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References - Abell, D.L. (Technical coordinator). 1989. Proceedings of the California Riparian Systems Confer- ence: Protection, Management, and Restoration for the 1990's. U.S. Department of Agricul- ture, Forest Service, General Technical Report PSW- 110. 544 pp. Agee, J.K. 1993. Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest Forests. Island Press, Washington, DC. 493 PP. Alkire, C. 1993. Wild Salmon as Natural Capital. Volume 1, The Living Landscape. The Wilder- ness Society' Washington, DC. Allendorf, F.W. 1983. Isolation, gene flow, and genetic differentiation among populations. Pp. 51- 65 in C. Schonewald-Cox, S. Chambers, B. MacBryde, and L. Thomas, eds. Genetics and Conservation. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, CA. Allendorf, F.W. and N. Ryman. 1987. Genetic management of hatchery stocks. Pp. 141-159 in N. Ryman and F. Utter, eds. Population Genetics and Fishery Management. University of Wash- ington Press, Seattle, WA. Allendorf, F.W. and R.F. Leary. 1988. Conservation and distribution of genetic variation in a polytypic species, the cutthroat trout. Conserv. Biol. 2:170-184. Allendorf, F.W. and R.S. Waples. In press. Conservation genetics of salmonid fishes. In Conserva- tion Genetics: Case Histories from Nature, edited by J.C. Avise and J.L. Hamrick. Chapman & Hall, New York. Alm, G. 1959. Connection between maturity, size and age Research Drottningholm Reports 40:5-145. in fishes. Institute of Freshwater Anderson, J., D. Askren, T. Frever, J. Hayes, A. Lockhart, M. McCann, P. Pulliam, and R. Zabel. 1993. Columbia River Salmon Passage Model, CRiSP.1. Documentation for Version 4. De- cember 1993. Center for Quantitative Science, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Andrus' C.W., B.A. Long. and H.A. Froelich. 1988. Woody debris and its contribution to pool formation in a coastal stream 50 years after logging. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45:2080-2086. Anonymous. 1959. Senate Concurrent Resolution 35, 86th Congress, 1st Session, 105 Cong. Rec. 8026. 38

382 UPSTREAM: SALMON AND SOCIETY IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST Anonymous. 1991. Scientific review of North Pacific high seas driftnet fisheries. Sidney, B.C., June 11-14, 1991. Report for Presentation to the United Nations Pursuant to Resolutions 44/ 225 and 45/197. Argue, A.W., C.D. Shepard, M.P. Shepard, and J.S. Argue. 1986. A Compilation of Historical Catches by the British Columbia Commercial Salmon Fishery, 1876 to 1985. Contract report to C. C. Graham, Can. Dept. Fish. Oceans, Vancouver, BC. Argue, A.W., M.P. Shepard, T.F. Shardlow, and A.D. Anderson. 1987. Review of Salmon Troll Fisheries in Southern British Columbia. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1502: 150 pp. Argyris, C. and D.A. Schon. 1978. Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Ashworth, W. 1995. The Economy of Nature: Rethinking the Connections Between Ecology and Economics. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York. Babcock, J.P. 1902. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries (British Columbia) for the year 1901. Victoria, BC. Backman, T.W.H. and L. Berg. 1992. Managing molecules or saving salmon? The evolutionary significant unit. Wana Chinook Tymoo (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission) 2:8- 14. Barber, W.E. and J.N. Taylor. 1990. The importance of goals, objectives, and values in the fisheries management process and organization: A review. No. Am. J. Fish. Manag. 10(4):365-373. Barnthouse, L.W., A. Anganuzzi, L. Botsford, J. Kitchell, and S. Saila. 1994. Columbia basin salmonid model review; review of Biological Requirements Work Group Report on Analytical methods for determining requirements of listed Snake River salmon relative to survival and recovery. Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN. Bartley et al. 1992a (Bartley, D.M., B. Bentley, J. Brodziak, R. Gomulkiewicz, M. Mangel, and G.A.E. Gall). 1992. Geographic variation in population genetic structure of chinook salmon from California and Oregon. Fish. Bull. 90:77-100 (authorship amended per erratum, Fish. Bull. 90(3):iii). Bartley et al. 1992b (Bartley, D.M. Bagley, G. Gall' and B. Bentley). 1992. Usage of linkage disequilibrium data to estimate effective size of hatchery and natural fish populations. Conserv. Biol. 6:365-375. Baumgartner, T.R., A. Soutar, and V. Ferreira-Bartrina. 1992. Reconstructions of the history of Pacific sardine and northern anchovy populations over the past two millennia from sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin, California. CalCOFI Rep. 33:24-40. Beach, R.J., A.C. Gieger, S.J. Jeffries, S.D. Treacy, and B.L. Troutman. 1985. Marine Mammals and Their Interaction with Fisheries of the Columbia River and Adjacent Waters, 1980-1982. Third annual report. Washington Department of Wildlife, Wildlife Management Division, Olympia, WA. Beacham, T.D. 1986. Type, quantity, and size of food of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, British Columbia. Fish. Bull. 84:77-89. Beamish, R.J. and R. Bouillon. 1993. Pacific salmon production trends in relation to climate. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50:1002-1016. Beamish, R.J., B.L. Thomson, and G.A McFarlane. 1992. Spiny dogfish predation on chinook and coho salmon and the potential effects on hatchery-produced salmon. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 121 :444-455. Beechie, T., E. Beamer, and L. Wasserman. 1994. Estimating coho salmon rearing habitat and smolt production losses in a large river basin, and implications for habitat restoration. No. Am. J. Fish. Manag. 14(4):797-811. Behnke, R.J. 1992. Native Trout of Western North America. graph 6. American Fisheries Society? Bethesda? MD. American Fisheries Society Mono Bella, David A. 1991. Environmental Strategies and the Protection of Natural Ecosystems. Depart- ment of Civil Engineering Working Paper, Corvallis, OR.

REFERENCES 383 Berg, L. 1993. The Imnaha spring chinook story. Oregon's wild fish policy hurts more than helps. Wana Chinook Tymoo (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission) 3-4:8-13. Berg, L. and T.G. Northcote. 1985. Changes in territorial, gill-flaring, and feeding, behavior in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus k~sutch) following short-term pulses of suspended sedi- ment. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42(8):1410-1417. Berman, C.H. and T.P. Quinn. 1991. Behavioural thermoregulation and homing by spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), in the Yakima River. J. Fish Biol. 39 (3):301- 312. Berry, H. and R. B. Rettig. 1994. Who Should Pay for Salmon Recovery? Compensating for Economic Losses Caused by Recovery of Columbia River Salmon. A Pacific Northwest Ex- tension Publication, PNW 470, April 1994. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. Beschta, R.L. and R.L. Taylor. 1988. Stream temperature increases and land use in a forested Oregon watershed. Water Resour. Bull. 24(1): 19-25. Beschta, R.L. 1991. Stream habitat managements for fish in the northwestern United States: the role of riparian vegetation. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 10:53-58. Beschta, R.L., W.S. Platts, and B. Kauffman. 1991. Field Review of Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in the Grande Ronde and John Day River Basins of Eastern Oregon. U.S. Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR. DOE/BP-21493-1. 53 pp. Beschta, R.L., J. Griffith, and T.A. Wesche. 1993. Field Review of Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in Central Idaho. U.S. Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR. DOE/BP-61032-1. 26 pp. Beschta, R.L., J.R. Boyle, C.C. Chambers, W.P. Gibson, S.V. Gregory, J. Grizzel, J.C. Hagar, J.L. Li, W. C. McComb, T.W. Parzybok, M.L. Reiter, G.H. Taylor, and J.E. Warila. 1995. Cumu- lative Effects of Forest Practices in Oregon: Literature and Synthesis. Report prepared by Oregon State University. Corvallis, for the Oregon Department of Forestry, Salem, OR. Beschta, R.L., R.E. Bilby, and G.W. Brown, L.B. Holtby and T.D. Hofstra. 1987. Stream tempera- ture and aquatic habitat: fisheries and forestry implications. Pp. 191-232 in E.O. Salo and T.W. Cundy, eds. Streamside Management: Forestry and Fisheries Interactions. Contribu- tions Number 57, Institute of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle. Bessey, R.A. 1963. Pacific Northwest Regional Planning A Review. Bulletin 6 of Washington Department of Conservation, Division of Power Resources. Beverton, R.J.H., J.G. Cooke, J.B. Csirke, R.W. Doyle, G. Hempel, S.J. Holt, A.D. MacCall, D. Policansky, J. Roughgarden, J.G. Shepherd, M.P. Sissenwine, and P.H. Wiebe. 1984. Dynam- ics of Single Species: Group Report. Pp. 13-58 in R.M. May, ea., Exploitation of Marine Communities. Dahlem Konferenzen. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Beverton, R.J.H. and S.J. Holt. 1957. On the Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations. Fish Invest. Ser. II, XIX, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Bilby, R.E. 1988. Interactions between aquatic and terrestrial systems. Pp. 13-29 in K.J. Raedeke, ed. Streamside Management: Riparian Wildlife and Forestry Interactions. Contribution Num- ber 59, Institute of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Bilby, R.E. and P.A. Bisson. 1992. Allochthonous versus autochthonous organic matter contribu- tions to the trophic support of fish populations in clear-cut and old-growth forested streams. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49:540-551. Bisson, P.A. and G.E. Davis. 1976. Production of juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in a heated model stream. USDOC National Oceanic Atmospheric Administra- tion Fish. Bull. 74:763-774. Bisson, P.A. and R.E. Bilby. 1982. Avoidance of suspended sediment by juvenile coho salmon. No. Am. J. Fish. Manag. 2:371-374.

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416 UPSTREAM: SALMON AND SOCIETY IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST Williams, I.V. 1987. Attempts to re-establish sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations in the Upper Adams River, British Columbia, 1949-84. Pp. 235-242 in H.D. Smith, L. Margolis, and C.C. Wood, eds. Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Population Biology and Future Management. Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 96. Willingham, W.F. 1992. Northwest Passages: A History of the Seattle District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1896-1920. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle, WA. Wilson, E.O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Wilson, K. and G.E.B. Morren, Jr. 1990. Systems Approaches for Improvement in Agriculture & Resource Management. Macmillan, New York. Wilson, P. 1994. Spring FLUSH (Fish Leaving Under Several Hypotheses) Version 4.5. Draft Documentation, July 16, 1994, Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. Wilzbach, M.A. 1985. Relative roles of food abundance and cover in determining the habitat distribution of stream-dwelling cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42: 1668- 1672. Winner, L. 1977. Autonomous Technology. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Winter, G.W., C.B. Schreck, and J.D. McIntyre. 1980. Resistance of different stocks and transferrin genotypes of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, and steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri, to bacterial kidney disease and vibriosis. Fish. Bull. 77:795-802. Winton, J. and R. Hilborn. 1994. Lessons from supplementation of chinook salmon in British Columbia. No. Am. J. Fish. Manag. 14(1): 1-13. Wissmar, R.C. and F.J. Swanson. 1990. Landscape disturbances and lotic ecosystems. Pp. 65-89 in R.J. Naiman and H. Decamps, eds. The Ecology and Management of Aquatic-Terrestrial Ecotones. UNESCO, Paris, and Parthenon Publishing group, Carnforth, United Kingdom. Withler, R.E. and T.P.T. Evelyn. 1990. Genetic variation in resistance to bacterial kidney disease within and between tW<? strains of coho salmon from British Columbia Canada. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 119 (6):1003-1009. Wood, C.A. 1993. Implementation and evaluation of the water budget. Fisheries 18(11):6-17. Wooster, W.S. 1992. King Crab Dethroned. Pp. 15-30 in M.H. Glantz, ed. Climate Variability, Climate Change, and Fisheries. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge England, UK; New York. Wright, S. 1940. Breeding structure of populations in relation to speciation. Am. Nat. 74:232-248. Wright, S. 1951. The genetical structure of populations. Annals of Eugenics 15:323-354. Wright, S. 1969. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Vol. 2 The Theory of Gene Frequen- cies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. Wright, S. 1981. Contemporary Pacific salmon fisheries management. No. Am. J. Fish. Manag. 1 :29-40. WRRI. 1995a. Gravel Disturbance Impacts on Salmon Habitat and Stream Health. Volume I: Summary report. Report prepared by Water Resources Research Institute, Oregon State Uni- versity, Corvallis, for Oregon Division of State Lands, Salem, OR. 52 pp. WRRI. l995b. Gravel Disturbance Impacts on Salmon Habitat and Stream Health. Volume II: Technical background report. Report prepared by Water Resources Research Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, for Oregon Division of State Lands, Salem, OR. 228 pp. Wurtsbaugh, W.A. and G.E. Davis. 1977. Effects of temperature and ration level on the growth and food conversion efficiency of Salmo gairdneri Richardson. J. Fish Biol. 11 :87-98. Wydoski, R.S. and R.R. Whitney. 1979. Inland Fishes of Washington. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA. Yatsu, A., K. Hiramatsu and S. Hayase. 1993. Outline of the Japanese squid driftnet fishery with notes on the by-catch. Pp. 5-24 in J. Ito, W. Shaw, and R.L. Burgner (eds.), 1993. Symposium on Biology, Distribution, and Stock Assessment of Species Caught in the High Seas Driftnet Fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean. I.N.P.F.C. Bulletin 53 (III).

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The importance of salmon to the Pacific Northwest--economic, recreational, symbolic--is enormous. Generations ago, salmon were abundant from central California through Idaho, Oregon, and Washington to British Columbia and Alaska. Now they have disappeared from about 40 percent of their historical range. The decline in salmon numbers has been lamented for at least 100 years, but the issue has become more widespread and acute recently.

The Endangered Species Act has been invoked, federal laws have been passed, and lawsuits have been filed. More than $1 billion has been spent to improve salmon runs--and still the populations decline.

In this new volume a committee with diverse expertise explores the complications and conflicts surrounding the salmon problem--starting with available data on the status of salmon populations and an illustrative case study from Washington state's Willapa Bay.

The book offers specific recommendations for salmon rehabilitation that take into account the key role played by genetic variability in salmon survival and the urgent need for habitat protection and management of fishing.

The committee presents a comprehensive discussion of the salmon problem, with a wealth of informative graphs and charts and the right amount of historical perspective to clarify today's issues, including

  • Salmon biology and geography--their life's journey from fresh waters to the sea and back again to spawn, and their interaction with ecosystems along the way.
  • The impacts of human activities--grazing, damming, timber, agriculture, and population and economic growth. Included is a case study of Washington state's Elwha River dam removal project.
  • Values, attitudes, and the conflicting desires for short-term economic gain and long-term environmental health. The committee traces the roots of the salmon problem to the extractive philosophy characterizing management of land and water in the West.
  • The impact of hatcheries, which were introduced to build fish stocks but which have actually harmed the genetic variability that wild stocks need to survive. This book offers something for everyone with an interest in the salmon issue--policymakers and regulators in the United States and Canada; environmental scientists; environmental advocates; natural resource managers; commercial, tribal, and recreational fishers; and concerned residents of the Pacific Northwest.
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