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79 Alberson, D.C., and D.L. Ivey. 1994. âImproved Breakaway Utility Pole, AD-IV.â Transportation Research Record 1468: 84â94. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board (TRB), National Research Council. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). 2016a. Elements of Design, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Traffic Operations, 2016: 3.6.4â4.6.2. AASHTO. 2016b. Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition. Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 2011a. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 6th Edition (Green Book). Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 2011b. Roadside Design Guide, 4th Edition. Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 2009. Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, First Edition. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO. 2005a. A Guide for Accommodating Utilities within Highway Right-of-Way. Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 2005b. A Policy on the Accommodation of Utilities within Freeway Right-of-Way. Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 1977. âGuide for Selecting, Locating and Designing Traffic Barriers.â 77 Barrier Guide. Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 1974. Design and Operational Practices Related to Highway Safety (Yellow Book). Washington, DC: AASHTO. AASHTO. 1967. Design and Operational Practices Related to Highway Safety (Yellow Book). Washington, DC: AASHTO. Buser, R.P., and C.A. Buser. 1992. âThe Breakaway Timber Utility Pole: A Survivable Alternative.â Publication FHWA-SA-92-046. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, September. Carrigan, C.E., and M.H. Ray. 2017. âConsideration of Placement Criteria for Utility Poles to Minimize Crash Risk.â Roadside Safety Design and Hazard Mitigations. TR Circular E-C220: First International Roadside Safety Conference, RoadSafe LLC, June. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/circulars/ec220.pdf. Carrigan, C.E., and M.H. Ray. 2015. âEvidence-Based Roadside Engineering Strategic Plan.â Washington, DC: AASHTO. Carrigan, C.E., and M.H. Ray. 2011. Roadside Safety Analysis Program, Version 3 (RSAP-V3). Distributed with the Roadside Design Guide (AASHTO 2011b). Cleveland, D.E., and R. Kitamura. 1978. âMacroscopic Modeling of Two-Lane Rural Roadside Accidents.â Lansing, MI: University of Michigan, Michigan Department of Transportation (DOT). Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). 2011. âUtilities.â 23 CFR 645.209(k). Washington, DC: CFR, April. Dobrovolny, C.S., S. Shi, and R.P. Bligh. 2018. MASH TL-3 Evaluation of the TxDOT TL-3 Low Profile Barrier for High Speed Applications. FHWA/TX-1810-6968-R1, September. El Esawey, M., and T. Sayed. 2012. âEvaluating safety risk of locating above ground utility structures in the highway right-of-way.â Accident Analysis and Prevention 49: 419â428. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 2016. âHighway Safety Improvement Program Fast Act.â Washington, DC: FHWA, February. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/fastact/factsheets/hsipfs.cfm. FHWA. 2003. âProgram Guide: Utility Relocation and Accommodation on Federal-Aid Highway Projects.â Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/reports/utilguid/if03014.pdf. Foedinger, R., J.F. Boozer, M.E. Bronstad, and J.W. Davidson. 2003. âDevelopment of Energy-Absorbing Composite Utility Pole.â Transportation Research Record 1851 (1): 149â157. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3141/1851-15 Fox, J.C., M.C. Good, and P.M. Joubert. 1979. âCollisions with Utility PolesâA Summary Report.â Melbourne, Australia: University of Melbourne, Commonwealth Department of Transport, February. References and Bibliography
80 Utility Pole Safety and Hazard Evaluation Approaches Gabler, C.H., D.J. Gabauer, and W.T. Riddell. 2007. âBreakaway Utility Poles: Feasibility of Energy-Absorbing Utility Pole Installations in New Jersey.â Report No. FHWA-NJ-2007-018. Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT. Georgia DOT. 2018. Utility Accommodation Policy and Standards. Georgia DOT, December. http://www.dot.ga.gov/ PartnerSmart/utilities/Documents/2016_UAM.pdf. Glennon, J.C., and C.J. Wilton (Midwest Research Institute). 1974. âEffectiveness of Roadside Safety Improve- ments.â Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, November. Good, M.C., J.C. Fox, and P.N. Joubert. 1987. âAn In-Depth Study of Accidents Involving Collisions with Utility Poles.â Accident Analysis and Prevention 19 (5): 397â413. Melbourne, Australia: Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia, July. Graf, N.L., J.V. Boos, and J.A. Wentworth. 1976. âSingle-Vehicle Accidents Involving Utility Poles.â Transportation Research Record 571: 36â43. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/ Onlinepubs/trr/1976/571/571-005.pdf. Graham, J.L., and D.W. Harwood. 1982. âEffectiveness of Clear Recovery Zones.â NCHRP Report 247: 68. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council, May. Griffin, L.I. 1981. âProbability of Driver Injury in Single Vehicle Collisions with Roadway Appurtenances as a Function of Passenger Car Curb Weight.â College Station, TX: Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, October. Guidry, T.R., and W.L. Beason. 1992. âDevelopment of a Low-Profile Portable Concrete Barrier.â Transportation Research Record 1367: 36â46. Harmon, T., G. Bahar, and F. Gross. 2018. Crash Costs for Highway Safety Analysis. Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT. https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/docs/fhwasa17071.pdf. Hehr, C.C. 1995. âThe First Installation of Breakaway Timber Utility Poles.â FHWA/TX-95. Washington DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT. March. Horne, D.A. 2001. âPrecedents for Action.â In Transportation Research Circular E-C030: Utility Safety: Mobilized for Action and State, City, and Utility Initiatives in Roadside Safety. Washington, DC: TRB, April: 7â10. TRB Committee on Utilities (A2A07), 79th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Hunter, W.W., F.M. Council, A.K. Dutt, and D.G. Cole. 1978. âMethodology for Ranking Roadside Hazard Correction Programs.â Transportation Research Record 672: 1â9. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). 2017. National Electrical Safety Code. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). 2018. âFatality Facts, 2018.â http://www.iihs.org. IIHS, Highway Loss Data Institute. 2017. âCollisions with Fixed Objects and Animals.â Roadway and Environment. Ivey, D.L. 1991. âThe Time Has Come for Utility Pole Safety Programs.â Presented at the National Highway Utilities Conference, Denver, CO, February 1991. Ivey, D.L., M.E. Branstad, and L.I. Griffin III. 1993. âGuardrail End Treatments in the 1990s.â Transportation Research Record 1367: 63â75. Washington, DC: TRB, January. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/ trr/1992/1367/1367-007.pdf. Ivey, D.L., and K.K. Mak. 1989. âRecommended Guidelines for New Utility Installations.â Committee on Utilities, TRB. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council, June 25. Presented at the Symposium on Safety in the Clear Zone and Utility Installations. Ivey, D.L., and J.R. Morgan. 1986. âTimber Pole Safety by Design.â Transportation Research Record 1065: 1â11. Washington, DC: TRB. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/trr/1986/1065/1065.pdf. Ivey, D.L., and J.R. Morgan. 1985. Safer Timber Utility Poles, Vol. 1, FHWA Report FHWA/RD-86/154. College Station, TX: Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University System, June. Ivey, D.L., and P.C. Scott. 2017. âUtility Poles, Toleration or Confrontation.â Submitted to the First International Roadside Safety Conference, San Francisco. Ivey, D.L., and P.C. Scott. 2004. âUtilities and Roadside Safety.â TRB State of the Art Report 9. Washington, DC: TRB, Committee on Utilities. https://pdhonline.com/courses/c273/TRB_Utilities_and_Roadside_Safety.pdf. Ivey, D.L., and P.C. Scott. 2000. âUtility Safety: Mobilized for Action and State, City, and Utility Initiatives in Roadside Safety.â Presentation from the TRB Committee on Utilities (A2A07), 79th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January 2000. Jinsun, L., and F. Mannering. 2002. âImpact of Roadside Features on the Frequency and Severity of Run-Off- Roadway Accidents: An Empirical Analysis.â Accident Analysis and Prevention 34(2): 149â161. Jones, I.S., and A.S. Baum (Calspan Field Services, Inc.). 1980. âAn Analysis of the Urban Utility Pole Problem.â Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, December. Jones, J.G. 2016. âNoteworthy Practices: Roadside Tree and Utility Pole Management.â Report No. FHWA- SA-16-043, Sections 2.3 and 2.3.1. Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, September. https://safety.fhwa.dot. gov/roadway_dept/countermeasures/safe_recovery/clear_zones/fhwasa16043/fhwasa16043.pdf. Lacy, K., R. Srinivasan, C.V. Zegeer, R. Pfefer, T.R. Neuman, K.L. Slack, and K.K. Hardy. 2004. Volume 8: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Utility Poles. NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Washington, DC: NCHRP, TRB.
References and Bibliography 81 Mak, K.K., and R.L. Mason. 1980. âAccident AnalysisâBreakaway and Nonbreakaway Poles, Including Sign and Light Standards Along Highways.â Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, August. Marquis, B. 2001. âUtility Pole Crash Modeling.â Maine DOT, February. Mattox, T.B. 2007. âEvaluation of Roadside Collisions with Utility Poles and Trees at Intersection Locations.â Georgia Tech: Masterâs Thesis, January. https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/19829/mattox_ todd_b_200712_mast.pdf. McCoy, P.T., H.T. Hsueh, and E.R. Post. 1981. âMethodology for Evaluation of Safety Improvement Alternatives for Utility Poles.â Transportation Research Record 796: 25â31. Washington, DC: TRB. http://onlinepubs.trb. org/Onlinepubs/trr/1981/796/796-004.pdf. Michie, J.D. 1981. Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Highway Appurtenances. NCHRP Report 230. Washington, DC: TRB. Michie, J.D., and K.K. Mak (Southwest Research Institute). 1980. âInterim Criteria for Identifying Timber Utility Poles for Breakaway Modification.â Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, September. NCHRP. 2003. Volume 6: A Guide for Addressing Run-Off-Road Collisions. NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Washington, DC: NCHRP, TRB. http:// onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_500v6.pdf. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2018. âFatal Accident Reporting System, 2017.â Washington, DC: NHTSA, U.S. DOT. NHTSA. 1980. Fatal Accident Reporting System. Washington, DC: NHTSA, U.S. DOT. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). 2018. 2016 NTSB US Civil Aviation Accident Statistics. Washington, DC: NTSB, October. https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/data/Pages/AviationDataStats2016.aspx. North Carolina DOT. 2017. âRoadway Design Manual.â North Carolina DOT, April. https://connect.ncdot.gov/ projects/Roadway/Pages/Roadway-Design-Manual.aspx. North Carolina DOT. 2014. âUtility Policy Manual.â North Carolina DOT, August. https://connect.ncdot.gov/ municipalities/Utilities/UtilitiesDocuments/Utilities%20Policy%20Manual.pdf. Perchonok, K., T.A. Ranney, S. Baum, D.F. Morris, and J.D. Eppick (Calspan Field Services, Inc.). 1978. âHazardous Effects of Highway Features and Roadside Objects.â Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT. Post, E.R., P.T. McCoy, T.J. Wipf, R.W. Bolton, and A.K. Mohaddes. 1979. âFeasibility Study of Breakaway Stub Concept for Wooden Utility Poles.â Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Lincoln, December. Ray, M.H., L.A. Troxel, and J.F. Carney. 1991. âCharacteristics of Fixed-Roadside-Object-Side-Impact Accidents.â Journal of Transportation Engineering 117 (3). Rinde, E.A. 1979. âConventional Road SafetyâFixed Objects.â Sacramento, CA: California DOT, August. Ross, H.E. Jr., D.L. Sicking, R.A. Zimmer, and J.D. Michie. 1993. âRecommended Procedures for the Safety Perfor- mance Evaluation of Highway Features.â NCHRP Report 350. Washington, DC: TRB. http://onlinepubs.trb. org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_350-a.pdf. Scott, C.P., and D.L. Ivey. 2001. âUtility Poles and Roadside SafetyâThe Road to Responsibility.â Washington, DC: TRB. Presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Scott, C.P., and D.L. Ivey. 2015. âUtility Pole Crashes.â Paper No. 15-2215. Washington, DC: TRB. Submitted to the 94th TRB Annual Meeting, January 11â15, 2015. Slavin, L.M., and M. Najafi. 2010. âBuried Duct Network for Utility Cables Along Roads and Highways: Results of Field Trials.â Transportation Research Record 2195 (1): 179â187. Washington, DC: TRB. Washington State DOT. 2019. âUtilities Manual M 22-87.â Olympia, WA: Washington State DOT, February. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/publications/manuals/fulltext/M22-87/Utilities.pdf. Washington State DOT. 2010. âWashington Stateâs Strategic Highway Safety Plan.â Olympia, WA: Washington State DOT. http://targetzero.com/pdf/targetzeroplan.pdf. Wentworth, J.A. 1973. âMotor Vehicle Accidents Involving Utility PolesâSummary of Data Availability.â Washington, DC: Office of R&D, FHWA. Wright, P.H., and K.K. Mak. 1976. âSingle Vehicle Accident Relationships.â Atlanta, GA: Georgia Institute of Technology, Department of Traffic Engineering, January 1976: 16â21. Wright, P.H., and L.S. Robertson. 1976. âPriorities for Roadside Hazard Modification.â Washington, DC: IIHS. Zegeer, C.V., and M.J. Cynecki. 1986. âSelection of Cost-Effective Countermeasures for Utility Pole Accidentsâ Userâs Manual.â FHWA Report No. IP-86-9. Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, December. Zegeer, C.V., and M.J. Cynecki. 1984. âDetermination of Cost-Effective Roadway Treatments for Utility Pole Accidents.â Transportation Research Record 970: 52â64. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/trr/1984/970/970-008.pdf. Zegeer, C.V., and M.R. Parker Jr. 1984. âEffect of Traffic and Roadway Features on Utility Pole Accidents.â Trans- portation Research Record 970: 65â76. Washington, DC: TRB, National Research Council. http://onlinepubs. trb.org/Onlinepubs/trr/1984/970/970-009.pdf. Zegeer, C.V., and M.R. Parker Jr. (Goodell-Grivas, Inc.). 1983. âCost-Effectiveness of Countermeasures for Utility Pole Accidents.â Washington, DC: FHWA, U.S. DOT, January.