Program Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, Washington, D.C. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/archive/NotesDocs/25-27_FR.pdf (As of July 8, 2019). Bissonette, J.A., C.A. Kassar, and L.J. Cook. 2008b. “Assessment of Costs Associated with Deer-Vehicle Collisions: Human Death and Injury, Vehicle Damage, and Deer Loss.” Human-Wildlife Conflicts, Vol. 2, pp. 17–27. Blaine, T.W., and T. Smith. 2006. “From Water Quality to Riparian Corridors: Assessing Willingness to Pay for Conservation Easements Using the Contingent Valuation Method.” Journal of Extension Vol. 44 No. 2. https://joe.org/joe/2006april/a7.php (As of June 3, 2019). Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Inc. 1999. California Life-Cycle Benefit/Cost Analysis Model (Cal-B/C) – User’s Guide. Prepared for the California Department of Transportation. https://www.scribd.com/document/52744718/California-Life-Cycle-Benefit-Cost-Analysis- Model-Cal-BC-1999 Breck, A., J.J. Fijalkowski, and B. McKenna. 2015. PEL Benefits: Measuring the Benefits of Planning and Environmental Linkages. Publication No. FHWA-HEP-16-022. October 2015. https://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/env_initiatives/pel/PEL_Benefits_report.aspx (As of December 11, 2019). Brown, J.W. 2006. Eco-Logical: An Ecosystem Approach to Developing Infrastructure Projects. Prepared by the U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA. Report No. FHWA-HEP-06-011. https://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/env_initiatives/eco-logical/report/ecological.pdf (As of June 10, 2019). Caltrans (California Department of Transportation). 2019. Personal communication between S. Kirkham, L. Vivian, C. Pincetich, and C. Oliveri, Caltrans wildlife biologists and transportation planners, and Louis Berger staff, regarding efforts to value wildlife crossings and other connectivity enhancements. August 3, 2019. Caltrans. 2018. Advance Mitigation Program, Draft Formal Guidelines. Version 0.0., November 2018. https://dot.ca.gov/-/media/dot-media/programs/environmental-analysis/documents/amp-draft- formal-guidelines-a11y.pdf (As of July 8, 2019). Caltrans. 2009. Wildlife Crossings Guidance Manual. Prepared by Meese, R.J., F.M. Shilling, and J.F. Quinn for the California Department of Transportation. March 2009. https://roadecology.ucdavis.edu/files/content/projects/CA_Wildlife%20Crossings%20Guidance_ Manual.pdf (As of May 28, 2019).

Valuing Wildlife Crossings and Enhancements for Mitigation Credits 52 Caltrans and CDFW (California Department of Transportation and California Department of Fish and Wildlife). 2017. Laurel Curve Wildlife Habitat Connectivity Project, Credit Agreement. 15 pp., three attachments. http://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=142107 (As of July 8, 2019). Carr, L.W. and L. Fahrig. 2001. “Effect of Road Traffic on Two Amphibian Species of Differing Vagility.” Conservation Biology, Vol. 15, pp. 1071–78. CDFW. 2019a. Personal Communication between A. Amacher, A. Olson, S. Lucas, and P. Prentice, CDFW wildlife biologists, and Louis Berger staff, regarding efforts to value wildlife crossings and other connectivity enhancements. May 9, 2019. CDFW. 2019b. Draft Mitigation Credit Agreement Guidelines and Template for Public Review. April 2019. https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=172799&inline (As of December 20, 201). CDFW. 2018. Regional Conservation Investment Strategies Program Guidelines. September 2018. https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=161193&inline (As of May 28, 2019). CDFW. 2017. “State Agencies Pilot Wildlife Crossing Mitigation Credit System.” Press Release. April 20, 2017. https://cdfgnews.wordpress.com/2017/04/20/state-agencies-pilot-wildlife-crossing- mitigation-credit-system/ (As of December 20, 2019). CDOT. 2019. Personal Communication between J. Peterson and T. Cady, wildlife biologists, and Louis Berger staff, regarding efforts to value wildlife crossings and other connectivity enhancements. May 23, 2019, and May 24, 2019. CDOT, FHWA, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, USDA Forest Service, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, and Colorado Department of Parks and Wildlife. 2008. ALIVE Memorandum of Understanding among the Colorado Department of Transportation, FHWA, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, The USDA Forest Service, US Bureau of Land Management, and Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife. https://www.codot.gov/projects/contextsensitivesolutions/docs/plans/alivemou.pdf (As of July 8, 2019). Charry, B., and J. Jones. 2009. “Traffic Volume as a Primary Road Characteristic Impacting Wildlife: A Tool for Land Use and Transportation Planning.” In Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. Center for Transportation and the Environment, Duluth, MN. 159–172 pp. August 29–September 2, 2009. City of Austin and Travis County. 1996. Balcones Canyonlands Preserve Habitat Conservation Plan and Final Environmental Impact Statement. March 1996. https://www.traviscountytx.gov/images/tnr/Docs/Habitat_Conservation_Plan_Final_Environment _Impact_Statement.pdf (As of July 19, 2013). Clevenger, A.P. 2005. “Conservation Value of Wildlife Crossings: Measures of Performance and Research Directions.” GAIA, Vol. 14, No. 2), pp. 124–129. Clevenger A.P., B. Chruszczc, and K.E. Gunson. 2003 “Spatial Patterns and Factors Influencing Small Vertebrate Fauna Road-Kill Aggregations.” Biological Conservation, Vol. 109, pp. 15–26. Clevenger, A.P., and M.P. Huijser. 2011. Wildlife Crossing Structure Handbook, Design and Evaluation in North America. Publication No. FHWA-CFL/TD-11-003. Department of Transportation, FHWA, Washington D.C.

Valuing Wildlife Crossings and Enhancements for Mitigation Credits 53 Clevenger, A.P., and M. Sawaya. 2009. “A Non-Invasive Genetic Sampling Method for Measuring Population-Level Benefits of Wildlife Crossings for Bears in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.” Ecology and Society, Vol. 15, No. 1, p. 7. Clevenger, A.P., and N. Waltho. 2000. “Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Wildlife Underpasses in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.” Conservation Biology, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 47–56. Coe, P.K., R.M. Nielson, D.H. Jackson, J.B. Cupples, N.E. Seidel, B.K. Johnson, S.C. Gregory, G.A. Bjornstrom, A.N. Larkins, and D.A. Speten. 2015. “Identifying Migration Corridors of Mule Deer Threatened by Highway Development.” Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 39, pp. 256–267. Costa, A.S., F. Ascensaoa, and A. Bager. 2015. “Mixed Sampling Protocols Improve the Cost- Effectiveness of Roadkill Surveys.” Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 24, No. 12, pp. 2953– 2965. Costanza, R., R. d’Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farberk, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R.V. O’Neill, J. Paruelo, R.G. Raskin, P. Sutton, and M. van den Belt. 1997. “The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital.” Nature, Vol. 387, pp. 253–260. Cramer, P. 2017. How to Win at Saving Wildlife and Making Roads Safer. Colorado Wildlife Summit. June 2017. https://www.codot.gov/programs/environmental/wildlife/wildlife-transportation- summit/assets/2017-documents/patricia-cramer-making-safer-roads.pdf Cramer, P.C., and C. McGinty. 2018. Prioritization of Wildlife-Vehicle Conflict in Nevada. NDOT Research Report, Report No. 604-16-803. Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City, NV. Cramer, P.C., and J.A. Bissonette. 2005. “Wildlife Crossings in North America: The State of the Science and Practice.” In Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation. Center for Transportation and the Environment. Lake Placid, NY. pp. 442–447. August 29– September 2, 2003. Cramer, P.C., J. Kintsch, K. Gunson, F. Shilling, C. Chapman. 2016. Reducing Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions in South Dakota. Final Report to South Dakota Department of Transportation, SD2014-03. Pierre, SD. Cramer P.C., S. Gifford, B. Crabb, C. McGinty, D. Ramsey, F. Shilling, J. Kintsch, S. Jacobson, and K. Gunson. 2014. Methodology for Prioritizing Appropriate Mitigation Actions to Reduce Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions on Idaho Highways. Idaho Transportation Department, Boise, Idaho. August 2014. Cramer, P.C., and R. Hamlin. 2016. Evaluation of Wildlife Crossing Structures on US 93 in Montana’s Bitterroot Valley. Montana Department of Transportation Report No. FHWA/MT-17-003/8194. Helena, MT. Crooks, K., C. Haas, S. Baruch-Mordo, K. Middledorf, S. Magle, T. Shenk, K. Wilson, and D. Theobald. 2008. Roads and Connectivity in Colorado: Animal-Vehicle Collisions, Wildlife Mitigation Structures, and Lynx-Roadway Interactions. Research Report No. CDOT-2008-4. Colorado Department of Transportation, Denver, CO. 175 pp.

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There is mounting evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of wildlife overpasses and underpasses in improving motorist safety and conserving wildlife.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Web-Only Document 280: Valuing Wildlife Crossings and Enhancements for Mitigation Credits synthesizes current practices used by state DOTs and their partners for calculating and applying mitigation credits for wildlife crossings and other connectivity enhancements that provide safe passage for wildlife across highways.

Accompanying the report is a Power Point presentation entitled, "Valuing Wildlife Crossings and Enhancements for Mitigation Credits."

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