National Academies Press: OpenBook
Page i
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Updating the AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26395.
×
Page R1
Page ii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Updating the AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26395.
×
Page R2
Page iii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Updating the AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26395.
×
Page R3
Page iv
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Updating the AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26395.
×
Page R4
Page v
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Updating the AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26395.
×
Page R5
Page vi
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Updating the AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26395.
×
Page R6
Page vii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Updating the AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26395.
×
Page R7

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 314 Updating the AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications Jeffrey Newman Kevin Johns Thomas Murphy Maria Lopez Zolan Prucz Lance Borden Modjeski and Masters, Inc. Mechanicsburg, PA Andrzej Nowak Auburn University Auburn, AL Jim Phillips Alec Noble Paul Skelton Hardesty and Hanover, LLC New York, NY Ian Buckle Reno, NV Conduct of Research Report for NCHRP Project 12-112 Submitted August 2021 NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 initiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agreement No. 693JJ31950003. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The information contained in this document was taken directly from the submission of the author(s). This material has not been edited by TRB.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP WEB-ONLY DOCUMENT 314 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Associate Program Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Tyler Smith, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Jennifer Correro, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 12-112 PANEL Field of Design—Area of Bridges Paul Fossier, Jr., Baton Rouge, LA (Chair) Raymond D. Bottenberg, Oregon Department of Transportation, Salem, OR Zhengzheng Fu, Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Baton Rouge, LA Keith Gager, New York State Department of Transportation, Albany, NY Christopher Hahin, Illinois Department of Transportation, Springfield, IL Jon P. Henrichsen, Multnomah County, Portland, OR W. Lee Hupperich, Huval & Associates Inc., Lafayette, LA Derek Soden, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research report was prepared under NCHRP Project 12-112 by a research team lead by Modjeski and Masters, Inc., with Jeffrey Newman as the Principal Investigator, Kevin Johns, Thomas Murphy, Maria Lopez, and Zolan Prucz. This project was executed as a partnership with Hardesty and Hanover, LLC and included Jim Phillips, Alec Noble, and Paul Skelton. Team members from Auburn University included Dr. Andrzej (Andy) Nowak, Dr. J. Michael Stallings, Sylwia Stawska, Anjan Ramesh Babu, and Patrick Wolert. Dr. Ian Buckle acted as an independent consultant. The team members represent a diverse cross-section of expertise and valuable input was obtained from all. Within each of the entities represented, there were many others that provided important feedback, especially relating to general updates that were made. The authors would like to thank all who helped in the development and execution of the project including: AASHTO member states and the state and local bridge engineers who provided responses to the surveys which contained valuable information on movable bridge design practices, historical performance, and inventory data.

iv Table of Contents SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................................. 1 UPDATE OF THE AASHTO LRFD MOVABLE HIGHWAY BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 2 Background ................................................................................................................................................ 2 Research Objective .................................................................................................................................... 2 Research Approach .................................................................................................................................... 3 Contents of the Updated Specification ...................................................................................................... 3 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW AND SURVEY ....................................................................... 5 Literature Review Synthesis ...................................................................................................................... 5 Background ............................................................................................................................................ 5 Summary ................................................................................................................................................ 6 Reliability Based Methodologies ........................................................................................................... 6 Failure Significance ................................................................................................................................ 7 Discipline Matrix .................................................................................................................................... 8 Relevant Document Summaries ............................................................................................................. 9 Summary and Knowledge Gaps ........................................................................................................... 12 Survey of Bridge Owners ........................................................................................................................ 12 Importance / Availability ...................................................................................................................... 13 Reliability Survey ................................................................................................................................. 16 Supplemental / Follow-Up Questions .................................................................................................. 22 Summary of Findings ........................................................................................................................... 28 CHAPTER 3: UPDATE OF THE AASHTO LRFD MHBDS AND DEVELOPMENT OF RBM ... 29 Development of Reliability-Based Methodology .................................................................................... 29 Overview .............................................................................................................................................. 29 Limit States in Mechanical Design ....................................................................................................... 29 Service Limit State ............................................................................................................................ 30 Mechanical Design in the Current MHBDS ......................................................................................... 30 Service and Overload Limit State ..................................................................................................... 30 Overload Limit State ......................................................................................................................... 33 Fatigue Limit State ............................................................................................................................ 33 Extreme Event Limit State ................................................................................................................ 33 Reliability-Based Calibration Procedure .............................................................................................. 34 Limit State Function ............................................................................................................................. 34 Statistical Parameters of Load and Resistance ..................................................................................... 35 Reliability Index Calculation Procedure............................................................................................... 41 Reliability Index β – Current MHBDS Specifications ......................................................................... 43 Selection of the Target Reliability Index (𝛽𝑇) .................................................................................... 44 Recommended Load and Resistance Factors and the Resulting Reliability Index ............................... 44 Summary of Examples ......................................................................................................................... 46

v Updates to the MHBDS ........................................................................................................................... 47 CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTED RESEARCH .................................................... 49 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................................. 49 Suggested Research ................................................................................................................................. 49 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................... 51 APPENDIX A: LITERATURE REVIEW DETAILS ........................................................................... 52 APPENDIX B: SURVEY RESPONSE DATA ....................................................................................... 92 APPENDIX C: AUBURN UNIVERSITY REPORT OF RELIABILITY BASED METHODOLOGY FOR MECHANICAL DESIGN WITH DESIGN EXAMPLES ....................... 132

vi List of Figures Figure 1. Waterway Classification .............................................................................................................. 13 Figure 2. Applicable Waterway Categories ................................................................................................ 13 Figure 3. Modifying Factors – for Wind Figure 4. Modifying Factors – for Wind ................................. 14 Figure 5. Operating Wind Restrictions ....................................................................................................... 15 Figure 6. Operating Wind Restrictions (avg. sustained / gust) ................................................................... 15 Figure 7. Reliability of Support Machinery ................................................................................................ 17 Figure 8. Reliability of Drive Machinery .................................................................................................... 18 Figure 9. Reliability of Locking / Live Load Transfer Machinery ............................................................. 18 Figure 10. Reliability of Electrical Power and Control Systems ................................................................ 19 Figure 11. Reliability of Traffic Control (gates / signals) ........................................................................... 19 Figure 12. Number of Bridges per Respondent .......................................................................................... 20 Figure 13. Routine Maintenance (over service life of bridge) .................................................................... 20 Figure 14. Condensed Reliability Data – by Respondent ........................................................................... 21 Figure 15. Condensed Reliability Data – by System / Component ............................................................. 21 Figure 16. Inventory by Owner ................................................................................................................... 22 Figure 17. Distribution of Single and Double Leaf..................................................................................... 23 Figure 18. Movable Bridge Type – Totals by Type in Survey ................................................................... 23 Figure 19. Busiest and Least Busy Bridge Operations per Year ................................................................. 24 Figure 20. Failures per Year that Prevent Operation .................................................................................. 24 Figure 21. Most Common Failures ............................................................................................................. 25 Figure 22. Average Operational Restoration Time (M/E) .......................................................................... 25 Figure 23. Control System Makeup %PLC and % Relay ........................................................................... 26 Figure 24. Resistance Factors (current MHBDS 6.4.1.1) ........................................................................... 31 Figure 25. Safety Factors (current MHBDS 6.6.1) ..................................................................................... 31 Figure 26. Starting Torque for Opening and Closing ................................................................................. 38

vii List of Tables Table 1. Use of RBM .................................................................................................................................... 6 Table 2. Discipline / Component Matrix ...................................................................................................... 8 Table 3. Condensed Summary of Part 1 Data ............................................................................................. 16 Table 4. Condensed Summary of Part 2 Data ............................................................................................. 22 Table 5. Condensed Summary of Part 3 – Supplemental / Follow-up Questions ....................................... 27 Table 6. Condensed Summary of Part 3 – Supplemental / Follow-up Questions ....................................... 36 Table 7. Opening and Closing Torques for Sample of Movable Bridges in US ......................................... 37 Table 8. Overload Limit State – Machinery Design for Prime Movers ...................................................... 39 Table 9. Summary of Mean and Nominal Values of Load ......................................................................... 41 Table 10. Summary of Statistical Parameters ............................................................................................. 41 Table 11. Reliability Index Calculated for the Current Specification ......................................................... 43 Table 12. Selection of Target Reliability .................................................................................................... 44 Table 13. Recommended Load and Resistance Factors for Service and Overload Limit State .................. 46 Table 14. Summary of Calculations for Existing vs. New RBM – Service and Overload Limit States ..... 46 Table 15. Summary of Calculations for Existing vs. New RBM – Fatigue Limit State ............................. 47

Next: Summary »
Updating the AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

There are approximately 1,000 movable highway bridges in the U.S. inventory.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Web-Only Document 314: Updating the AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications allows bridge owners the option of employing site-specific conditions to develop the design wind speed and provides other general updates to previous research from 2000 that reflects changes in design practice and other standards.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!