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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 1997. Science for All Children: A Guide to Improving Elementary Science Education in Your School District. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4964.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 1997. Science for All Children: A Guide to Improving Elementary Science Education in Your School District. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4964.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 1997. Science for All Children: A Guide to Improving Elementary Science Education in Your School District. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4964.
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Page 218
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 1997. Science for All Children: A Guide to Improving Elementary Science Education in Your School District. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4964.
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Page 219
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 1997. Science for All Children: A Guide to Improving Elementary Science Education in Your School District. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4964.
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Page 220
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Sciences. 1997. Science for All Children: A Guide to Improving Elementary Science Education in Your School District. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4964.
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Page 221

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Index Active learning, 14-15 . . . . . Administrative activities strategic planning subcommittee, 51-53 support for inquiry-centered learning, 3~37, 124-127 support for professional development, 78-79 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 196 American Chemical Society, 197 American Geological Institute, 197 American Indian Science and Engineering Society, 197-198 American Institute of Physics, 198 American Meteorological Society, 198 American Physical Society, 198-199 Annenberg/CPB Math and Science Project, 199 Assessment in case studies, 140-141, 155, 174-175 coordination with curriculum planning, 51, 67 as curricular component, evaluation of, 68 district-level issues, 101-102, 117 documentation, 113-116 embedded, 103-108, 175 at end of module or unit, 109-110 implementation of new strategies, 101, 117 216 . . ~ informal, 110 of inquiry-centered science, 1~18 pre- and post-module, 102-103 prediction activities for, 108 rubrics for assessing the science program, 118-120 sample programs, 101 science notebooks for, 110 of science program performance, 117 in strategic planning model, 36 strategic planning subcommittee activities, 51-52 Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD), 199 Association of Science Materials Centers, 98, 200 Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC), 200 Bayer Foundation, 129-130 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 200 Bristol-Myers Squibb, 129 Budget development and maintenance. See Financial planning Buffalo, New York, 87, 129, 131 Case studies, 135-190. See also specific case studies Children's love of learning, 7-8, 24

Index Collaborative problem-solving as benefit of inq~i~centered science, 16 as curricular component, evaluation of, 68-69 Colleges/universities model collaborations, 136, 164-165, 177-178 support for elementary reform effort, 41-42, 127-128 Community attitudes toward, in educational system, 122-123 collaboration for reform, case study of, 18~189 outreach, 126-132 stakeholders in reform effort, 39-42 strategic planning subcommittee, 51-54 support for inquiry-centered learning, 37, 126 Computer technology, 144, 188-189 Conceptual understanding, 26, 66 Consortia for materials support, 50, 97 model program, 136, 166 Constructivism, 26 Corporate support, 37, 128-130, 163 case studies, 155-156, 157, 158-162, 184-189 funding, 53 model programs, 135 nonfinancial, 50, 161-162, 187, 190 for professional development, 87 for reform effort, 41 routes to, 126, 128-130 Council for Elementary Science International, 201 Council of State Science Supervisors, 201 Critical thinking, 17 Cupertino Union School District, California, 135, 158-163 Curiosity, students' as goal of science education, 18 intellectual development and, 23-24 as part of inquiry-centered [earning, 23 Curriculum acquisition practices, 63-64 checklist review, 72, 73-74 collaborative learning in, evaluation of, 68-69 coordination with assessment system, 51, 67, 68 developmental appropriateness, 27- 29, 65-66 evaluation criteria, 64, 73-75 interdisciplinary design, evaluation of, 68 materials requirements, 70-72 modular approach, 33-34 pilot testing, 45, 46, 4748 presentation and format, 70-72 quality of writing, 70 safety issues, 71 science content, 69-70 science coordinator role, 40-41 selection process, case studies of, 140, 147-148, 159,165-166, 180-181 sequential progression of, 66 strategic planning, 33-34, 192 strategic planning subcommittee, 4546 support materials for teachers, 69- 70, 71 See also Pedagogical appropriateness of curriculum Curriculum matrix, 47 Deductive reasoning, 29 Department ofEducation, U.S., 211-212 Department of Interior, U.S., 213 Developmental context cognitive skills in primary grades, 28 curriculum design, 27-29 deductive reasoning skills, 29 evaluation of curriculum, 70-71 implications for education, 22, 27-29 theory-making ability, 2~25 Didactic instruction in inquiry- centered teaching, 22-23 Discipline, 83 217

Index Discovery learning, 22 District-level activities assessmentissues, 101-102, 117,118-120 for building community support, 37 materials supply management, 90-96 model programs initiated by, 135 professional development, 34-36, 78-81 strategic planning, 39, 40-41, 45-53 support for inquiry-centered learning, 123-126, 182, 183 Dow Chemical Company, 129, 155-156 DuPont, 129 East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, 85, 135, 153-157 Economically disadvantaged students, 18 Education Development Center, 201 Educational Equity Concepts, 201-202 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education, 202 Electricity, classroom activity on, 12-14 Engagement in science activity, 14-15 ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, 202 Experience learning based on, 10-11 physical contact with natural world, 10-11 use of, in educational approaches, 22-23 Exploratorium, 130-131, 178 Financial planning community collaboration for reform, 185-186, 189, 190 kit rentals, 186 managing multiple funding sources, 156-157 materials support, 95-96, 187-188 in strategic planning process, 51, 53, 54 FOSS. See Full Option Science System 218 Franklin Institute, 87 Full Option Science System (FOSS), 101, 108, 109, 113, 214 Funding sources community collaboration, 185-186 strategic planning, 53 Geological Society of America, 203 Goals of science education, 17-19 Goals statement, 44 Green Bay, Wisconsin, 97, 136, 184-189 Hewlett-Packard Company, 129, 135, 158-159, 161-162 Higher order thinking, assessment of,17 Highline, Washington, 34-35 High~cope Educational Foundation, 203 Hinsdale, Illinois, School District, 55-56 Huntsville, Alabama, 86,97, 136,164-170 Improving Urban Elementary Science (Insights), 215 Individual differences in learning, 16, 28, 71 Inquiry-centered science benefits of, 14-17, 30 classroom management issues, 83 development of process skills in, 17-19, 21-22 didactic instruction in, 22-23 evaluation of curricula for, 64-72 historical development, 34-35 learning activities in, 8 sample activity, 12-14 vs. passive learning, 8-10 In-service education. See Professional development Insights (assessment system), 101, 103, 106-107, 109, 113, 116 Institute for Chemical Education, 203 Interdisciplinary learning as benefit of inquiry-centered science, 16 as curricular component, evaluation of, 68

::i Index Lawrence Hall of Science, 203-204 Leadership n obtaining support for inquiry- centered science, 124-126 of reform effort, 42-43, 60, 191 training, 136 Lead teachers, 85-86, 139-140, 141- 142, 148-149, 155, 157 leader master teachers, 167-169, 177-179 Learning cycle, 26-27, 30 classroom implementation, 26-27 consideration of, in curriculum evaluation, 67 process, 26 Learning styles consideration of, in curriculum design, 71 flexibility of inquiry-centered science, 16 Lessons, 33-34 Louisiana Energy and Environmental Resources and Information Center (LEERIC), 156 Materials support system, 36 advantages of district centralization, 90-91 alternatives to district centralization, 9~98 case studies, 143-144, 145, 149-151, 152, 166, 181-182, 187-188 classroom-based, 97-98 competitive bidding, 143 consideration of, in curriculum design, 71 consortium-based, 50, 97 delivery operations, 94 donated materials, 187 inventory, 93 management, 93 multiple use of kits, 95 packaging operations, 94 physical space, 92-93 professional association, 98 refurbishing of kits, 95-96 role of, 89-91 safe operations, 95 scheduling, 94 site-based, 97 special handling procedures, 95 staffing, 93 strategic planning, 36, 91-92, 98 strategic planning subcommittee activities, 50 Memorization, 8-9 Mentor teachers, 85-86 case study, 154-157 Merck & Co., Inc., 129 Modules, 33 pilot testing, 45, 46, 47-48 Montgomery County, Maryland, 85, 87, 92-93, 135, 138-145 Museums, collaborationswith, 130-131, 178 National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST), 204 National Association for the Education of Young Children, 204 National Association of Biology Teachers, 204 National Association of Elementary School Principals, 204-205 National Center for Improving Science Education, 205 National Center for Research on Teacher Learning, 205 National Network for Science and Technology, 205-206 National PTA National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 206 National Research Council (NRC), 206-207 National Science Education Leadership Association, 207 National Science Education Standards, 43,46, 117 National Science Education Standards, 15, 33, 69, 77, 84, 192 219

Index National Science Foundation, 139, 148, 169, 207-208 National Science Resources Center, 46, 64, 139, 165, 191, 208 National Science Teachers Association, 208 National Staff Development Council, 209 Natural world, children's experience with, 10-11 Needs assessment, 43-44 Northwest EQUALS, FAMILY SCIENCE, 209 Notebooks, 110 Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, 209 Parents in educational reform, 40 generating support for inquiry- centered science among, 126-127 Pasadena Unified School District Science Program, 86-87, 127, 136, 171-176 Passive learning, 8-9 limitations of, 9-10 Pedagogical appropriateness of curriculum addressing the goals of elementary science education, 64-67 focus of inquiry~:entered activities, 67-70 Piaget, Jean, 10, 21, 22, 27-28 Pilot testing of curriculum, 45, 46 allocating time for, 47-48 Portfolios, 110 Presentation and format of curriculum, 64, 70-72 Principals, 40. See also Administrative . . . activities Problem-solving skills benefits of inquiry-centered science, 17-19, 21-22 collaborative, 16, 68-69 curriculum materials for development of, 65 220 Process skills, 17-19 curriculum materials for development of, 65 Professional development administrative support for, 78-81 allocating time for, 4849, 78-79, 86 assessment of current practice, 4749 case studies, 141-142, 145, 148-149, 152, 154-155, 160-161, 167-169, 178-179 competent stage of inquiry- centered teaching, 83-84 corporate participation, 87 environment for, 76-77, 79-80, 88 by experiencing curriculum, 77-78 expert stage of inquiry-centered teaching, 84-85 funding for, 53 goals of, 76, 77, 85 good program qualities, 77-81 introductory program, 82-83 lead teacher model for, 85-86 levels of, 82, 88 scientist participation in, 86-87, 127-128, 172-173 stages of teacher involvement, 80, 88, 124 strategic planning, 34-36, 80-81 strategic planning subcommittee, 4749 teacher participation in design of, 82, 163 through collegial interaction, 79-80, 81 time of implementation, 81-82 Project 2061, 18-19, 196 Record-keeping, assessment data, 113 Safety issues curriculum design, 71 materials supply system, 95 San Francisco, California, 136, 177-182 School Science and Mathematics Association, 210

Index Science and Technology for Children (STC), 101,103,108,110, 113, 159, 186, 215 Science content of curriculum, 64, 159 evaluation of, 69-70 Scientist collaborators, 86-87, 127-128, 176 case studies, 142-143, 161-162, 171- 176, 179-180 in implementing inquiry-centered program, 126 in reform effort, 41-42 Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, 210 Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science, 210 Sociocultural factors children's contact with natural world, 10-11 curriculum evaluation, 70, 71 Spokane, Washington, 87, 93, 135, 146-152 STC. See Science and Technology for Children Strategic planning administrative support, 36-37 administrative support subcommittee, 51-53 assessment subcommittee, 51 assessment system, 36 case studies, 55-56, 139-142, 147- 148, 152, 159, 165-166 commitment of stakeholders, 42 community support, 3~37 community support subcommittee, 51-53 comprehensive approach, 37, 38 curriculum development, 33-34, 192 curriculum subcommittee, 4546 financial planning, 51-53 flexibility in, 53, 169-170 goal statement, 44 leadership team for, 4243, 60, 124125 materials support subcommittee, 50 materials support system, 36, 91-96, 98 needs assessment, 43-44 pilot testing, 45, 46, 57-58 procedure, 45 for professional development, 34- 36, 78-82 professional development subcommittee, 47-49 role of, 39, 191 science materials support, 36 stakeholder participants, 3942 subcommittee activities, 45-53 time line, 45, 57-59 Student behavior, 83 Superintendents, 41 Teacher activities administrative support for, 36-37 evaluation of curricula for, 67-68 in inquiry-centered learning, 32-33 lead teacher model, 85-86 management of classroom behavior, 83 professional development, 34-36 scientist collaborations, 86-87, 127- 128, 142-143, 172-174, 176, 179- 180 in strategic planning, 40 training for reform, case studies of, 139-140, 141, 144 See also Professional development TERC, 211 Testing, traditional approaches to limitations of, 100-101 vs. inquiry-centered assessment, 16-17 Textbooks, 8-9 Theory construction cognitive development, 24-25, 30 learning cycle, 26-27 as part of learning process, 22 Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education, 211 Volunteers, 188 221

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Remember the first time you planted a seed and watched it sprout? Or explored how a magnet attracted a nail? If these questions bring back memories of joy and wonder, then you understand the idea behind inquiry-based science--an approach to science education that challenges children to ask questions, solve problems, and develop scientific skills as well as gain knowledge. Inquiry-based science is based on research and experience, both of which confirm that children learn science best when they engage in hands-on science activities rather than read from a textbook.

The recent National Science Education Standards prepared by the National Research Council call for a revolution in science education. They stress that the science taught must be based on active inquiry and that science should become a core activity in every grade, starting in kindergarten. This easy-to-read and practical book shows how to bring about the changes recommended in the standards. It provides guidelines for planning and implementing an inquiry-based science program in any school district.

The book is divided into three parts. "Building a Foundation for Change," presents a rationale for inquiry-based science and describes how teaching through inquiry supports the way children naturally learn. It concludes with basic guidelines for planning a program.

School administrators, teachers, and parents will be especially interested in the second part, "The Nuts and Bolts of Change." This section describes the five building blocks of an elementary science program:

  • Community and administrative support.
  • A developmentally appropriate curriculum.
  • Opportunities for professional development.
  • Materials support.
  • Appropriate assessment tools.

Together, these five elements provide a working model of how to implement hands-on science.

The third part, "Inquiry-Centered Science in Practice," presents profiles of the successful inquiry-based science programs in districts nationwide. These profiles show how the principles of hands-on science can be adapted to different school settings.

If you want to improve the way science is taught in the elementary schools in your community, Science for All Children is an indispensable resource.

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