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Suggested Citation:"Appendix: Disclosure of Unavoidable Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science: Options for the Fifth New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25868.
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Appendix Disclosure of Unavoidable Conflict of Interest The conflict-of-interest policy of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine ( prohibits the appointment of an individual to a committee like the one that authored this Consensus Study Report if the individual has a conflict of interest that is relevant to the task to be performed. An exception to this prohibition is permitted only if the National Academies determine that the conflict is unavoidable and the conflict is promptly and publicly disclosed. A determination that an individual has a conflict of interest is not an assessment of that individual’s actual behavior or character or ability to act objectively despite the conflicting interest. The committee concluded that an issue exists concerning one member of the committee, Clive Neal, who has announced the intention of proposing a mission concept in response the Lunar Geophysical Network mission theme if it appears in the New Frontiers 5 announcement of opportunity. Direct involvement with one of the mission targets discussed in the report was judged to be an issue. This potential conflict was discussed with Dr. Neal and the members of the committee. It was generally agreed that the most appropriate action was for Dr. Neal recuse himself from the committee’s deliberations concerning the findings to be contained in the short report. However, it was also agreed that given Dr. Neal’s expertise as a subject-matter expert, it was appropriate for him to contribute to the report’s factual discussion of the science goals to be addressed by a Lunar Geophysical Network. The National Academies determined that the experience and expertise of the individual was needed for the committee to accomplish the task it had been given.. Therefore, the National Academies concluded that the conflict was unavoidable and publicly disclosed it through the National Academies Current Projects System ( PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 24

Report Series: Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science: Options for the Fifth New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity Get This Book
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The Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine is tasked with monitoring the progress in implementation of the recommendations of the most recent planetary science decadal survey, Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. Planetary science decadal surveys evaluate the state of the field, identify the most important scientific questions and themes, and prioritize missions and activities for the decade in question based on scientific merit, technical feasibility, and anticipated cost. The need for careful monitoring is underscored by the fact that some of the decadal survey's recommendations are triggered at specific programmatic decision points. Options for the Fifth New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity addresses one such decision point.

For each of the following four New Frontiers targets: Ocean Worlds, Trojan Tour and Rendezvous, Io Observer and Lunar Geophysical, this report summarizes changes in scientific understanding or external factors since the release of Vision and Voyages or its midterm review and considers whether those changes have been sufficiently substantial to warrant reconsideration of the four targets for inclusion in the New Frontiers 5 announcement of opportunity, scheduled for release in early 2022.

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