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PERFORMANCE-BASED MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC SIGNALS 954 NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT
2020 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 954 Performance-Based Management of Traffic Signals Brandon Nevers Tom Urbanik Kevin Lee Burak Cesme Jennifer Musselman Laura Zhao Kittelson & AssociAtes, inc. Portland, OR Darcy Bullock Howell Li Purdue university West Lafayette, IN Alison Tanaka city of PortlAnd Portland, OR Chris Day iowA stAte university Ames, IA Lucy Richardson Kimley-Horn & AssociAtes Dallas, TX Subscriber Categories Operations and Traffic Management Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 954 Project 03-122 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-67363-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2020949902 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo credit: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In addition to the panel, the project team wishes to thank the following public agency staff who con- tributed insights regarding the cross section of public agency needs related to the management of traffic signal systems: Joanna Bush, Wisconsin Department of Transportation; Alan Davis, Georgia Department of Transportation; Rob Klug, Clark County, Washington; Jim Larsen, Ada County Highway District, Idaho; Ling Li, Virginia Department of Transportation; Steve Misgen, Minnesota Department of Transportation; Shital Patel, Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada; Raj Ponnaluri, Florida Department of Transportation; Martha Styer, Caltrans; Nhan Vu, Virginia Department of Transportation; and Charlie Wetzel, Seminole County, Florida. By providing responses to written surveys and by participating in interviews, these individuals greatly helped the project team develop content that would be useful to a diverse array of agencies. Together, the panel and additional public agency contributors helped make this guidebook vastly more comprehensive and forward-thinking. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 954 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs B. Ray Derr, Senior Program Officer Anthony P. Avery, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Sharon Lamberton, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 03-122 PANEL Field of TrafficâArea of Operations and Control Mark Taylor, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, UT (Chair) Dan Farley, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg, PA Julie Kentosh, Portland Bureau of Transportation, Portland, OR Telma Lightfoot, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort, KY Gil Ramirez, Lassiter Transportation Group, Inc., Melbourne, FL Troy Rother, City of College Station, College Station, TX Philip Rust, City of San Diego, San Diego, CA John Shaw, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI Jim Sturdevant, Indiana Department of Transportation, Indianapolis, IN Eddie Curtis, FHWA Liaison Doug Noble, Institute of Transportation Engineers Liaison Richard Cunard, TRB Liaison
NCHRP Research Report 954 compiles the best available information on automated traffic signal performance measures so that agencies can evaluate whether this performance-based approach would be cost-effective for their system and develop a plan for implementation. This guide and its accompanying data dictionary and communication materials will be useful to system managers, designers, and operators. The performance of the surface transportation system is profoundly affected by the over 400,000 traffic signals across the United States. Ideally, traffic signals should be retimed as needed but retiming projects are often deferred because of cost. Many agen- cies rely primarily on user complaints to identify problems but they can be difficult to substantiate and do not always lead to a resolution of the problem. Several transportation agencies have shown that use of automated traffic signal performance measures (ATSPMs) can identify and help address the issues that contribute to poor signal operations. Many state, county, and local agencies are interested in moving toward performance-based management of their traffic signals but the financial and organizational barriers appear formidable. In NCHRP Project 03-122, âPerformance-Based Management of Traffic Signals,â Kittelson & Associates was tasked with developing guidance for agencies across the spec- trum of resource levels to implement a performance measurement approach to traffic signal management. The research team interviewed agencies that have implemented ATSPMs to identify factors for success and implementation approaches. They then devel- oped use cases and reviewed potential data sources. During the second phase of the project, they developed the guide with care taken to make sure it was applicable to agencies with a wide range of capabilities. They also developed a data dictionary and communica- tion materials. By B. Ray Derr Staff Officer Transportation Research Board F O R E W O R D
1 Focus of the Guidebook 3 Chapter 1 Roadmap to Performance Measures 13 Chapter 2 Performance Measure Selection 27 Chapter 3 Performance Measure Details 121 Chapter 4 System Needs for Performance Measures 151 Chapter 5 Implementation of Performance Measures 191 Chapter 6 Integration into Agency Practice C O N T E N T S