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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25830.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25830.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25830.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25830.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25830.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25830.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25830.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25830.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25830.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25830.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25830.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25830.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy – Subject to Further Editorial Correction ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES DIRECTORATE AT THE ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE Panel on Review of Extramural Basic Research at the Army Research Laboratory Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board Laboratory Assessments Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract No. W911QX-14-C-0039 from the Army Research Laboratory. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: xxx International Standard Book Number-10: xxx Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25830 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Assessment of the Physical Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25830. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

PANEL ON REVIEW OF EXTRAMURAL BASIC RESEARCH AT THE ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY DAVID A. WEITZ, NAS1/NAE,2 Harvard University, Chair RICHARD C. ALKIRE, NAE, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign ROBERT H. AUSTIN, NAS, Princeton University BART M. BARTLETT, University of Michigan JEF D. BOEKE, NAS, New York University Langone Health JAMES R. BROCKMOLE, University of Notre Dame PAUL M. CHAIKIN, NAS, New York University CHARLES W. CLARK, National Institute of Standards and Technology VINCENT P. CONTICELLO, Emory University BARBARA A. DOSHER, NAS, University of California, Irvine MIGUEL A. GARCIA-GARIBAY, University of California, Los Angeles RACHEL S. GOLDMAN, University of Michigan SUSAN GOTTESMAN, NAS, National Institutes of Health WILLIAM R. JACOBS, JR., NAS, Albert Einstein College of Medicine JERRY A. KRILL, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory FRANCES S. LIGLER, NAE, North Carolina State University/University of North Carolina LAURIE E. LOCASCIO, University of Maryland WILLIAM S. MARRAS, NAE, Ohio State University PIERRE MEYSTRE, University of Arizona PETER B. MOORE, NAS, Yale University PAUL F. NEALEY, NAE, University of Chicago C. KUMAR N. PATEL, NAS/NAE, Pranalytica, Inc. MICHAEL V. ROMALIS, Princeton University PATRICK H. VACCARO, Yale University XIAOYANG ZHU, Columbia University Staff AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator JAMES P. MCGEE, Director ARUL MOZHI, Senior Program Officer 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT BOARD JENNIE S. HWANG, NAE,1 Case Western Reserve University; H-Technologies Group, Chair FREDERICK R. CHANG, NAE, Southern Methodist University MARK EBERHART, Colorado School of Mines PRABHAT HAJELA, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute WESLEY L. HARRIS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology WILLIAM S. MARRAS, NAE, Ohio State University DANIEL A. REED, University of Utah LESLIE E. SMITH, National Institute of Standards and Technology (Emeritus) DAVID A. WEITZ, NAS2/NAE, Harvard University Staff AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator JAMES P. MCGEE, Director ARUL MOZHI, Senior Program Officer 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

LABORATORY ASSESSMENTS BOARD ROSS B. COROTIS, NAE,1 University of Colorado, Boulder, Chair WESLEY L. HARRIS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JENNIE S. HWANG, NAE, Case Western Reserve University; H-Technologies Group W. CARL LINEBERGER, NAS,2 JILA,3 University of Colorado, Boulder C. KUMAR N. PATEL, NAS/NAE, University of California, Los Angeles; Pranalytica, Inc. ELSA REICHMANIS, NAE, Georgia Institute of Technology LYLE H. SCHWARTZ, NAE, University of South Florida, Tampa Staff AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator JAMES P. MCGEE, Director ARUL MOZHI, Senior Program Officer MARTIN OFFUTT, Senior Program Officer 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 3 JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is a physical science research institute located on the University of Colorado, Boulder, campus. JILA is jointly operated by the University of Colorado and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Louis E. Brus, NAS,1 Columbia University, Robert H. Crabtree, NAS, Yale University, Dennis E. Discher, NAE2/NAM,3 University of Pennsylvania, Russell J. Hemley, NAS, University of Illinois at Chicago, Richard M. Losick, NAS, Harvard University, Tom C. Lubensky, NAS, University of Pennsylvania and John A. Montgomery, NAE, Granite Falls, North Carolina. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Michael R. Ladisch, NAE, Purdue University. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 3 Member, National Academy of Medicine. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 9 Programs Within the Physical Sciences Directorate, 9 Approach to the Assessment, 10 Assessment Criteria, 11 Report Content, 12 2 PHYSICS DIVISION 13 Atomic and Molecular Physics Program, 13 Condensed Matter Physics Program, 15 Quantum Information Science Program, 17 Optical Physics and Fields Program, 18 Overall Assessment of the Physics Division, 20 3 CHEMICAL SCIENCES DIVISION 22 Reactive Chemical Systems Program, 22 Electrochemistry Program, 24 Molecular Structure and Dynamics Program, 26 Polymer Chemistry Program, 27 Overall Assessment of the Chemical Sciences Division, 29 4 LIFE SCIENCES DIVISION 31 Biochemistry Program, 31 Genetics Program, 33 Microbiology Program, 35 Neurophysiology and Cognition Program, 37 Social and Behavioral Sciences Program, 38 Overall Assessment of the Life Sciences Division, 39 5 CROSSCUTTING RECOMMENDATIONS 41 APPENDIXES A Possible Metrics for Assessment of Program and Project Accomplishments and Plans 45 B Acronyms 47 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

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This report summarizes the 2019 findings of the Panel on Review of Extramural Basic Research at the Army Research Laboratory, which reviewed the programs at the Army Research Office’s Physical Sciences Directorate.

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