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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Health-Focused Public–Private Partnerships in the Urban Context: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25790.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Health-Focused Public–Private Partnerships in the Urban Context: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25790.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Health-Focused Public–Private Partnerships in the Urban Context: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25790.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Health-Focused Public–Private Partnerships in the Urban Context PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Joe Alper, Liza Hamilton, and Claire Moerder, Rapporteurs Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety Board on Global Health Health and Medicine Division PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by AB InBev Foundation; Becton, Dickinson and Company; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Catholic Health Association of the United States; ExxonMobil; Global Health Innovative Technology Fund; Intel Corporation; Johnson & Johnson; Medtronic; Merck & Co., Inc.; Novartis Founda- tion; PATH; PepsiCo, Inc.; Procter & Gamble Company; Safaricom; United Nations Foundation; University of Notre Dame; UPS Foundation; U.S. Agency for Inter- national Development; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and U.S. Department of State. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organiza- tion or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25790 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. ­ 2020. Health-focused public–private partnerships in the urban context: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi. org/10.17226/25790. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institu- tion to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON HEALTH-FOCUSED PUBLIC– PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS IN THE URBAN CONTEXT1 ANN AERTS (Co-Chair), Head, Novartis Foundation JO IVEY BOUFFORD (Co-Chair), Immediate Past President, The New York Academy of Medicine; Clinical Professor of Global Health, College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York CHRISTIAN ACEMAH, Executive Director, Uganda National Academy of Sciences SIMON BLAND, Director, New York Liaison Office, UNAIDS ALLISON GOLDBERG, Executive Director, AB InBev Foundation CLARION JOHNSON, Independent Consultant, ExxonMobil REBECCA MARTIN, Director, Center for Global Health, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WILLIAM B. ROUSE, Professor, School of Systems and Enterprises, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey SHAWN STANDRIDGE, Corporate Medical Director, Procter & Gamble Company DAVID VLAHOV, Associate Dean for Research and Professor, School of Nursing, Yale University, Orange, Connecticut Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety Staff LIZA HAMILTON, Program Officer KATHERINE PEREZ, Research Associate CLAIRE MOERDER, Research Assistant JULIE PAVLIN, Senior Director, Board on Global Health Consultant JOE ALPER, Writer 1  The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning commit- tees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing s ­ peakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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FORUM ON PUBLIC–PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR GLOBAL HEALTH AND SAFETY1 JO IVEY BOUFFORD (Co-Chair), Immediate Past President, The New York Academy of Medicine; Clinical Professor of Global Health, College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York CLARION JOHNSON (Co-Chair), Private Consultant, ExxonMobil ANN AERTS, Head, Novartis Foundation SIR GEORGE ALLEYNE, Director Emeritus, Pan American Health Organization; Chancellor Emeritus, The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica NATASHA BILIMORIA, Director, U.S. Strategy, Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance SIMON BLAND, Chief Executive Officer, Global Institute for Disease Elimination CARA BRADLEY, Chief Corporate-Engagement Officer, PATH STEPHEN CHEGE, Director, Corporate Affairs, Safaricom ROBERT CLAY, Vice President, Save the Children BRENDA D. COLATRELLA, Associate Vice President, Corporate Responsibility, Merck & Co., Inc.; President, Merck Foundation BRUCE COMPTON, Senior Director of International Outreach, Catholic Health Association of the United States KATE DODSON, Vice President for Global Health Strategy, United Nations Foundation RENUKA GADDE, Vice President, Global Health, Becton, Dickinson and Company ROGER GLASS, Director, Fogarty International Center ALLISON GOLDBERG, Executive Director, AB InBev Foundation JESSICA HERZSTEIN, Preventive Medicine Specialist JAMES JONES, Executive Director, ExxonMobil Foundation SEEMA KUMAR, Vice President, Innovation, Global Health, and Science Policy Communication, Johnson & Johnson REBECCA MARTIN, Director, Center for Global Health, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EDUARDO MARTINEZ, President, UPS Foundation; Chief Diversity and Inclusion Officer, UPS 1  The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and round- tables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the pub- lished Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

JOHN MONAHAN, Senior Fellow, McCourt School of Public Policy, and Senior Advisor to the President, Georgetown University, Washington, DC GABRIELLA MORRIS, Senior Vice President of Strategic Partnerships, U.S. Fund for UNICEF ANDRIN OSWALD, Director, Life Sciences Partnerships, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation REGINA RABINOVICH, ExxonMobil Malaria Scholar in Residence, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts SCOTT C. RATZAN, Senior Scholar, Graduate School of Public Health & Health Policy, City University of New York, New York, New York SHAWN STANDRIDGE, Corporate Medical Director, Procter & Gamble Company KATHERINE TAYLOR, Associate Director and Director, Global Health Training, Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana TADATAKA “TACHI” YAMADA, Venture Partner, Frazier Healthcare Partners Health and Medicine Division Project Staff LIZA HAMILTON, Program Officer KATHERINE PEREZ, Research Associate CLAIRE MOERDER, Research Assistant JULIE PAVLIN, Senior Director, Board on Global Health viii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical com- ments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectiv- ity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: JOHN T. MONAHAN, McCourt School of Public Policy, Georgetown University T. ANDREW WILSON, PATH Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by HUGH TILSON, Univer- sity of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. ix PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Contents ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xv 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Organization of the Proceedings, 3 2 CITIES AND PLANETARY HEALTH: WHY URBAN ISSUES MATTER 7 The Role of Cities in Planetary Health, 8 Determinants of Urban Health and Health Inequities, 13 Opportunities and Challenges for Promoting Urban Health, 18 Discussion, 23 3 EVIDENCE AND CHALLENGES FOR URBAN HEALTH INITIATIVES IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 29 The Contemporary Urban Moment and Its Implications for Global Health, 30 Effects of Urbanization and Urban Planning on Health, 33 Designing Public Spaces for Healthier Lives, 37 Health-Focused Urban and Terrestrial Planning, 39 Discussion, 40 xi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xii CONTENTS 4 IDENTIFYING AND ADDRESSING HEALTH INEQUITIES IN URBAN SETTINGS 43 Identifying and Addressing Health Inequities in the Cities Changing Diabetes Initiative, 44 Community Health: Improving Health for All, 47 Better Hearts Better Cities, 49 Discussion, 51 5 EFFECT OF FOOD, AGRICULTURE, AND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS ON URBAN POPULATION HEALTH 53 The Global Syndemic of Obesity, Undernutrition, and Climate Change, 54 Potential Transportation Solutions, 56 The Effect of Transportation Systems on the Health of Urban Populations: Evidence from Latin America, 58 Discussion, 59 6 HOW DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CAN HELP IMPROVE URBAN HEALTH 61 Can Smart Cities Deliver Meaningful Health Benefits?, 62 Intelligent Technologies for Urban Disabled and Older Adults, 63 Artificial Intelligence in Global, Urban Health, 67 Discussion, 70 Key Points from the Day’s Discussions, 72 7 POLITICAL LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE OF PUBLIC–PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR URBAN HEALTH 73 Corporate Governance and Partnership: The Cities Changing Diabetes Initiative, 74 Discussion, 77 Leadership to Transform Global Goals into Local Action and Partnerships, 79 Is Health a Political Choice?, 83 Discussion, 84 Final Thoughts, 87 REFERENCES 89 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 95 B Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers 101 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Figures and Table FIGURES 1-1 Broad determinants of health that could be addressed to make cities healthier, 3 2-1 A conceptual framework for the urban determinants of health, 14 2-2 Free rehabilitated housing and $3–$5 million luxury apartments in the same redevelopment area in Mumbai, India, 17 2-3 Historical and projected trajectories for the urbanization of humanity, 19 2-4 Avoidable mortalities in small areas of 15 European cities, 20 2-5 The factors that contribute to health inequalities across urban neighborhoods, 21 3-1 The link between policies on urban planning and human health, 34 3-2 The superblock construct routes through traffic around a multi-block area and reduces pollution and noise, 35 3-3 Bicycle usage versus distance of available cycling lanes for European cities, 36 3-4 Population centers and green spaces in metropolitan New York, 38 3-5 Map of the Community Parks Initiative, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, 39 xiii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xiv FIGURES AND TABLE 4-1 The World Health Organization’s Health in All Policies framework, 45 4-2 The Rule of Halves and its role in preventing, managing, and treating diabetes, 46 5-1 The systems and drivers of the global syndemic of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change, 55 6-1 Performance versus trust of artificial intelligence, 65 6-2 Projected annual revenues from selling self-driving cars and selling services that use self-driving cars, 65 6-3 Projected annual savings from deploying self-driving cars to assist disabled and older adults, 66 6-4 Artificial intelligence building blocks, with those of greatest relevance to global health outlined in gold, 69 7-1 Bending the curve on diabetes, 75 7-2 Health outcomes versus health spending per head, 80 7-3 The proportion of people who have a family physician and of those who do not, 82 7-4 The number of prescriptions written and dispensed for antidepressants and antianxiety drugs, 83 TABLE 2-1 Possible Health Consequences of City Living, 20 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Acronyms and Abbreviations AI artificial intelligence CBO community benefit organization CDC U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention DALY disability-adjusted life year EHR electronic health record GDP gross domestic product NGO nongovernmental organization PPP public–private partnership SDG Sustainable Development Goal UN United Nations UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division USAID U.S. Agency for International Development WHO World Health Organization xv PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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To draw attention to health determinants and health inequities among populations that live in urban environments and to explore challenges faced in establishing urban population health, the Forum on Public-Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety hosted a 1.5-day workshop on the role of health-focused public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the urban context. The workshop, held June 13-14, 2019, in Washington, DC, aimed to illuminate some of the intervention strategies that have been designed to attenuate these urban health issues and highlighted the importance of PPPs and urban-level governance in remediation efforts. By facilitating discussion among participants in both the public and private sectors, as well as among policy makers, the workshop served as a platform to share best practices on how to address health challenges through interventions that target healthier urban populations. This publication highlights the presentations and discussion of the workshop.

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