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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5133.
×

Index

A

access to education, 46-48

minority enrollments, 55-56

African-Americans

1890 colleges, 1, 15, 47

Agency for International Development, U.S., 2

alternative agriculture, 18

B

Bailey, Liberty Hyde, 90

Bankhead-Jones Act, 14

biotechnology, 22-23, 30

technology transfer, 97

bridging agreements / programs, 5, 31, 32, 56

C

capacity building programs, 56

challenge grants, 50-51

application, 14 n.2

current institutional spending, 52

for innovative teaching, 5, 8, 65

checkoff funding, 82

collaborative research and development agreements, 83

competitive grants

alternative allocation mechanisms, 83-84

characteristics, 78

current federal allocation, 9, 73

equitable distribution, 79-80

experiment station research, 28

for extension, 103

recommendations for, 5, 9, 12, 75-80, 103

Congress, U.S., food and agriculture advisory boards, 26-27

consumers

in food and agriculture system, 3, 22, 25

research agenda and, 97

cooperative extension. see extension activities;

extension funding

Current Research Information System (CRIS), 26, 73

D

Department of Agriculture, U.S.

college and university spending, 50, 52

current research spending, 9

intramural research, 14 n.1, 73

in LGCA system management, 2, 14

recommendations for institutional linkages, 8

research spending, 73-80

diet and health, 15-17, 25

extension activities, 91

as multidisciplinary science, 101

distance learning

applications, 35, 36

recommendations for, 4, 33

E

economic development, 100

education

curriculum revitalization projects, 61

environmental/natural resource, 62-65

faculty characteristics, 56-58

faculty exchanges, 56

federal role, 50-51

lifelong, 39

minority student enrollment, 55-56

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5133.
×

in non-land grant schools, 62

of foreign students, 48

problem-solving orientation, 60, 65-67

program design, 59-62

rationale for LGCA system, 46-50

recommendations for, 67-68

student characteristics, 53, 55

student exchanges/transfers, 56

student recruitment, 54

tuition and fees, 48

USDA spending, 50-51

see also teaching

1890 colleges, 1, 15, 30, 32, 47

current status, 80

extension activities, 95

funding, 5, 6, 7, 12, 80, 95

recommendations for, 5, 6, 7, 12, 80-81

research activities, 80

student enrollment, 55-56

1862 colleges, 1, 15

in regionalization of LGCA system, 32

tuition and fees, 48

electronic technology

for education, 34, 35

geographic information systems, 55

Elementary and Secondary Education Reauthorization Act, 15, 56

employment trends, 1, 3, 13, 15

demand for food and agriculture graduates, 51

environmental concerns, 15, 18, 22

academic programs, 62-65

extension activities and, 96-97

as rationale for federal involvement in extension, 90-91

EPSCoR. see Experimental Program for Stimulating Competitive Research

ESCOP. see Experiment Station Committee on Organization and Policy

Experiment Station Committee on Organization and Policy (ESCOP), 27-28

Experimental Program for Stimulating Competitive Research (EPSCoR), 5, 79

extension activities

consumers of, 25

cooperative vs. university extension, 87, 88

current context, 87, 92

federal role, 90-92

future prospects, 93-94

historical development, 93

information management, 91-92

integration with research and teaching activities, 37-41, 42, 89, 91

interpretation of regulations as, 89

LGCA system mission, 14

national interest and, 88-89

non-USDA federal agency interests in, 92

nonfarm/nonrural, 6, 94, 98-101, 102

opportunities for improvement, 87-88

oversight, 10-11

performance evaluation, 43, 91-92

private-public collaboration for, 96

private vs. public roles, 94-95

privatization of, 11

recommendations for, 6-7, 92, 101-104

regional diversity, 103

regional market-based, 34-35

research base, 6, 9, 101

role of, 87, 96-98

rural economic development, 100

extension funding

accountability, 91

allocation, 102-104

for 1890 colleges, 95

extension research focus and, 39

for nonfarm activities, 98

recent trends, 90

recommendations for, 4-7, 8-9, 11, 102-104

return on investment, 89

USDA, 50

F

faculty

appointment trends, 38

demographics, 56-58

incentives for, 58-59

student contacts, 58

farms

current characteristics, 2, 14-15, 18, 23-24, 92

diversity, 28-29

incomes, 23

knowledge sources, 92

niche markets, 24

population trends, 1, 13, 15, 93

rural economic development as extension activity, 100

specialization, 94

technological change, 16-17

see also industrial agriculture

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology, 51

federal government

congressional advisory bodies on food and agriculture, 26-27

in extension system, 90-92, 94-96, 98

in food and agriculture education, 50-51

in food and agriculture research, 72-80

interpretation of regulations as extension activity, 89

justification for involvement of, 43-45

in LGCA system funding, 2, 9-11, 36

in LGCA system management, 1-2, 18-19

non-USDA agencies, 6, 8, 75, 92

oversight activities, 10-11

program evaluation, 42-43

Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act, 19, 73

food safety, 25, 60

food stamp program, 23

foreign students, 48

formula funding

accountability, 75

advantages of, 74-75, 103

allocation system, 33, 73-74

current federal spending, 19, 73

disadvantages of, 75, 103

for extension, 103

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5133.
×

for integrative activities, 42

recommendations for, 9-10, 12, 33, 103

4-H clubs, 54

funding

accountability, 41-45

allocation, 2, 3-11, 14, 28-29, 40-41

for development of teaching practice, 5

LGCA system, 2, 14

oversight, 10-11

private sector research spending, 30

recommendations for federal contribution, 9-11, 33

recommendations for state contributions, 6, 81

regional projects, 8, 33

sources, 2, 19

USDA spending for colleges and universities, 50

see also competitive grants;

formula funding

G

genetic engineering. see biotechnology

geographic information systems, 55

Government Performance and Results Act, 42-43

Green Revolution, 69

H

Hatch Act of 1887, 1, 14, 16, 73

I

independent crop consultants, 97

industrial agriculture, 18

characteristics, 23

development of, 23, 24

educational needs, 60

extension needs, 94

information management

Current Research Information System, 26, 73

extension system, 6, 91-92

recommendations for, 6, 92

integrated pest management, 96-97

intellectual property rights/patents, 23, 81, 82

inter- and multidisciplinary learning/research, 4, 5, 8, 35-36, 65 , 85

food and nutrition science, 101

international context

academic programs, 60

privatization of extension, 94

research needs, 69-70

U.S. agriculture in, 17, 22

Internet, 8, 31, 35

internships, 60

recommendations for, 5, 62

J

Joint Council on Food and Agricultural Sciences, 26-27

L

land grant college of agriculture system

access, 46-48, 55-56

contextual analysis, 21

cooperation within, 5, 7-8, 32, 39

current context, 2-3, 14-18

founding mandate, 1, 13-14, 46

historical development, 47

legislative history, 18-19

opportunities for improvement, 3-12

organizational structure, 1-2

rationale for teaching component, 46-50

smaller institutions, 32

stakeholder participation in, 3, 4, 25-28

unique features, 10-11

see also organizational structure of LGCA system

LGCA system. see land grant college of agriculture system

Lincoln University, 55

M

market characteristics

consumer behavior, 22

global context, 17, 22

regional extension based on, 34-35

minority populations

agriculture student enrollment, 55-56

educational grants, 52

faculty demographics, 56-58

recommendations regarding, 7

Morrill Act

of 1862, 1, 13, 14, 15, 47

of 1890, 1, 15

Morrill-Nelson Grants, 14 n.2, 50

Multicultural Scholars Program, 52

N

National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act, 18

National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board, 27

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, 27-28

national economy, agricultural component of, 15, 16

National Initiative for Research in Agriculture, Food, and the Environment, 5, 19, 28, 75

National Institutes of Health, 2, 75, 78

national interest, 3

extension activities and, 11, 88-89

in food and agriculture education, 47-50

in food and agriculture research, 69-70

in food and agriculture system, 10-11, 15-17, 29

program evaluation in terms of, 41-45

stakeholder participation in food and agricultural system, 3, 25-28

National Science Foundation, 2, 75

Native Americans, 7, 15, 56, 57

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5133.
×

New Mexico State University, vii

new geography, 7-8, 30-31

rationale, 31-33

1994 colleges, 7, 15

O

organizational structure of LGCA system

current, 30

federal role, 18-19

federal-state partnership, 1-2, 14

integration of functions in, 4, 8-9, 37-41, 42, 91

intramural issues, 37

recommendations for new geography, 7-8, 30-33

for research, 73

role of colleges in, 11

stakeholder participation in, 3, 25-28

P

patents. see intellectual property rights/patents

population

farm, 1, 13, 15, 93

world trends, 17

poverty, 23

private sector

independent crop consultants, 97

LGCA research funded by, trends in, 81

public partnerships for research, 81-82

research activities, 18, 29-30

role in extension system, 94-96

privatization

definition, 94

of extension activities, 11, 94-95

of research activities, 29-30

Project Sunrise, 61

public goods concept, 43-44

Purnell Act, 18

R

regional activities/approach

diversity in extension system, 103-104

market-based extension, 34-35

rationale, 33

rationale for federal involvement in extension, 90-91

recommendations for, 4, 7-8, 30-36

research resource allocation, 33

teaching practice, 34

research activities

adaptive, 71-72

as cascade of knowledge, 70, 71

consumer influence, 97

continuum, 70-72

dissemination of findings, 72

economic models, 16-17

at 1890 colleges, 80

evaluation of, 5, 10-11, 26, 41-45, 73

extension support, 6, 9, 101

fundamental, 70, 72

integration with extension and teaching activities, 37-41, 42, 89, 91

integrative, 70-71

intellectual property rights, 23, 81, 82

national interest in, 69-70

organizational structure, 73

private sector, 18

proposal writing, 83

recommendations for, 4, 29-30, 85-86

resource allocation, 25-26, 28, 32

social rate of return, 70, 85

specialization, 31-32, 34

students in, 40

USDA intramural, 14 n.1

Research and Marketing Act, 18

research funding

allocation mechanisms for competitive grants, 83-84

chunk grants, 83-84

federal role, 72-73

federal spending, 9, 73-80

inter- and multidisciplinary, 85

percentage funding methods, 84

performance-based, 84

preproposal review method, 83

private-public partnerships, 81-82

recommendations for, 4-6, 8-9

USDA, 50

via checkoff funding, 82

Roosevelt, Theodore, 90, 93

S

small-business innovation research grants, 83

Smith-Lever Act of 1914, 1, 14, 98

South Dakota State University, 57

specialization

information needs of farmers, 94, 96

in LGCA system, 31-32, 34

of research scientists, 38-39

state government

extension funding, 95

funding of 1890 colleges, 80, 81, 95

justification for involvement of, 45

LGCA system funding by, 2, 19, 80, 81

in LGCA system management, 1-2

multistate issues, 31

recommendations for, 6, 95

Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, 33

T

teaching

computer technology for, 34

encouraging innovation in, 5, 8, 65

faculty-student contacts, 58

federal grants for, 50-51

integration with extension and research activities, 37-39, 42

regional coordination, 34

science education through agriculture, 66

student internships, 5, 60

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5133.
×

systems approach, 64

transdisciplinary program, 63

tuition and fees, 48

Tuskegee University, 1

U

university extension, 87, 88

University of California at Davis, 64, 67

University of California at Santa Cruz, 88

University of Connecticut, vi

University of Maryland, 63

University of Minnesota, 61

University of Nebraska, 61

University of Washington, 88

University of Wisconsin, 61

urban/suburban areas

agriculture student recruitment in, 54

extension activities, 94, 98-102

LGCA system and, 32-33

V

von Liebig, Justus, 16

W

W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 25, 61

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5133.
×
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5133.
×
Page 117
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5133.
×
Page 118
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5133.
×
Page 119
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5133.
×
Page 120
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5133.
×
Page 121
Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1996. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: Public Service and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5133.
×
Page 122
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Since their inception in 1862, the U.S. land grant colleges have evolved to become the training ground for the nation's and the world's agriculturists. In this book, the committee examines the future of the colleges of agriculture in light of changing national priorities for the agricultural, food, and natural resource system. The effects of federal funding constraints also are examined, as are opportunities for growth presented by developments in science. The committee's preceding volume, Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: A Profile, is a compilation of the data that helped formulate the specific questions to be addressed. Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Univerisities: Public Service and Public Policy is the deliberative report, rating conclusions and recommendations for institutional innovation and public policy. It addresses these and other questions:

  • What education mission should colleges of agriculture adopt--and what strategies should they use--in light of significant changes in the agricultural complex?
  • Research in agriculture is expected to respond to consumer demands, environmental concerns, world population growth, and increasing pressure on agricultural lands. Is the century-old structure of land grant university-based research up to the task?
  • What is the role of extension in light of today's smaller farming communities and larger farming conglomerates?

This volume is the culmination of a landmark evaluation of land grant colleges of agriculture, an American institution. This document will be of value to policymakers, administrators, and others involved in agricultural science and education.

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