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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Views of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26080.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Views of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26080.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Views of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26080.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Views of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26080.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Views of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26080.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Views of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26080.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Views of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26080.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Views of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26080.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Views of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26080.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Views of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26080.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy – Subject to Further Editorial Correction VIEWS OF THE U.S. NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE ON AGENDA ITEMS AT ISSUE AT THE WORLD RADIOCOMMUNICATION CONFERENCE 2023 Committee on the Views on the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023 Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This study is based on work supported by the Contract No. NNH16CE01B/80HQTR20F0216 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Grant No. AST-1720392 with the National Science Foundation. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. government. Neither the U.S. government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. government or any agency thereof. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any agency or organization that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26080 Copies of this publication are available free of charge from: Board on Physics and Astronomy National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested Citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Views of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26080. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

COMMITTEE ON THE VIEWS ON THE WORLD RADIOCOMMUNICATION CONFERENCE 2023 LIESE VAN ZEE, Indiana University, Chair NATHANIEL LIVESEY, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Vice Chair NANCY BAKER, Naval Research Laboratory DARREL EMERSON, Consultant (retired) WILLIAM EMERY, University of Colorado DARA ENTEKHABI, NAE, 1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology PHILIP J. ERICKSON, Haystack Observatory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology TOMAS GERGELY, Consultant (retired) KELSEY JOHNSON, University of Virginia KAREN MASTERS, Haverford College MAHTA MOGHADDAM, NAE, University of Southern California SCOTT N. PAINE, Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian FRANK K. SCHINZEL, National Radio Astronomy Observatory GAIL SKOFRONICK-JACKSON, NASA Headquarters Staff GREGORY MACK, Senior Program Officer, Study Director JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate MEG KNEMEYER, Financial Officer RADAKA LIGHTFOOT, Senior Financial Assistant LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY ABRAHAM LOEB, Harvard University, Chair ANDREW LANKFORD, University of California at Irvine, Vice Chair WILLIAM BIALEK, NAS, 2 Princeton University JILL DAHLBURG, Naval Research Laboratory LOUIS DIMAURO, The Ohio State University FRANCIS DESALVO, Cornell University WENDY FREEDMAN, NAS, University of Chicago TIM HECKMAN, NAS, Johns Hopkins University WENDELL HILL III, University of Maryland ALAN HURD, Los Alamos National Laboratory NERGIS MAVALVALA, NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology LYMAN PAGE, JR., NAS, Princeton University STEVEN RITZ, University of California Santa Cruz SUNIL SINHA, University of California, San Diego WILLIAM A. ZAJC, Columbia University Staff JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director GREGORY MACK, Senior Program Officer CHRISTOPHER J. JONES, Program Officer NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate MEG KNEMEYER, Financial Officer RADAKA LIGHTFOOT, Senior Financial Assistant LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: John Bieging, Steward Observatory–Vatican Observatory, William Blackwell, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Gregory Hellbourg, California Institute of Technology, Jasmeet Judge, University of Florida, Amy Lovell, Agnes Scott College, Thomas Meissner, Remote Sensing Systems, James M. Moran, Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, and Edgeworth Westwater, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Martha Haynes, NAS, Cornell University. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 VIEWS OF THE U.S. NATIONAL ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES, ENGINEERING, 11 AND MEDICINE ON SELECTED WRC-23 AND WRC-27 AGENDA ITEMS Agenda Item 1.2: Allocations for International Mobile Telecommunications 12 Agenda Item 1.4: High-Altitude Platform Stations as IMT Base Stations 16 Agenda Item 1.5: Spectrum Use in the Frequency Band 470-694 MHz in Region 1 19 Agenda Item 1.8: Use of Fixed Satellite Service Networks by Control and Non-Payload Communication of Unmanned Aircraft Systems 21 Agenda Item 1.9: Review Appendix 27 of the Radio Regulations 23 to Accommodate Digital Technologies Agenda Item 1.10: Allocations to the Aeronautical Mobile Service 24 Agenda Item 1.11: Modernizing the Global Maritime Distress System 27 Agenda Item 1.12: EESS Radar Sounders at 45 MHz 29 Agenda Item 1.13: Allocations to the Space Research Service 32 Agenda Item 1.14: Allocations to the Earth Exploration-Satellite Service 34 in 231.5-252 GHz Agenda Item 1.15: GSO Earth Stations in Motion in the FSS 12.75-13.25 GHz 37 Agenda Item 1.16: Non-GSO Earth Stations in Motion 39 Agenda Item 1.17: Inter-Satellite Links at 11.7-12.7 GHz, 18.1-18.6 GHz, 18.8-20.2 GHz, and 27.5-30 GHz 41 Agenda Item 1.19: FSS 17.3-17.7 GHz in Region 2 43 Agenda Item 9.1a: Review of Space Weather Sensors 44 Agenda Item 9.1b: Review of the Amateur Service and Amateur-Satellite 46 Service in the Frequency Band 1240-1300 MHz PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Agenda Item 9.1c: International Mobile Telecommunications Using Fixed 47 Service Allocations Agenda Item 9.1d: Protection of EESS from Non-GSO FSS 52 WRC-27 Agenda Item 2.1: The Radiolocation Service at 231.5-275 GHz and 275-700 GHz 55 WRC-27 Agenda Items 2.2 and 2.3: Ka-Band and V-Band 59 WRC-27 Agenda Items 2.4, 2.5, and 2.7: 71-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz 63 WRC-27 Agenda Item 2.6: Space Weather 66 WRC-27 Agenda Items 2.8 and 2.9: L-Band and S-Band 67 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 73 B Acronyms and Abbreviations 74 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION x

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Views of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on Agenda Items at Issue at the World Radiocommunication Conference 2023 Get This Book
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The radio frequency spectrum is a limited resource for which there is an ever-increasing demand from an expansive range of applications - all the way from commercial, such as mobile phones, to scientific, such as hurricane monitoring from space. Since radio waves do not stop at national borders, international regulation is necessary to ensure effective use of the radio spectrum for all parties. Use of the radio spectrum is regulated internationally by the Radio Regulations (RR), an international treaty. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has as its mission the facilitation of the efficient and interference-free use of the radio spectrum. Every 2 to 5 years, the ITU convenes a World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) to review and revise the international RR. Changes to the RR are formulated through proposals to the conference according to Agenda Items, which are agreed on at the previous WRC.

At the request of the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, this report provides guidance to U.S. spectrum managers and policymakers as they prepare for the 2023 WRC to protect the scientific exploration of Earth and the universe using the radio spectrum. This report identifies the 2023 agenda items of relevance to U.S. radio astronomers and Earth remote sensing researchers, along with proposed agenda items for the 2027 WRC.

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