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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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Suggested Citation:"Grants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Gulf Research Program Annual Report 2019. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25959.
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GRANTS The GRP offers an evolving suite of grant opportunities corresponding to its initiatives. TOTAL AWARDS 22 grants totaling $20,325,509 resulting from 4 competitions: – Understanding Gulf Ocean Systems Grants 2 – Thriving Communities Grants 5 – Safer Offshore Energy Systems Grants 4 – 2019 Early-Career Research Collaboration Grants OVERSIGHT Oversaw 50 existing grant awards in progress from previous years, 16 of which reached completion in 2019. 2019 GRANTS BY CATEGORY n Understanding Gulf Ocean Systems Grants 2 $2,015,784 (7 awards) n Thriving Communities Grants 5 TOTAL $10,674,731 (4 awards) $20,325,509 n Safer Offshore Energy Systems Grants 4 (22 awards) $7,255,570 (8 awards) n Early-Career Research Collaboration Grants $379,424 (3 awards) GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 5

UNDERSTANDING2 Gulf Ocean Systems Grants TOPIC TOTAL AWARDS Fostering Innovation to Improve Understanding Seven projects totaling and Prediction of the Gulf of Mexico Loop $2,015,784 Current System An Altimetry Based AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $78,000 George Forristall Forristall Ocean Engineering, Inc. Statistical Forecast Model for the Loop OVERVIEW: This project will develop a forecast system, ForLoop, which will pull Current System information from machine learning algorithms and 26 years of open-source data on daily sea level fluctuations. ForLoop will allow users to digitize sea level or surface temperature maps to predict Loop Current and Loop Current Eddy locations and estimate the probability that the current or an eddy will affect a specific location over a range of forecasted periods. Development of an AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $283,847 Haosheng Huang Louisiana State University Unstructured Grid Nesting Method for OVERVIEW: Researchers will nest an unstructured grid Finite Volume Community the Study of Loop Ocean Model—a type of 3D ocean model—within the Gulf of Mexico. They will use the model to simulate energy conversion processes and the interactions between Current Frontal Loop Current Frontal Eddies (LCFEs) and changes in ocean floor depth. The goal is Eddies to establish an ocean forecasting system for the Gulf that is capable of an accurate 1–2-week Loop Current forecast. In addition, the team will create a 20-year satellite data archive to detect and analyze LCFE merging events that occur before eddy detachments and separations. GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 6

A Lagrangian AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $349,874 Vassiliki Kourafalou University of Miami Methodology to Quantify and OVERVIEW: Understanding the dynamics of the western Caribbean Sea and southern Predict the Impact of part of the Yucatan Channel is critical for predicting the Loop Current System’s behavior. This project will quantify improvements in prediction skill when these Caribbean Eddies on Caribbean Sea observations are incorporated into forecasting models. Observations LCS Dynamics and high-resolution model simulations will provide a more detailed, objective description about the size, magnitude, and pathway of warm, circular currents (known as anticyclonic eddies) passing through the Yucatan Channel; and their relation to the anticyclonic eddies evolving inside the Gulf of Mexico. Lagrangian Metrics AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $302,287 Helga Huntley University of Delaware for the Identification and Prediction of OVERVIEW: This project will apply physics-based concepts to develop a new Loop Current Eddy methodology to identify imminent Loop Current Eddy shedding events and the dynamics that cause them. It will also assess how well existing regional models are Shedding Events able to detect waves, currents, tides, and other physical ocean processes that lead to eddy shedding events. The Loop Current AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $240,729 Annalisa Bracco Georgia Tech Research Corporation and the Mississippi- Atchafalaya River OVERVIEW: This project will explore the interactions between the Loop Current System: Interactions, System and the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System discharge, in terms of seasonal changes, Loop Current position, and the presence of small eddies that range in Variability, size from 1 to 10 kilometers. It will also examine the physical processes that drive and Modeling horizontal and vertical mixing in the portion of the northern Gulf of Mexico where the Requirements water is deeper than 150–200 meters. Loop Current System AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $346,179 Laurent Cherubin Florida Atlantic University SSH and Subsurface Current Prediction OVERVIEW: Using 18 years of sea surface height (SSH) fields and subsurface with a Transfer observations, this project will apply machine learning tools to predict Loop Current speed, vertical structure, and duration to examine the eddy formation and shedding Learning Approach processes. The project aims to improve the predictive capability of the location and duration of the Loop Current over a forecast period of 1 month; eddy shedding at 2–3 months; and predictive skill for Loop Current and Loop Current Eddy speed, vertical structure, and duration over a several day forecast. GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 7

Technology and AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $414,868 Uwe Send The Regents of the University of Methods for Yucatan California, San Diego Channel Monitoring OVERVIEW: This project will design a transport monitoring system in the Yucatan Channel (YC), drawing on data collected from 19 moorings and 99 sensors between 2018 and 2019. In addition, the team will develop and test innovative mooring designs that would enable real-time data transmission to shore. The goal is to leverage the existing intensive data set to determine which YC conditions are most critical to monitor, and identify the most cost-effective way to do so. GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 8

THRIVING 5 Communities Grants TOPIC TOTAL AWARDS Enhancing Coastal Community Resilience and Four projects totaling Well-Being in the Gulf of Mexico Region $10,674,731 Capacity and AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $2,978,552 Carlos Martín Urban Institute Change in Climate Migrant–Receiving OVERVIEW: Climate change is already driving population migrations, especially Communities along the Gulf Coast. However, the capacity of destination communities to prepare for and integrate people who are displaced by natural disasters and climate change— Along the U.S. known as climate migrants—has received little attention. This project will examine Gulf: A Three-Case communities in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas that are already receiving climate Comparison migrants to determine the communities’ capacities to integrate them at the point of migration and the migrants’ effects on housing and employment markets, financial services, health care providers, and social and cultural facilities. The project team will use findings to develop actionable information that Gulf communities can use in their preparation for and integration of expected future climate migrants. GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 9

Climate, Culture, AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $2,101,958 Maureen Lichtveld Administrators of the Tulane Movement: Educational Fund aka Tulane University Navigating Decision OVERVIEW: The United Houma Nation is a Louisiana state-recognized tribe primarily Making in a Shifting based in southeastern Louisiana that is striving to maintain its unique culture amid Landscape for a dramatic climate, environmental, and socioeconomic change. While tribal citizens Resilient United have sustained livelihoods and communities in a shifting landscape for generations; Houma Nation today, ongoing coastal land loss combined with the cumulative impacts of health, social, and economic disparities have created unprecedented challenges for the tribe. The goal of this project is to determine how the United Houma Nation can adapt to climate-related and other short- and long-term stressors while maintaining the integrity of its community and culture. The project team will collaborate with the United Houma Nation to examine existing and emerging stressors, identify resilience strategies, and produce actionable information, tools, and interventions that can be used by the tribe to navigate these challenges. Project outputs will be useful to other Gulf Coast communities facing similar issues. Making Gulf AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $2,190,667 Maria Lemos University of Michigan Communities More Resilient: Scaling OVERVIEW: Communities along the Gulf coast are coping with stronger and more Up Customized frequent storms that are expected to worsen in the future, and it is increasingly challenging to anticipate and prepare for these events. To increase their future Vulnerability resilience, cities need to plan to respond and adapt, yet many currently lack the Assessment for capacity to do so. Enabling cities to engage more easily and consistently with Extreme Events in scientists and organizations working on resilience and climate adaptation is a Gulf Cities way to build this capacity, but cost-effectively maintaining and scaling up such engagement can be difficult. This project seeks to help cities build their climate adaptation capacities by finding more cost-effective methods to build relationships with scientists and organizations that can assist them. The project will use different technology-assisted communications methods to work with 60 cities throughout Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas to assess their vulnerability and integrate climate adaptation into existing planning processes. It will identify best practices that can guide similar efforts elsewhere. GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 10

The New First AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $3,403,554 Christopher Emrich University of Central Florida Line of Defense: Building Community OVERVIEW: The first line of defense for residents and their resilience is housing Resilience Through protected from natural hazard impacts. Yet, many residents remain unaware that the building codes and zoning regulations they expect to protect them become outdated Residential Risk as environmental stressors, local development patterns, materials science, and Disclosure construction practices change. Improved residential risk disclosure is a key component for building resilient communities. To make informed decisions about where to live and how to protect housing investments, residents require knowledge about potential natural hazard exposure and impacts along with available mitigation strategies. This project aims to advance community resilience by improving people’s understanding of risks and their willingness to undertake hazard mitigation when choosing where they live. The project team will work with communities throughout the Gulf region to test strategies for dissemination and uptake of information on disaster risk and mitigation alternatives. The ultimate goal is to identify practices most likely to result in residents taking actions to reduce risk and increase resilience. GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 11

SAFEREnergy Systems Grants 4 Offshore TOPIC TOTAL AWARDS Advancing Safety Culture in the Offshore Oil Eight projects totaling and Gas Industry $7,255,570 Aggregating AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $739,992 Xiaozhi (Christina) Wang American Bureau of Shipping Essential Exposure Data to Enable OVERVIEW: Historically, government agencies, industry groups, and companies Meaningful Analysis from around the world have collected offshore incident data to help understand and improve safety conditions. However, these data sets were collected at different of Safety Incident times and used different terminology and data languages. This project aims to provide Rates Around the recommendations for viable data science technologies that could be employed to World aggregate these disparate data sets and establish common goals and metrics to improve understanding of safety risks and trends in the Gulf of Mexico. The desired final product—a comprehensive global offshore incident data set—will help set a foundation for predictive modeling initiatives. The data could inform government and industry decision-making processes such as permitting emerging technologies, setting new regulations or policies to mitigate risk, and choosing exploration projects. GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 12

Bringing High- AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $684,054 Antonie Jetter Portland State University Reliability Safety Culture Decisions OVERVIEW: Several studies have called for offshore oil and gas workers to adopt into Focus: Training best practices from other high-risk industries, including the nuclear power plant and air traffic control industries. However, frontline managers remain unaware of these with Interactive external best practices, or have trouble customizing them for offshore oil and gas Fuzzy Cognitive operations. Inspired by so-called “management flight simulators,” this project creates Mapping an interactive online platform that allows users to model responses to everyday safety threats. The platform, FOCOS (Fuzzy Operational Cognition of Safety Culture), lets users add, intensify, or stop interventions, and see how their decisions impact the overall system and safety culture. To inform future research and pilot programs, FOCOS will also collect data on uncertain and controversial safety practices and differences in training needs among different users (by role, professional background, and years of experience). Developing AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $1,440,330 Kevin McSweeney American Bureau of Shipping an Integrated Offshore Energy OVERVIEW: There is a general perception in the offshore industry that more rules, Industry Safety regulations, and procedures are unlikely to improve safety performance. Instead, the industry needs a better understanding of the social and organizational factors that Culture Evaluation, foster professionalism during routine and emergency situations. This project aims to Benchmarking, develop a roadmap that the industry can use to evaluate and improve organizational and Improvement safety culture, reduce unsafe behaviors, improve individual performance, and reduce Toolbox management system failures, near misses, and accidents. Deliverables will include a safety culture evaluation toolbox, and data gathering and analytic methods to identify what actions have been, or could be, successful in improving safety. Development of an AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $1,130,591 Scott Tannenbaum The Group for Organizational Evidence-Based, Effectiveness Multi-Level Safety OVERVIEW: Safe behavior in the oil and gas industry is influenced by individual Culture Assessment safety readiness; the team’s safety assumptions, values, and beliefs; team leader and Battery for the team member behaviors; and the organization’s safety practices and policies. This Offshore Industry project will develop a set of evidence-based assessment tools to diagnose, measure, and track these four factors. It will also provide actionable tips and guidance for addressing potential deficiencies, which existing measurement tools lack. The team’s deliverables will be made publicly available to interested organizations, associations, and researchers. GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 13

Employee AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $828,113 Christiane Spitzmueller University of Houston Well-Being and Mindfulness as OVERVIEW: Mindfulness exercises are shown to improve employee mental and Predictors of Process physical health, but there has been limited work to leverage mindfulness exercises for offshore safety. This academia–industry partnership project will examine how and Personal Safety mindfulness affects safety culture, focusing on the perceptions of supervisory safety culture, worker situational awareness, employee burnout and well-being, and employee participation in and compliance with safety behaviors. The team will develop 90-minute “train-the-trainer” programs, along with survey tools to measure program effectiveness so supervisors can guide their employees through mindfulness techniques they can use before their shifts and before high-risk situations. EMPOWER Safety AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $943,008 Stephanie C. Payne Texas A&M University Dashboards: Evaluate, Measure, OVERVIEW: Traditionally, safety culture is measured with a lengthy annual employee and Promote survey. Survey methodology is fraught with limitations, including low response rates, considerable time required to summarize and interpret data, and failure to Offshore Worker capture meaningful changes between surveys. This project aims to develop and test Engagement and field-friendly measurement tools, including experience sampling methodology and Readiness wearable devices; and to design, develop, and evaluate the value of a dashboard called EMPOWER (Evaluate, Measure, Promote Offshore Worker Engagement and Readiness). The EMPOWER dashboard will display worker psychological (safety culture) and physiological (lack of fatigue or readiness) data on an interactive interface that supervisors can access daily to support organizational decision making. The research team will evaluate the extent to which supervisors value and anticipate using such previously unavailable data in real time; as well as the data’s impact on hypothetical offshore scenario-based decision making. Measuring AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $733,631 Ivan Damnjanovic Texas A&M University and Improving Blended Project OVERVIEW: Measuring organizational commitment to safety is particularly Safety Culture challenging in the offshore oil and gas industry, as 80 percent of personnel are third-party contractors. The industry’s reliance on external contractors means team in Operations of members may not share the same training, experiences, and even language. Rather Offshore Oil and Gas than measuring safety culture in broad terms, this project aims to develop quantifiable Facilities measurements of safety culture improvements that are specific to three categories: activity, team (e.g., contractors versus onshore-based specialists), and the type of offshore installation. It will also provide a tool for measuring safety culture while work orders are being planned and executed; and a tool to help offshore plant managers specify project requirements (e.g., communication requirements) that could improve safety culture. GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 14

Safety Reporting AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTOR PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $755,851 Daniel Adjekum University of North Dakota John D. Action Program for Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences Offshore Oil and Gas OVERVIEW: In the offshore environment, minor workplace accidents tend to go Industry in the Gulf unreported because individuals fear blame. However, several minor unreported safety of Mexico risks can be precursors for catastrophic accidents, as was the case with the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster. Offshore oil and gas safety regulators have recognized the need for a more proactive reporting system—and a culture shift—that encourages workers to report mistakes and near misses, identify the potential for error, and even stop work when needed. This project will assess the viability of an offshore safety action reporting system modeled after the Aviation Safety Action Program by using focus groups, interviews, and a quantitative survey of about 1,500 personnel. It will also assess gaps between the perceived level of safety reporting culture and the actual level of safety reporting in the Gulf of Mexico oil and gas industry. GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 15

2019 EARLY-CAREER Research Collaboration Grants TOTAL AWARDS Three projects totaling $379,424 Cascading Effects of AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTORS PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $82,789 Wanyun Shao, University of Alabama, Case Western Rising Coastal Risks YeongAe Heo, Reserve University, and Bigelow for Petrochemical and Christoph Laboratory for Ocean Sciences Facilities on Socio- Aeppli Economic-Ecological OVERVIEW: Aging infrastructure coupled with climate change have increased Vulnerability and the risk of coastal hazards for energy infrastructure. Most energy infrastructure Risk Perceptions systems are more than 30 years old. Aging oil and natural gas (OG) systems have deteriorated due to chemical reactions (e.g., corrosion) and become more vulnerable to significant failures that can trigger detrimental OG spills. Compounding this issue, potential dynamic forces acting on these deteriorating systems have increased due to intensifying extreme weather events such as storm surge induced by hurricanes and floods. Meanwhile, no integrated method exists to estimate the probability, amount, and toxicity of OG released under different scenarios of flood impacts. No interdisciplinary approach is available to estimate the full cycle of oil system risk, from hazards to marginal damages across multiple damage channels. There is also a lack of estimation connecting oil spill risk with societal impacts. The objectives of the proposed project include to (1) assess the effects of aging and climate change on the coastal hazard risk for oil systems; (2) predict potential oil dispersion and estimate human and ecosystem health risks from oil system failures; (3) systematically quantify socioeconomic vulnerability to environmental disruptions caused by oil system failure; and (4) identify the gaps between key stakeholders’ risk perceptions and the scientific risk assessment on both temporal and spatial dimensions. The project outcomes will contribute directly to the GRP’s mission and benefit local, national, and international engineering, scientific, public, and decision-making communities. GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 16

Moving Upstream: AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTORS PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $129,215 Christopher Patrick and Texas A&M University and Quantifying Hannah Vander Zanden University of Florida Materials Flow OVERVIEW: Coastal rivers link coastal watersheds to marine ecosystems and provide Between Estuaries important habitat for many commercially important marine species, amphidromous and Coastal Rivers species (species that use both freshwater and marine habitats), and rare/threatened species. However, the coastal plain is one of the least studied ecosystems in North America. Therefore, it is necessary to increase understanding of coastal river ecology. The proposed work implements stable isotope analysis to assess the usage of coastal river habitat by marine species along the Texas coast line. Fish, invertebrates, and basal resources from 10 rivers and downstream estuaries will be analyzed to determine the abundance and distribution of marine nutrients in migratory estuarine fish and resident freshwater fish. The study sites allow for investigation of the prevalence of marine nutrients, the impact of human land use, impoundments, and climate-mediated freshwater inflow on marine species movement. Novel Application AWARD AMOUNT PROJECT DIRECTORS PROJECT TEAM AFFILIATION $167,420 Michael Martinez- Florida A&M University, Lehigh of the FORAM Colon, Jill McDermott, University, and Rice University Ecosystem Health and Adrienne Correa Index to Coral Reefs OVERVIEW: Benthic foraminifera (BF) are a group of ubiquitous shelled protists in the Gulf of Mexico: with cosmopolitan distributions in benthic environments. Because of their short An Investigation of community response times to pollution, many groups of BF are considered prominent Microbial Mediation biomonitoring indicators. One widely used BF index is the FORAM Index (FI), which of Heavy Metal has been applied in all ocean basins as an indicator of water quality. The main Bioavailability objectives of this research are to (1) determine the distribution of heavy metals in porewater versus in the solid components of sediment; (2) identify specific microbial community members or genes that mediate heavy metal transformations and by inference, detoxify sediments; (3) determine the spatiotemporal distribution of BF; and (4) integrate across these data sets to assess the effectiveness of the FI as a biomonitor to stressors in coral reefs. GULF RESEARCH PROGRAM Annual Report 2019 17

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Each year, the Gulf Research Program (GRP) produces an annual report to summarize how funds were used. These reports review accomplishments, highlight activities, and, over time, will assess metrics to determine how the program is progressing in accomplishing its goals. The 2019 annual report is the sixth report in this series.

The GRP is an independent, science-based program founded in 2013. Through grants, fellowships, and other activities, it seeks to enhance oil system safety and the protection of human health and the environment in the Gulf of Mexico region and other areas along the U.S. outer continental shelf with offshore oil and gas operations.

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