National Academies Press: OpenBook

Understanding Marine Biodiversity (1995)

Chapter: INDEX

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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×

Index

A

Advection length, 20

Agriculture, 31, 32, 39

Algal blooms, 21, 31

Algal symbionts in coral ecosystems, 9, 26, 39

Antarctica, 50

Anthropogenic impacts

  in biodiversity change, 24-25

  classification of, 25

  on coastal habitats, 31-32

  on coastal shelves, 41-42

  on coral reefs, 39

  as critical environmental issues, 24

  in deep sea, 45

  effects of, 5

  in estuaries and bays, 37-38

  habitat type variation, 36-37

  predictive modeling, 22, 23

  research agenda, 2-4, 23, 53, 74

  research methodology, 59-60

  in rocky intertidal zones, 40

  role of taxonomic research, 46

  scales of observation, 20, 35

  in synergistic change processes, 25, 26-27

Aquaculture, 31

Archaea, 9

Arctic region, 50

Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, 66

Association of Systematics Collection, 70

Asteria amurensis, 33

Australia, 33

Azov Sea, 33

B

Ballast water, species transport in, 7, 32, 33, 37

Baltic Sea, 27, 50

Benthic environments

  anthropogenic impacts, 32

  deep sea, 45

  patch interactions, 17, 18

  protist diversity, 9

  rocky intertidal zones, 40

  scales of observation, 18, 20

  ultraviolet radiation effects, 33

Bering Sea, 41

Biodiversity

  in coral reefs, 38-39

  current knowledge base, 2, 9-11, 68

  deep sea, 44-45

  definition, 1, 8

  ecosystem diversity and, 13

  interactions across scales, 16, 35

  marine vs. terrestrial systems, 15

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×

  microorganisms, 10, 12

  pelagic environments, 42-43

  recent species identifications, 8-9

  regional variation, 50

  research questions, 52-53

  in rocky intertidal zones, 40-41

Biodiversity change

  alterations in physical habitat and, 31-32

  anthropogenic activities in, 24-25

  appropriate scale of research in, 35-36

  chemical pollution and eutrophication in, 1, 25, 30-31

  coastal development in, 7

  in coastal shelves, 41

  contributors to, 1

  in coral reefs, 39

  effect of scientific activities, 30

  in estuaries and bays, 37-38

  in experimental settings, 67

  fisheries operations in, 28-29

  global climate change in, 32-34

  increased diversity, 38

  mariculture effects, 30

  natural events in, 24, 25, 26-27

  negative outcomes, 1-2

  operational descriptions, 25

  regional interactions in, 17, 22

  research topics, 49-52

  retrospective analysis, 56-59

  sampling methods, 63-65

  significance of, 51, 52-53, 69

  species invasion in, 7

  species removal in, 7

  synergistic effects, 25, 26-27

  taxonomic research, 46, 48

  temporal scale considerations, 19-20

  tourism effects, 40

Biomass, marine vs. terrestrial, 15

Biomedical science, 11

Black Sea, 33

Blue marlin, 62

Boundary definition

  criteria for, 14

  habitat patch, 16-17

  persistent physical phenomenon in, 19

  in regional-scale, 17, 19

  for research scales, 20-21, 49

  technology development for, 49

  temporal features, 19-20

Brine seeps, 2

Bryozoans, 12

C

California, 26, 29, 40

California Cooperative Ocean Fisheries Investigations, 58

Capitella ''capitata," 12

Carbon cycle, 71, 73

Caribbean basin, 26, 39, 40

Caribbean star coral, 9, 12

CARICOMP, 66

Chemical pollution and eutrophication

  as biodiversity change factor, 1, 25, 30-31

  in coral reef loss, 26, 39

  in global climate change, 32-33, 34

  in seaweed declines, 27

  sources of, 30-31

Chesapeake Bay, 5, 27, 28

Chile, 40, 67

Chinese clam, 26, 33, 38

Chlorofluorocarbons, 32

Chlorophyll, marine

  effects of species invasion on local levels, 38

  sources of, 9

Coastal habitats

  anthropogenic impacts, 31-32

  commercial fishery effects, 28

  continental shelves and slopes, 41-42

  coral reefs, 38-39

  development effects, 1, 7, 25

  estuaries and bays, 37-38

  eutrophication of, 31

  exotic species invasions, 33

  mariculture effects, 30

  marine reserve research, 67

  as regional-scale systems, 19

  temperate zone rocky shores, 40-41

Coelacanth, 30

Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, 73

Communities

  in continuum of scales, 18

  in metapopulation theory, 17

Connecticut, 7

Continental shelves, 41-42

Coral reefs

  algal symbionts in, 9, 26, 39

  anthropogenic impacts, 6, 39

  biodiversity, 38-39

  commercial fishery effects, 28

  coral species diversity, 12

  core samples, 58

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×

  global climate change and, 39

  as research subject, 39

  sea urchin communities, 39, 40

  sedimentation effects, 31

  synergistic effects in threats to, 26

  ultraviolet radiation effects, 33

Crassostrea, 13, 27

D

Dams, 32

Decadal scale of research agenda, 2, 20, 68

Deep sea

  anthropogenic impacts, 45

  biodiversity, 44-45

  research opportunities in, 45

  waste disposal in, 30, 44, 45

Delphinus delphis, 13

Diadema antillarum, 39

Dinoflagellates

  as exotic invader, 33

  in fish kills, 9

Diversitas program, 70

DNA sequencing, 62

Dolphins

  species identification, 13

  tuna harvesting and, 29

Dredging, 31, 37

E

Ecological research

  methodological challenges, 59-60

  oceanographic science linkages, 3, 23, 35

  regional focus in, 36

  in research agenda, 3, 74

  taxonomic research and, 47-48, 60, 74

EcoScope, 65

Ecosystem attributes

  marine vs. terrestrial, 15

  open systems, 14, 15

  regional marine systems, 21-22

  sampling technology, 63-65

  unique features of marine systems, 15

Ecosystem functioning

  coastal eutrophication, 31

  collapse of, in Florida Bay, 21

  in coral reefs, 39

  fisheries operations and, 28-29

  invasion of exotic species in, 32

  marine vs. terrestrial, 15

  microbial diversity in, 10-11

  in pelagic open ocean, 42-43

  regional-scale, 17, 19

  research methodology, 59-66

  research questions, 52

  in rocky intertidal zones, 40-41

  scale linkages, 35-36

  spatial continuum, 16-19

  in substrate-dominated systems, 42-43

  synergistic effects in, 26-27

  system interactions, 14-15, 22, 40-41

El Niño phenomenon, 22, 58

Endangered species, 25, 65

Environmental Protection Agency, 60

Erosion, 31

Estuaries and bays

  anthropogenic impacts in, 37

  biodiversity in, 37-38

  as research subject, 37-38

Eubacteria, 9

Eulerian motion, 55

Eutrophication.

See Chemical pollution and eutrophication

Evolutionary processes

  retrospective studies, 57

  temporal scale, 19-20

Exotic species

  as biodiversity change factor, 1, 25, 26, 32, 33

  Chinese clam in California, 26, 33

  transport in ballast tanks, 7, 32, 33, 37

Extinction of species, 25

  retrospective studies, 57, 58

F

Federal programs, 71-73

Fertilizers, 31, 39

Finland, 27

Fisheries operations

  adaptive studies, 59

  as biodiversity change factor, 1, 25

  biotic survey data in, 59

  by-catch effects, 30

  on coastal shelves, 41, 42

  coral reefs and, 39, 40

  demographics of harvesting, 30

  depletion of fishing banks, 6, 28

  direct environmental effects, 29-30

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×

  dredging, 31

  in estuaries and bays, 37

  ghost fishing, 29

  historical records, 57

  indirect environmental effects, 30

  mariculture, 30

  in pelagic environments, 42

  whale hunting, 6, 29

Fish kills, 9

Florida Bay, 21

Florida Keys, 26

Flow cytometry, 63

Fossil record, 57

Fucus vesiculosus, 27

G

Generation time, 20

Genetic change

  fishery operations effects, 29

  mariculture effects, 30

  Microbial Genome Initiative data, 72-73

  retrospective analysis, 57

  temporal scale, 19-20

Geographical information systems, 64

Geologic time, 19-20

Germany, 27

Global climate change

  as biodiversity change factor, 1, 25

  causes, 32

  evidence in deep sea, 45

  research in pelagic systems, 43, 71

  threats to coral reefs, 39

  ultraviolet radiation effects, 32-34

  warming trend, 34

Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics, 70-71

Great Lakes, 33

Greenhouse effect, 34

Groupers, 7

Gulf of Maine, 31

Gulf of Mexico, 33, 41

Gyres, 19, 63

H

Habitat diversity

  in coral reefs, 39

  deep sea, 44

  mapping, 64

  metapopulation concept, 17

  patch formation/maintenance, 16-17

  potential advances in understanding, 13

  in regional model systems, 36-37

  research questions, 52

  in shelf waters, 42

Halogenated hydrocarbons, 31

Heavy metals, 31

Hydrothermal vents, 2, 47

I

International Council of Scientific Unions, 70

International Union of Biological Sciences, 70

International Union of Microbiological Scientists, 70

Iron, 43

J

Japanese starfish, 33

Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, 70, 71

K

Kemp's ridley sea turtle, 12

L

Lagrangian motion, 55

Land reclamation, 31

Larval transport, 20

  across regional systems, 22

  numerical modeling, 55, 56

  in shelf waters, 42

Latimeriea chalumnae, 30

Life history of organisms

  fishery operations effects, 29

  marine vs. terrestrial predators, 15

  in metapopulation models, 56

  temporal scale for studying, 20

Lobsters, 22

Local scales

  limitations of, 14-16

  linkages, 49

  research role, 35, 51

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×

M

Makira nigricans, 62

Manatees, 7

Mariculture, 30, 32

Marine laboratories, 66

Marine Research Stations Network, 66

Marine reserves, 67

Marine worms, 12-13

Marshes, 37

Maryland, 7

Megaptera noveangliae, 62

Menippe, 13

Metapopulation

  concept, 17

  in continuum of spatial scales, 18

  ecological modeling, 56

  ecosystem interactions in, 35, 41

Microbial Genome Initiative, 72-73

Microbial organisms

  current understanding of, 10

  genetic sequencing, 72-73

  in marine ecosystems, 9-11

  sampling techniques, 63

Mining, 31, 41, 45

Mnemiopsis leidyi, 33

Molecular genetics

  applications, 9, 10, 12, 48, 61, 62

  in research agenda objectives, 3, 23

  technical development, 61-62

Montastraea annularis.

See Caribbean star coral

Moored, Automated, Serial Zooplankton Pump, 65

Museum collections, 57, 58

Mussels, 12

Mya arenaria, 38

Mytilus edulis, 12, 48

N

National Association of Marine Laboratories, 66

National Biological Service, 72, 73

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 72

National Science Foundation, 71-72

North Sea, 31, 50

O

Objectives of research agenda, 3-4, 22-23, 52, 68, 74, 75

Oceanographic science

  ecological science linkages, 3, 23, 35

  numerical modeling, 55-56

  scales of observation in, 19, 20, 35-36

Office of Energy Research, 72-73

Office of Naval Research, 72

Oil spills, 41

Olive ridley sea turtle, 12

Oysters

  Chesapeake Bay population, 5, 27, 28

  species identification, 13

Ozone layer, 32

P

Patch formation and maintenance

  benthic environments, 17, 18

  deep sea, 44

  definition, 16-17

  metapopulation modeling, 17, 18, 56

  pelagic environments, 17, 18

  regional dynamics, 17, 18

  research technology, 17

Pelagic environments

  biodiversity, 42

  exotic species invasion, 32

  habitat patches in, 17, 18

  regional limits, 19

  research opportunities, 13, 42-44, 50

  research technology, 17

  sampling techniques, 63

  scales of observation, 18

  subsystem diversity, 42-43

Penaeus, 13

Perna perna, 33

Petroleum products, 31, 41

Phytoplankton, 12

Plankton

  diversity, 9

  ecosystem role, 10

  effects of exotic species invasion, 26, 33

  flow cytometry studies, 63

  in pelagic habitat patches, 17

  sampling methods, 64, 65

  temporal scales for studying, 20

  ultraviolet radiation effects, 32-34

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×

Polar marine systems, 50

Pollution

  in deep sea, 45

  in pelagic environments, 43-44

  See also Chemical pollution and eutrophication

Polychlorinated biphenyls, 31

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 31

Polymerase chain reaction, 61-62

Potamocorbula amurensis, see Chinese clam

Predator communities

  in marine ecosystems, 15

  in pelagic environment, 43

  in rocky intertidal zones, 40

Predictive modeling

  advances in, 55-56

  of anthropogenic impacts, 22, 23

  applications, 56

  biological features in, 55-56

  development of, 54

  of Eulerian motion, 55

  inferential methods, 54

  of Lagrangian motion, 55

  limitations, 54

  metapopulation models, 56

  numerical models, 55, 56

  prospective improvements in, 55-56

  as research agenda objective, 3, 8, 23

  retrospective data for, 56-57

Prochlorophytes, 9

Prokaryotes, 10

R

Radioactive materials, 31

Rapid Sampling Vertical Profiler, 65

Regional-scale

  as appropriate research scale, 2-3, 8, 14-16, 21, 22, 35-36, 50

  biotic survey, 59

  coastal, 19

  coordination of research efforts, 69-70

  definition, 17

  genetic variability research, 62

  interactions between regions, 17, 22, 50, 52

  limits, 17

  local scale studies and, 35, 41

  in pelagic environments, 19

  potential research risks, 68

  types of habitats in research model, 36-37

  types of marine systems, 21-22

Research agenda

  characteristics, 4, 74, 75

  data sets, 68

  funding, 68

  implementation, 66-68

  marine laboratories in, 66

  need for, 7-8, 69

  objectives, 3-4, 22-23, 52, 68, 74, 75

  relationship to other programs, 69-73

  scales of observation in, 2-3, 8, 14, 20-21, 35-36, 74

  taxonomic research in, 3, 8, 54, 74

Research design

  coordination of, in research network, 68

  defining scales of observation, 20-21, 49

  duration of study, 20

  environmental impacts, 30

  human exclusion experiments, 67

  level of taxonomic investigation, 48

  methodological challenges, 59-60

  selection of scales of observation, 16, 68

Research instrumentation/data

  biotic surveys, 59

  data display, 64

  innovations, 63

  retrospective analysis in, 56-59

  sampling, 63-65

  taxonomic studies, 60-61

Research questions

  alterations in biodiversity patterns, 51

  anthropogenic impacts, 53

  in Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, 73

  conceptual basis of, 54-56

  consequences of biodiversity change, 52

  in coral reef environments, 39

  as critical environmental issues, 24

  cross-system effects, 22, 23

  in Diversitas program, 70

  effects of invasion by exotic species, 32

  in estuaries and bays, 37-38

  in fisheries management, 59

  focus of, 49-50

  formulation of, 49

  in Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics program, 70-71

  in Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, 70, 71

  in marine reserve research, 67

  in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 72

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×

  in National Science Foundation programs, 71-72

  natural variation in biodiversity pattern, 52-53

  in Office of Energy Research, 72-73

  in Office of Naval Research, 72

  patterns of biodiversity, 50, 50-51

  in pelagic environments, 42-44

  in shelf waters, 42

  special opportunities, 65-66

  in temperate zone rocky shores, 40-41

Resource management, 68

  adaptive fisheries management, 59

  federal programs, 72

  as research agenda objective, 4, 23, 74

Retrospective analysis

  archival research, 57-59, 58

  fossil studies, 57

  in research agenda objectives, 3, 23

  role of, 56-57, 59

Runoff effects, 39

S

Salmon, 32

Sampling methods

  acoustic, 64, 65

  deep sea, 45

  innovations, 63-65, 64

  limitations, 54

  in pelagic environment, 17

  real-time surveys, 63

  remote sensing, 63-65

  in research agenda objectives, 3, 23

  RNA probes, 63

  in taxonomic research, 60

San Francisco Bay, 26, 33, 38

Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, 70

Scomberomerus maculatus.

See Spanish mackerel

Seaweeds, 13, 27, 30

Sedimentation, 31, 39

  core samples, 58

Shrimp, 13

Sites

  communities in, 17, 18

  in continuum of scales, 18

  interactions across, 35

  patch habitats in, 17, 18

  in regional systems, 17, 18, 21

Southern Association of Marine Laboratories, 66

Spanish mackerel, 13

Spatial scales

  boundary definition criteria, 14

  continuum, 16-19

  deep-sea research, 44-45

  defining regional systems, 17, 19, 49

  interactions across, 16

  in metapopulation dynamics, 17

  in pelagic environment, 17

  in research agenda, 2-3, 14

  research infrastructure, 66

  retrospective analysis of species richness in, 56-57

  temporal scale correspondence, 20

  See also Regional-scale

Species identification, 49

  current knowledge base, 9-10, 60

  ecologist-taxonomist collaborations, 48

  molecular genetics in, 10, 12, 62

  recent advances, 8-9, 11-13

  research instrumentation, 63

  research role, 10-11, 46, 60

Species removal

  ecosystem alteration in, 7

  extinction, 25, 57, 58

  fisheries operations in, 28-29

  fossil evidence, 57

  in rocky intertidal zones, 40

Steller sea lion, 41

Sweden, 27

Synergistic effects, 25, 26-27

Systematics, 48

  in research agenda, 4, 8

  See also Taxonomic research

Systematics Agenda 2000, 70

T

Taxonomic research

  current knowledge base, 8-11, 60

  ecological research and, 47-48, 60, 61, 74

  errors in, 47, 54, 61

  level of investigation, 48

  in marine vs. terrestrial systems, 15

  methodology, 60-61

  practitioners, 46-47, 47

  professional development, 3, 70

  recent advances, 11-13

  in research agenda, 3, 4, 8, 46, 54, 60, 74

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×

  research resources, 60-61

  temporal scales in, 19

  unique phyla in, 15

Technology development

  data display systems, 64

  molecular genetics, 61-62

  as research agenda objective, 3, 23

  for research in pelagic systems, 17

  research instrumentation, 63

  sampling methods, 63-65

  taxonomic classification, 61

Temperate zone rocky shores, 40-41

Temporal scales

  boundary definition criteria, 14

  continuum, 19-20

  in defining regional systems, 19, 49

  historical studies, 57

  in metapopulation dynamics, 17

  of pelagic ecosystems, 43

  in research agenda, 2-3, 14

  spatial scale correspondence, 20

Terrestrial ecosystems

  marine ecosystems vs., 15

  relevance of marine research, 51

Threshold effects

  in metapopulation modeling, 56

  as research objective, 3, 23

Tidal mixing fronts, 19

Tourism, 40

Training in taxonomic science, 3, 23, 47, 60

Trophic systems

  commercial fishery effects, 28

  deep sea, 45

  effects of species invasion, 7, 26

  effects of species removal, 7

  marine vs. terrestrial systems, 15

Tuna fisheries, 29

Turtles, 7, 12

U

Ultraviolet radiation, 1, 32-34, 43

Unique phyla, 15

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 70

Upwelling fronts, 19

V

Video Plankton Recorder, 65

Volcanic eruptions, 32

W

Warm-core rings, 19

Washington, 7

Waste disposal

  deep-sea, 30, 44, 45

  in estuaries and bays, 37

  as threat to coral reefs, 39

Water motion, 14

  artificial coastal structures and, 31

  in interactions between regional systems, 22

  persistent phenomenon in defining system boundaries, 19

  regional-scale systems, 17, 19

  research instrumentation, 63

Wetland losses, 7

Whales

  carcasses of, 2, 6

  historical records, 57

  humpback, genetic diversity in, 12, 62

  hunting of, 6, 29

Wood debris, 2

Z

Zebra mussels, 33

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×
Page 107
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×
Page 108
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×
Page 109
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×
Page 110
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×
Page 111
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×
Page 112
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×
Page 113
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1995. Understanding Marine Biodiversity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4923.
×
Page 114
Understanding Marine Biodiversity Get This Book
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The diversity of marine life is being affected dramatically by fishery operations, chemical pollution and eutrophication, alteration of physical habitat, exotic species invasion, and effects of other human activities. Effective solutions will require an expanded understanding of the patterns and processes that control the diversity of life in the sea.

Understanding Marine Biodiversity outlines the current state of our knowledge, and propose research agenda on marine biological diversity. This agenda represents a fundamental change in studying the ocean—emphasizing regional research across a range of space and time scales, enhancing the interface between taxonomy and ecology, and linking oceanographic and ecological approaches.

Highlighted with examples and brief case studies, this volume illustrates the depth and breadth of undescribed marine biodiversity, explores critical environmental issues, advocates the use of regionally defined model systems, and identifies a series of key biodiversity research questions. The authors examine the utility of various research approaches—theory and modeling, retrospective analysis, integration of biotic and oceanographic surveys—and review recent advances in molecular genetics, instrumentation, and sampling techniques applicable to the research agenda. Throughout the book the critical role of taxonomy is emphasized.

Informative to the scientist and accessible to the policymaker, Understanding Marine Biodiversity will be of specific interest to marine biologists, ecologists, oceanographers, and research administrators, and to government agencies responsible for utilizing, managing, and protecting the oceans.

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