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The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence (1996)

Chapter: Abbreviations

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Suggested Citation:"Abbreviations." National Research Council. 1996. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5141.
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Page 212

Abbreviations

a

Designating a significance-level probability or confidence coefficient; a measure of the uncertainly of a band measure with VNTRs.

image

 

A measure of the degree of population subdivision; equivalent to FST.

c2

A measure used to assess statistical significance. From the value of c2 and the number of degrees of freedom, the probability of a deviation from the expected value as large as or larger than that observed can be determined.

2p rule

A conservative adjustment for a single VNTR band possibly being from a heterozygote; 2pi replaces pi2.

A

Adenine; also used to designate an arbitrary genetic locus.

ABC

American Board of Criminalistics.

AMP-FLP

Amplified fragment length polymorphism.

ANSI/ASQC

American National Standards Institute/American Society for Quality Control.

ASCLD

American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors.

ASCLD-LAB

American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors, Laboratory Accreditation Board.

C

Cytosine, covariance (also Cov).

CAP

College of American Pathologists.

CODIS

The FBI national DNA identification index.

DISJ

A designation of a VNTR. I designates the chromosome; J is a

Suggested Citation:"Abbreviations." National Research Council. 1996. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5141.
×

Page 213

 

numerical indentifier. D1S79 is number 79 on chromosome 1.

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid, the genetic material.

DQA

A gene locus associated with HLA and used in forensic analysis; the gene product is called DQa.

FBI

The US Federal Bureau of Investigation.

FST

Wright's measure of population subdivision; same as image when mating within subpopulations is random.

G

Guanine.

GYPA

Glycophorin A gene locus.

HBGG

Hemoglobin b gamma globin gene locus.

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen gene locus.

HW

Hardy-Weinberg (proportions).

K562

A human cell line whose DNA sample is used as a standard.

LDLR

Low-density lipoprotein receptor gene locus.

LE

Linkage equilibrium.

LR

Likelihood ratio.

MVR

Minisatellite variant repeat.

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology.

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction.

pi

A symbol used to designate the frequency of the i-th allele; the subscript may be dropped.

PM

Polymarker.

QA

Quality assurance.

QC

Quality control.

RFLP

Restriction fragment length polymorphism.

s or s

Standard deviation.

STR

Short tandem repeats.

T

Thymine.

TWGDAM

Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis and Methods.

V

Variance (also Var).

VNTR

Variable number of tandem repeats. (These are RFLPs.)

Suggested Citation:"Abbreviations." National Research Council. 1996. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5141.
×
Page 212
Suggested Citation:"Abbreviations." National Research Council. 1996. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5141.
×
Page 213
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The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence Get This Book
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In 1992 the National Research Council issued DNA Technology in Forensic Science, a book that documented the state of the art in this emerging field. Recently, this volume was brought to worldwide attention in the murder trial of celebrity O. J. Simpson. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence reports on developments in population genetics and statistics since the original volume was published. The committee comments on statements in the original book that proved controversial or that have been misapplied in the courts. This volume offers recommendations for handling DNA samples, performing calculations, and other aspects of using DNA as a forensic tool—modifying some recommendations presented in the 1992 volume. The update addresses two major areas:

  • Determination of DNA profiles. The committee considers how laboratory errors (particularly false matches) can arise, how errors might be reduced, and how to take into account the fact that the error rate can never be reduced to zero.
  • Interpretation of a finding that the DNA profile of a suspect or victim matches the evidence DNA. The committee addresses controversies in population genetics, exploring the problems that arise from the mixture of groups and subgroups in the American population and how this substructure can be accounted for in calculating frequencies.

This volume examines statistical issues in interpreting frequencies as probabilities, including adjustments when a suspect is found through a database search. The committee includes a detailed discussion of what its recommendations would mean in the courtroom, with numerous case citations. By resolving several remaining issues in the evaluation of this increasingly important area of forensic evidence, this technical update will be important to forensic scientists and population geneticists—and helpful to attorneys, judges, and others who need to understand DNA and the law. Anyone working in laboratories and in the courts or anyone studying this issue should own this book.

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