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Utility Pole Safety and Hazard Evaluation Approaches (2020)

Chapter: References and Bibliography

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Page 79
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Utility Pole Safety and Hazard Evaluation Approaches. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25923.
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Page 79
Page 80
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Utility Pole Safety and Hazard Evaluation Approaches. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25923.
×
Page 80
Page 81
Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Utility Pole Safety and Hazard Evaluation Approaches. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25923.
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Page 81

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79 Alberson, D.C., and D.L. Ivey. 1994. “Improved Breakaway Utility Pole, AD-IV.” Transportation Research Record 1468: 84–94. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board (TRB), National Research Council. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). 2016a. Elements of Design, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Traffic Operations, 2016: 3.6.4–4.6.2. AASHTO. 2016b. Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition. Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 2011a. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 6th Edition (Green Book). Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 2011b. Roadside Design Guide, 4th Edition. Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 2009. Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, First Edition. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO. 2005a. A Guide for Accommodating Utilities within Highway Right-of-Way. Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 2005b. A Policy on the Accommodation of Utilities within Freeway Right-of-Way. Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 1977. “Guide for Selecting, Locating and Designing Traffic Barriers.” 77 Barrier Guide. Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 1974. Design and Operational Practices Related to Highway Safety (Yellow Book). Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 1967. Design and Operational Practices Related to Highway Safety (Yellow Book). Washington, DC: AASHTO. Buser, R.P., and C.A. Buser. 1992. “The Breakaway Timber Utility Pole: A Survivable Alternative.” Publication FHWA-SA-92-046. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, September. Carrigan, C.E., and M.H. Ray. 2017. “Consideration of Placement Criteria for Utility Poles to Minimize Crash Risk.” Roadside Safety Design and Hazard Mitigations. TR Circular E-C220: First International Roadside Safety Conference, RoadSafe LLC, June. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/circulars/ec220.pdf. Carrigan, C.E., and M.H. Ray. 2015. “Evidence-Based Roadside Engineering Strategic Plan.” Washington, DC: AASHTO. Carrigan, C.E., and M.H. Ray. 2011. Roadside Safety Analysis Program, Version 3 (RSAP-V3). Distributed with the Roadside Design Guide (AASHTO 2011b). Cleveland, D.E., and R. Kitamura. 1978. “Macroscopic Modeling of Two-Lane Rural Roadside Accidents.” Lansing, MI: University of Michigan, Michigan Department of Transportation (DOT). Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). 2011. “Utilities.” 23 CFR 645.209(k). Washington, DC: CFR, April. Dobrovolny, C.S., S. Shi, and R.P. Bligh. 2018. MASH TL-3 Evaluation of the TxDOT TL-3 Low Profile Barrier for High Speed Applications. FHWA/TX-1810-6968-R1, September. El Esawey, M., and T. Sayed. 2012. “Evaluating safety risk of locating above ground utility structures in the highway right-of-way.” Accident Analysis and Prevention 49: 419–428. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 2016. “Highway Safety Improvement Program Fast Act.” Washington, DC: FHWA, February. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/fastact/factsheets/hsipfs.cfm. FHWA. 2003. “Program Guide: Utility Relocation and Accommodation on Federal-Aid Highway Projects.” Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/reports/utilguid/if03014.pdf. Foedinger, R., J.F. Boozer, M.E. Bronstad, and J.W. Davidson. 2003. “Development of Energy-Absorbing Composite Utility Pole.” Transportation Research Record 1851 (1): 149–157. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3141/1851-15 Fox, J.C., M.C. Good, and P.M. Joubert. 1979. “Collisions with Utility Poles—A Summary Report.” Melbourne, Australia: University of Melbourne, Commonwealth Department of Transport, February. References and Bibliography

80 Utility Pole Safety and Hazard Evaluation Approaches Gabler, C.H., D.J. Gabauer, and W.T. Riddell. 2007. “Breakaway Utility Poles: Feasibility of Energy-Absorbing Utility Pole Installations in New Jersey.” Report No. FHWA-NJ-2007-018. Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT. Georgia DOT. 2018. Utility Accommodation Policy and Standards. Georgia DOT, December. http://www.dot.ga.gov/ PartnerSmart/utilities/Documents/2016_UAM.pdf. Glennon, J.C., and C.J. Wilton (Midwest Research Institute). 1974. “Effectiveness of Roadside Safety Improve- ments.” Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, November. Good, M.C., J.C. Fox, and P.N. Joubert. 1987. “An In-Depth Study of Accidents Involving Collisions with Utility Poles.” Accident Analysis and Prevention 19 (5): 397–413. Melbourne, Australia: Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia, July. Graf, N.L., J.V. Boos, and J.A. Wentworth. 1976. “Single-Vehicle Accidents Involving Utility Poles.” Transportation Research Record 571: 36–43. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/ Onlinepubs/trr/1976/571/571-005.pdf. Graham, J.L., and D.W. Harwood. 1982. “Effectiveness of Clear Recovery Zones.” NCHRP Report 247: 68. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council, May. Griffin, L.I. 1981. “Probability of Driver Injury in Single Vehicle Collisions with Roadway Appurtenances as a Function of Passenger Car Curb Weight.” College Station, TX: Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, October. Guidry, T.R., and W.L. Beason. 1992. “Development of a Low-Profile Portable Concrete Barrier.” Transportation Research Record 1367: 36–46. Harmon, T., G. Bahar, and F. Gross. 2018. Crash Costs for Highway Safety Analysis. Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT. https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/docs/fhwasa17071.pdf. Hehr, C.C. 1995. “The First Installation of Breakaway Timber Utility Poles.” FHWA/TX-95. Washington DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT. March. Horne, D.A. 2001. “Precedents for Action.” In Transportation Research Circular E-C030: Utility Safety: Mobilized for Action and State, City, and Utility Initiatives in Roadside Safety. Washington, DC: TRB, April: 7–10. TRB Committee on Utilities (A2A07), 79th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Hunter, W.W., F.M. Council, A.K. Dutt, and D.G. Cole. 1978. “Methodology for Ranking Roadside Hazard Correction Programs.” Transportation Research Record 672: 1–9. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). 2017. National Electrical Safety Code. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). 2018. “Fatality Facts, 2018.” http://www.iihs.org. IIHS, Highway Loss Data Institute. 2017. “Collisions with Fixed Objects and Animals.” Roadway and Environment. Ivey, D.L. 1991. “The Time Has Come for Utility Pole Safety Programs.” Presented at the National Highway Utilities Conference, Denver, CO, February 1991. Ivey, D.L., M.E. Branstad, and L.I. Griffin III. 1993. “Guardrail End Treatments in the 1990s.” Transportation Research Record 1367: 63–75. Washington, DC: TRB, January. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/ trr/1992/1367/1367-007.pdf. Ivey, D.L., and K.K. Mak. 1989. “Recommended Guidelines for New Utility Installations.” Committee on Utilities, TRB. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council, June 25. Presented at the Symposium on Safety in the Clear Zone and Utility Installations. Ivey, D.L., and J.R. Morgan. 1986. “Timber Pole Safety by Design.” Transportation Research Record 1065: 1–11. Washington, DC: TRB. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/trr/1986/1065/1065.pdf. Ivey, D.L., and J.R. Morgan. 1985. Safer Timber Utility Poles, Vol. 1, FHWA Report FHWA/RD-86/154. College Station, TX: Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University System, June. Ivey, D.L., and P.C. Scott. 2017. “Utility Poles, Toleration or Confrontation.” Submitted to the First International Roadside Safety Conference, San Francisco. Ivey, D.L., and P.C. Scott. 2004. “Utilities and Roadside Safety.” TRB State of the Art Report 9. Washington, DC: TRB, Committee on Utilities. https://pdhonline.com/courses/c273/TRB_Utilities_and_Roadside_Safety.pdf. Ivey, D.L., and P.C. Scott. 2000. “Utility Safety: Mobilized for Action and State, City, and Utility Initiatives in Roadside Safety.” Presentation from the TRB Committee on Utilities (A2A07), 79th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2000. Jinsun, L., and F. Mannering. 2002. “Impact of Roadside Features on the Frequency and Severity of Run-Off- Roadway Accidents: An Empirical Analysis.” Accident Analysis and Prevention 34(2): 149–161. Jones, I.S., and A.S. Baum (Calspan Field Services, Inc.). 1980. “An Analysis of the Urban Utility Pole Problem.” Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, December. Jones, J.G. 2016. “Noteworthy Practices: Roadside Tree and Utility Pole Management.” Report No. FHWA- SA-16-043, Sections 2.3 and 2.3.1. Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, September. https://safety.fhwa.dot. gov/roadway_dept/countermeasures/safe_recovery/clear_zones/fhwasa16043/fhwasa16043.pdf. Lacy, K., R. Srinivasan, C.V. Zegeer, R. Pfefer, T.R. Neuman, K.L. Slack, and K.K. Hardy. 2004. Volume 8: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Utility Poles. NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Washington, DC: NCHRP, TRB.

References and Bibliography 81 Mak, K.K., and R.L. Mason. 1980. “Accident Analysis—Breakaway and Nonbreakaway Poles, Including Sign and Light Standards Along Highways.” Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, August. Marquis, B. 2001. “Utility Pole Crash Modeling.” Maine DOT, February. Mattox, T.B. 2007. “Evaluation of Roadside Collisions with Utility Poles and Trees at Intersection Locations.” Georgia Tech: Master’s Thesis, January. https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/19829/mattox_ todd_b_200712_mast.pdf. McCoy, P.T., H.T. Hsueh, and E.R. Post. 1981. “Methodology for Evaluation of Safety Improvement Alternatives for Utility Poles.” Transportation Research Record 796: 25–31. Washington, DC: TRB. http://onlinepubs.trb. org/Onlinepubs/trr/1981/796/796-004.pdf. Michie, J.D. 1981. Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Highway Appurtenances. NCHRP Report 230. Washington, DC: TRB. Michie, J.D., and K.K. Mak (Southwest Research Institute). 1980. “Interim Criteria for Identifying Timber Utility Poles for Breakaway Modification.” Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, September. NCHRP. 2003. Volume 6: A Guide for Addressing Run-Off-Road Collisions. NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Washington, DC: NCHRP, TRB. http:// onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_500v6.pdf. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2018. “Fatal Accident Reporting System, 2017.” Washington, DC: NHTSA, U.S. DOT. NHTSA. 1980. Fatal Accident Reporting System. Washington, DC: NHTSA, U.S. DOT. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). 2018. 2016 NTSB US Civil Aviation Accident Statistics. Washington, DC: NTSB, October. https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/data/Pages/AviationDataStats2016.aspx. North Carolina DOT. 2017. “Roadway Design Manual.” North Carolina DOT, April. https://connect.ncdot.gov/ projects/Roadway/Pages/Roadway-Design-Manual.aspx. North Carolina DOT. 2014. “Utility Policy Manual.” North Carolina DOT, August. https://connect.ncdot.gov/ municipalities/Utilities/UtilitiesDocuments/Utilities%20Policy%20Manual.pdf. Perchonok, K., T.A. Ranney, S. Baum, D.F. Morris, and J.D. Eppick (Calspan Field Services, Inc.). 1978. “Hazardous Effects of Highway Features and Roadside Objects.” Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT. Post, E.R., P.T. McCoy, T.J. Wipf, R.W. Bolton, and A.K. Mohaddes. 1979. “Feasibility Study of Breakaway Stub Concept for Wooden Utility Poles.” Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Lincoln, December. Ray, M.H., L.A. Troxel, and J.F. Carney. 1991. “Characteristics of Fixed-Roadside-Object-Side-Impact Accidents.” Journal of Transportation Engineering 117 (3). Rinde, E.A. 1979. “Conventional Road Safety—Fixed Objects.” Sacramento, CA: California DOT, August. Ross, H.E. Jr., D.L. Sicking, R.A. Zimmer, and J.D. Michie. 1993. “Recommended Procedures for the Safety Perfor- mance Evaluation of Highway Features.” NCHRP Report 350. Washington, DC: TRB. http://onlinepubs.trb. org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_350-a.pdf. Scott, C.P., and D.L. Ivey. 2001. “Utility Poles and Roadside Safety—The Road to Responsibility.” Washington, DC: TRB. Presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Scott, C.P., and D.L. Ivey. 2015. “Utility Pole Crashes.” Paper No. 15-2215. Washington, DC: TRB. Submitted to the 94th TRB Annual Meeting, January 11–15, 2015. Slavin, L.M., and M. Najafi. 2010. “Buried Duct Network for Utility Cables Along Roads and Highways: Results of Field Trials.” Transportation Research Record 2195 (1): 179–187. Washington, DC: TRB. Washington State DOT. 2019. “Utilities Manual M 22-87.” Olympia, WA: Washington State DOT, February. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/publications/manuals/fulltext/M22-87/Utilities.pdf. Washington State DOT. 2010. “Washington State’s Strategic Highway Safety Plan.” Olympia, WA: Washington State DOT. http://targetzero.com/pdf/targetzeroplan.pdf. Wentworth, J.A. 1973. “Motor Vehicle Accidents Involving Utility Poles—Summary of Data Availability.” Washington, DC: Office of R&D, FHWA. Wright, P.H., and K.K. Mak. 1976. “Single Vehicle Accident Relationships.” Atlanta, GA: Georgia Institute of Technology, Department of Traffic Engineering, January 1976: 16–21. Wright, P.H., and L.S. Robertson. 1976. “Priorities for Roadside Hazard Modification.” Washington, DC: IIHS. Zegeer, C.V., and M.J. Cynecki. 1986. “Selection of Cost-Effective Countermeasures for Utility Pole Accidents— User’s Manual.” FHWA Report No. IP-86-9. Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, December. Zegeer, C.V., and M.J. Cynecki. 1984. “Determination of Cost-Effective Roadway Treatments for Utility Pole Accidents.” Transportation Research Record 970: 52–64. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/trr/1984/970/970-008.pdf. Zegeer, C.V., and M.R. Parker Jr. 1984. “Effect of Traffic and Roadway Features on Utility Pole Accidents.” Trans- portation Research Record 970: 65–76. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council. http://onlinepubs. trb.org/Onlinepubs/trr/1984/970/970-009.pdf. Zegeer, C.V., and M.R. Parker Jr. (Goodell-Grivas, Inc.). 1983. “Cost-Effectiveness of Countermeasures for Utility Pole Accidents.” Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, January.

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In 2017, the latest year for which data are available, 887 fatal utility pole crashes occurred in the United States, accounting for 914 fatalities. These numbers were about the same as those in recent years but lower than such fatality numbers from a decade or two ago.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Synthesis 557: Utility Pole Safety and Hazard Evaluation Approaches summarizes the strategies, policies, and technologies that state transportation agencies (STAs) and utility owners (UOs) employ to address utility pole safety concerns.

Specific areas of interest for this synthesis report include methods to identify problem poles and high-risk locations, pole-placement policies, strategies and countermeasures to reduce the risk of pole-related collisions and resulting injuries and deaths, and available funding sources for implementing countermeasures. Case studies were also developed for exemplary STAs and UOs, highlighting some of their utility pole safety activities.

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