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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
×

Index

A

Accessing Federal Data Bases for Contaminated Site Clean-Up Technologies , 85

Accounting profession. See also Environmental auditing

developing consistent standards for tabulating remediation liabilities , 67-68

training certified environmental accountants, 5

Acrimony, reducing, 9

Advanced Applied Technology Demonstration Facility (AATDF) project , 227, 234, 236

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 184

Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE), 234

Air sparing, 37-38, 92, 96, 108, 117, 151, 213, 226

Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup, 1

Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center (ATTIC) Network , 272

American Academy of Environmental Engineers, 16, 85, 258, 269

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, 68

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 19-20, 48

Aqueous-phase transport, 27

Aquifers

characterizing, 221

complexity of, 88

nonuniformity of, 24

Aroclors. See Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

Arsenic, 51

Artificial wetlands. See Wetlands, constructed

Asphalt batching, 90

B

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), 21

Biodegradation, 102-103

Biological reaction processes, 89, 91-92, 98-99, 108-112, 125-128, 132-133

testing, 210-212, 214-215

Biopiles, 91

Bioremediation, 36-38, 43, 60, 65-66, 81, 83-84, 149-150, 214-215.

See also Engineered in situ bioremediation

evolution of, 83, 87

sulfate-reducing, 119

testing, 214-215

Bioremediation in the Field Search System (BFSS), 273

Bioslurry reactors, 91, 125-128

Biosparging, 38, 91

Biostabilization, 90-91, 134-135

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
×

Bioventing, 81, 91, 109-111, 209

evolution of, 110-111

Brownfield sites, 30-31, 62-63, 196-197

C

California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) Technology Certification Program, 241, 243

Case Study Data System, 273

Center for Environmental Excellence, 209

Chemical reaction processes, 89, 92, 98-99, 132

neutralization, 29, 36

oxidation, 92, 117

testing, 210-212

Chlorinated solvents, 21, 65-66, 83, 92, 100-101, 113-120, 214

relative ease of cleanup, 87-88

relative solubilities of, 115

research needed, 120

Citizens Opposed to Polluting the Environment, 33

Clay, lenses of, 24

CleanUp Information Bulletin Board System (CLU-IN), 273

Clients. See Site owners

Coal tar. See Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Complexation reaction, 27

Composting, 91, 150

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 28, 42, 172.

See also Superfund program

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS), 273

Computer simulation models, 206

Congress, action needed by

authorizing long-term amortization of remediation liabilities, 5, 69, 76

evaluating issue of national cleanup standards, 6, 77

reviewing effectiveness of state cleanup standards, 71

Superfund reform, 47-48

Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 4, 18, 47, 49

Consensus building, 8

Consortia. See Partnerships in technology development

Consultants. See Remediation technology consultants

Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes (CROW™), 36

Containment processes, 89-91, 98-99, 130-131

research needed, 155-156

testing, 210-211

Contaminants.

See also Ground water contaminants;

Soil contaminants;

and specific contaminants

classes of compounds, 13-14

diffusion into micropores, 28, 32-33

entrapment into immobile zones, 28

exposure pathways, 22-24, 185-186

hydrophobic, 28, 32, 155-156

ion exchange bonding of, 28

measuring levels of exposure to, 9

mixtures of, 155-156

off site migration of, 2, 20

plume formations from, 7, 24-25, 90-91, 112, 116

recalcitrant, 2, 87-88

relative treatability of, 13, 237-238

solvent- and surfactant-based, 156

sorption to subsurface materials, 28, 33, 123

sources of, 21-29, 97, 113, 120-121, 129-130, 134-136, 144-146, 219 -220

unreactive or immobile, 155

Contaminated sites. See Hazardous waste sites

Conventional remediation technologies.

See also specific technologies

Glossary of Remediation Technologies, 90-95

high costs of, 33-34

limitations of, 1-2, 7, 17-18, 30, 32-34

Coprecipitation, 90, 138

Cosolvent flushing, 86, 92-93, 218-220

Cost of Remedial Action Model (CORA), 274

Costs, comparing, 1, 8, 15-17, 252-270

cost effectiveness presently unrewarded, 4

estimates that include discount rates and tax benefits needed, 17, 262-267, 270

estimates that include one-time start-up costs needed, 17, 253, 268 -269

fixed-price remediation contracts needed, 5-6, 69, 76

pattern of stalling versus acting, 47

sharing of data on performance and costs needed, 8, 253, 265, 267-269

standardized estimating systems needed, 8, 192-193, 252-253, 259-265

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
×

standardized system of metrics needed, 253, 258-259, 268-269

"template sites" cost comparison system needed, 16, 254-258, 269

typical cost categories used, 261-262, 269-270

Cyanide oxidation, 36

D

Data bases presently available, 84-85, 272-277

Dechlorination, 36, 151

Defense Environmental Network and Information Exchange (DENIX), 274

Dioxin, 52

Displacement, 105

Dissolution, 102-103

Dissolved-phase solvents, 115-116

"DOIT" committee. See Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Technologies

Down time, likelihood of, 190

Dual-phase extraction, 37-38, 87, 93, 107-108, 117

E

Electrokinetics, 93, 141

Electron acceptors, 91-92

Electroosmosis, 93, 231

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, 74

Emulsification, 105

Engineered in situ bioremediation, 91, 119

Engineering friendliness, 189-191

Enhanced solubilization, 105

Enhanced sorption, 90-91, 139

Environmental auditing, 5, 68, 76

Environmental companies. See Remediation technology providers

Environmental Leadership Program. See Naval Environmental Leadership Program

Environmental Management Science Program, 59

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 243-246

collects data on innovative technologies, 2, 81

developing a standard "template sites" cost comparison system, 16

See also Costs, comparing

ensuring consistency in remediation technology selection process, 6, 70-71, 76-77, 198

establishing a coordinated national testing program, 14, 248

establishing a national registry of contaminated sites, 6, 77

evaluating issue of national cleanup standards, 6, 71, 77

improving Superfund and RCRA enforcement, 5, 76

making comprehensive data bases available, 8, 73-74, 154, 267, 270

notifies SEC about compliance with environmental laws, 67

Online Library System (OLS), 274

reducing litigation by promptly identifying potentially responsible parties, 72

requiring early public involvement, 10, 197-198

reviewing effectiveness of state cleanup standards, 71, 76

Environmental regulators, See Regulatory authorities

Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP), 234

Environmental Technologies Remedial Actions Data Exchange (EnviroTRADE) , 274

Environmental Technology Information System (TIS), 274

Equilibrium point, 109

Explosives, 100-101

Extraction processes, 92-96, 98-99

F

Facilitated transport, 27

Federal Accounting Standards Board, 68

Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Technologies, 39

Federal Facilities Compliance Act, 29

Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, 11, 85, 193

guidelines for data collection at federal facilities, 202, 241-242, 260

work-breakdown structure (WBS) for standardized cost reporting, 16 , 260, 262, 269-270

Fenton's reagent, 92, 117, 150

Fixed-price remediation contracts. See Costs, comparing

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
×

Forgiveness, 189-190

Fracturing technology, 93

Full-cost environmental accounting. See Environmental auditing

Fungal treatment, 91

Future land use, limits on, 196-197

G

Geological formations. See Verification of innovative remediation technology performance

Global Network for Environmental Technology (GNET), 275

Government agencies

initiating periodic peer review of technologies, 8, 154-155

sharing of data on performance and costs needed, 8, 154

wide variety of, with differing priorities, 45

Ground water contaminants, 80-81

fewer treatment technologies available than for soil, 7

flow rates of, 25-26

innovative technologies in use, 43-44

retention mechanisms of, 28

sources of, listed, 22

transformation mechanisms of, 29

transport mechanisms of, 27, 30

Ground Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center (GWRTAC), 19 , 85, 267, 275

Grout walls, 90

H

Hazardous Waste Collection Data Base, 273

Hazardous waste sites

full disclosure concerning, 73-74

no guidelines for data collection at, 202

numbers of, 18, 31

owners of See Site owners

Hazardous Waste Superfund Collection Data Base, 275

Hazard Ranking System (HRS), 176

Health risks. See Human health risks; Wildlife health risks

Herbicides, carrier solvents of, 113

"Hockey-stick" plot effect, 126-127

Hot air injection, 36

Human health risks, 183-189, 204-205.

See also Risk-based corrective action (RBCA) standards

Hydration, 90, 92

Hydrogen peroxide, 150

I

Implementation, ease of, 190

Incineration approaches, 33, 36-37, 52, 92, 148

Industry groups, 2.

See also individual groups

Injection approaches, 230.

See also Hot air injection

Innovative remediation technologies, 80-166.

See also Testing remediation technologies;

Transferring remediation technologies;

and specific technologies

assessing commercial potential of, 191-194

barriers to implementation, 38-39, 46-55

case histories of, 44, 58, 60, 64-65, 118, 209, 211, 214-219, 222-223, 226, 229

constant evolution of, 81-82

cost targets to beat needed, 5, 69

definitions, 81-97

Glossary of Remediation Technologies, 90-95

lacking information about, 7-8, 82, 84-86

more a legal product than a technological one, 53

present utilization of, 34-38

research needed, 88, 155-157

Innovative remediation technology consultants. See Remediation technology consultants

Innovative remediation technology providers. See Remediation technology providers Innovative technology users. See Site owners Innovative Treatment Technologies: Annual Status Report,81

Inorganic contaminants, 100-101, 134-144.

See also Metal contaminants;

Radioactive contaminants

relative mobility of, 137

research needed, 144

In situ

versus ex situ approaches, 36-38, 83

precipitation/coprecipitation, 90

soil mixing, 90, 93

Insurance companies, 174

Intellectual property restrictions, 193

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
×

International Standards Organization (ISO) ISO 14001, 69

standards for environmental management systems, 5, 68-69, 76

Internet listings needed

comprehensive data bases of remediation technology, 6, 154, 267

national registry of contaminated sites, 6

Interstate Regulatory Cooperation Project for Environmental Technologies , 242

Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC) Working Group , 242

Intrinsic bioremediation, 91, 109

research needed, 156

Intrinsic remediation (natural attenuation), 37-38

Investors, 174.

See also Venture capital sources predictions of high returns not borne out, 42

presently unable to project returns, 4

K

Kerr Laboratory. See Robert S. Kerr Environmental Laboratory Soil Transport and Fate Data Base

L

Laboratory tests. See Testing remediation technologies, determining level of testing required

Land farming, 37, 91, 150

Landfilling, 35, 37

Leaking underground storage tanks, 97

cleaning up, 36-38

regulations, 29-31

Legislative reform needed, dealing with likelihood of relaxing cleanup regulations , 3-4.

See also Congress, action needed by Lenders, reluctant. See Property values depressed

Level of testing. See Testing remediation technologies, determining level of testing required

Lime addition, 90

Long-term liability, difficult to calculate, 2

M

Maintenance requirements, 190

Manufacturers. See Remediation technology providers

Markets for innovative remediation technologies, 42-79

few incentives offered at present, 4, 15-16

inherently fragmented, 45

making data about remediation market available, 65, 77

stimulating by harnessing market forces, 3-7, 20, 42-43, 62-75

Massachusetts program for licensing site professionals, 6, 72-73, 77, 241

Massachusetts Strategic Envirotechnology Partnership (STEP), 243

Materials handling, research needed, 156

Metal contaminants, 21, 27, 136-141

nonvolatile, 90

precipitation of, 28-29

research needed, 156-157

sequestering See Precipitation

Methanotrophic bacteria, 116

Microbial degradation, 29, 36, 90, 102, 122-123, 147-148

Mixed-region vapor stripping (MRVS), 216-21

Mobilization processes, 92-96, 98-99

Modeling, 228

N

NAPL recovery, 93, 106, 218-220.

See also Nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) transport;

Thermally enhanced NAPL recovery

NAPL source zone mapping, 229

National Advisory Council on Environmental Policy and Technology, 38

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), contaminated sites on land owned by, 1, 18

National Center for Integrated Bioremediation Research and Development (NCIBRD), 234

National Commission on Superfund, 39

National Environmental Technology Test Sites (NETTS), 234

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
×

National Priorities List (NPL) of sites. See Superfund program

National Research Council (NRC), 1, 18, 212

National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 243

Naval Environmental Leadership Program (NELP), 227, 235

Nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) transport, 22, 24, 27, 92-96

complex flow paths, 120

direct mobilization, 125

DNAPLs, 27, 86, 93-94, 114, 155

entrapment, 28

LNAPLs, 27, 93-94

O

Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 18

Olefins, 92

Open detonation, 36

Organic biofilters, 92

Ozone, 92, 117, 150

P

Partnerships in technology development, 15, 245-246, 249

Passive-reactive barriers, 90, 92, 138, 185.

See also Zero-valent iron barriers testing, 222-223

Passive treatment walls, 37, 65, 86

Peer review panels, 5-6, 8, 154-155

Perchloroethylene (PCE), 21, 113 migration rate of, 25, 28, 30

Permeable treatment walls. See Passive-reactive barriers;

Zero-valent iron barriers

Peroxide combinations, 92

Pesticides, 51, 100-101, 144-153

carrier solvents of, 113

classes and uses table, 145

Petroleum hydrocarbons, 19-21, 36, 81-84, 97, 100-113

relative profitability of cleanup, 45, 60

relative treatability of, 7, 54, 87-88, 103

research needed, 112

Pharmaceutical industry, analogy to, 56-57, 201

pH-controlled solid phase formation, 90, 136, 149

Physical separation, 36

Phytoremediation, 92, 143, 157

Pilot tests. See Testing remediation technologies, determining level of testing required

Plasma high temperature metals recovery, 36

Point of maximum effect, 10, 198

Political pressure for reform, 47-48

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 21, 52, 86, 100-101, 129-135

cost of cleaning up, 33-34

research needed, 133

verifying stabilization of, 211, 225

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 21, 25, 53, 100-101, 120-129

relative rates of biodegradation, 122

research needed, 128-129

Potassium permanganate, 92, 150

Pozzolonic agents, 90, 131

Precipitation, 90, 138

Predictability under wide-ranging site conditions, 191

Professional organizations, initiating periodic peer review of technologies , 8, 154-155

Profitability, 193

Property values depressed, 2, 20, 30 fear of pre-sale environmental assessments, 63-64

Public involvement, 9-19, 170-172

avoiding community disruption, 194-195

case histories of, 178-180, 182-183

ensuring public safety, 195-196

Public sector environmental remediation, inadequate cost containment , 4

Pump-and-treat systems, 32-34, 37-38, 93-94, 117, 137-138

failures of, 202

R

Radioactive contaminants, 21, 27, 31-32, 90, 134-136

Radio frequency heating, 151-152

Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI), 234

Recommendations, 4-17, 75-77, 154-157, 197-198, 247-249, 269-270

Records of Decision Data Base, 276

Redox potential-controlled solid phase formation, 90, 92, 136, 149

Reducing treatment zones, generating, 139

Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, 184

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
×

Regulatory authorities, 2, 172-173.

See also Environmental Protection Agency (EPA);

State regulatory authorities

approval protocols of, 242-243

averse to risk-taking, 153, 173

categorizing sites by treatment difficulty, 12-14, 34

initiating periodic peer review of technologies, 8, 154-155

wide latitude in decisionmaking, 8

Regulatory barriers to innovation, 46-54

approval difficult to obtain, 4, 39

inconsistent enforcement, 3, 54, 65, 70

lack of consistent standards, 4, 53-54, 65, 70-72

likelihood of relaxation by legislative reform, 3-4

limits on customers' freedom to choose and adapt technologies, 46, 72-73

option to arbitrate, 46

surmounting, 196

Remediation Information Management System (RIMS), 275

Remediation technologies. See Conventional remediation technologies;

Innovative remediation technologies

Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF), 16, 19, 245-246, 258, 269

Remediation technology consultants

averse to risk-taking, 153

bias towards providing clients with "safe" technologies, 45

providing diverse range of environmental services, 44

sharing of data on performance and costs needed, 8, 154

Remediation technology providers, 173

compiling and releasing cost figures, 15

considering client and client's consultant in sales strategy, 45

considering concerns of all stakeholders, 10, 198

decline in stocks of, 42-44

offering proof their technology works to reduce risks, 11, 46, 198

start-up difficulties, 2-4, 44, 50, 52, 55, 59, 61-62

ReOpt Data Bases, 276

Residual-phase solvents, 114-115

Residuals production, 191

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 2-3, 29-31, 42, 172

cleanups under, 37-38

official corrective action plan required, 47, 175

regulatory structure, 46-54

Resource Conservation and Recovery Information System (RCRIS), 276

Risk-based corrective action (RBCA) standards, 19-20, 48

Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory Treatability Data Base, 272

Robert S. Kerr Environmental Laboratory Soil Transport and Fate Data Base, 272, 276

Robustness, 189

S

Saturated zone, 24

Scale of testing. See Testing remediation

technologies, determining level of

testing required

SEC. See U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

Secondary emissions, 191

Semiconductor industry, analogy to, 58-59

Semivolatile organic compounds, 100-101

Separation processes, 92-96, 98-99, 117, 151-152

testing, 212-213, 216-220

Sheet pile walls, 90

Site cleanup, barriers to

cost uncertainty, 1, 8, 15-17

lengthy implementation process, 3, 49-52

move to limit the number of cleanups, 42

option to engage in litigation to delay, 3-4, 47

slow action by site owners, 4

Site managers

of federally owned contaminated sites, 5

flexibility needed to consider alternative technologies, 6

Site owners, 173-174, 202-203

averse to risk-taking, 153

categorizing sites by treatment difficulty, 12-14

conservatism of, 39

in economically distressed areas, 62

hesitant to share information about sites, 54-55

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
×

as potentially responsible parties (PRPs), 178

reluctant to account for remediation costs to stockholders, 48-49

sharing of data on performance and costs needed, 8, 154

testing at client's site, 217-225

Site workers, 168-169, 174-175 avoiding disruption to, 195

Six-State Partnership for Environmental Technology, 242

Slurry walls, 90

Soil aeration, 36

Soil contaminants, 80-81

innovative technologies in use, 43

more treatment technologies available than for ground water, 7

Soil flushing, 94, 104-105, 124-125, 131-132, 151

research needed, 156

Soil mixing, 131

in situ, 90, 93

Soil Transport and Fate Data Base. See Robert S. Kerr Environmental Laboratory Soil Transport and Fate Data Base

Soil vapor extraction (SVE), 35-37, 43, 80, 84, 94, 96, 103-104, 117, 151.

See also Thermally enhanced SVE

evolution of, 86-87, 110-111, 171, 226

success of, 202, 213

Soil washing, 36-37, 94, 104-105, 124-125, 131-132, 143-144

Solidification processes, 33, 36, 89-91, 98-99, 130

research needed, 156

testing, 210-211

Solvent extraction, 36, 132

Sorption reactions, 27.

See also Enhanced sorption

Southern States Energy Board, 11, 242

Sparge barriers, 92

Stabilization processes, 89-91, 98-99, 130

research needed, 156

testing, 210-211

Stakeholders, 2-3.

See also Insurance companies;

Investors;

Public;

Regulatory authorities;

Remediation technology providers;

Site owners;

Site workers

concerns of, 168-169

disagreements among, 9, 179

levels of participation in Superfund process, 181

other interested groups See Congress;

Industry groups;

Professional organizations

roles in site cleanup process, 175-182

State regulatory authorities

requiring early public involvement, 10, 197-198

testing policies, 230

Steam extraction, 151

Steam sparging, 94

STEP program. See Massachusetts Strategic Envirotechnology Partnership

Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), 46, 232-234

Substitution, 92

Success criteria

establishing, 9-10, 167-200

list of, 187-188

technology selection, expediting, 9-10

Superfund Innovative Technologies Evaluation (SITE) program, 11, 46, 192, 225, 227, 235, 241, 243-244

Superfund program, 2-3

cleanups under, 36-38

National Priorities List (NPL) of sites, 4, 30-31, 49, 73, 176

official record of decision (ROD) required, 47, 175

regulatory structure, 46-54

step in the process, 176-177

Superfund Reauthorization Act and Amendments (SARA) of 1986, 243

Surfactant flushing, 86, 94

T

TechDirect, 277

Technologies for remediation. See Conventional remediation technologies;

Innovative remediation technologies

Technology Access Services, 277

Technology Assistance Directory, 272

Technology Certification Program, 241, 243

Technology consultants. See Remediation technology consultants

Technology development partnerships. See Partnerships in technology development

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
×

Technology implementation. See Transferring remediation technologies

Technology Innovation and Economics Committee, 38

Technology Innovation Office, 19, 39, 55, 85

Technology providers. See Remediation technology providers

Technology testing. See Testing remediation technologies

Technology users. See Site owners

''Template sites." See Costs, comparing

Testing remediation technologies, 9-15, 39, 74-75, 182-191, 201-251.

See also Verification of innovative remediation technology performance

categorizing sites by treatment difficulty, 12-14, 34, 230-240, 248

collecting data needed for, 7-8, 202-216, 245-248

details on prior cleanups often proprietary, 8

determining level of testing required, 213, 215-216, 221, 224

Glossary of Remediation Technologies, 90-95

including experimental controls, 12, 14, 208-209, 248

minimizing testing costs, 11

reporting point of maximum effect, 10, 198

reporting system effectiveness in standardized terms, 10

site-specific testing needed for, 239

testing at client's site, 217-225

using standardized testing protocols, 20, 242-243, 248,

Test sites, selecting, 216-227, 232-233

testing opportunities at federal facilities needed, 6-7, 65-66, 74 , 77, 225, 227, 232-233

Thermal desorption, 35-37, 43, 58, 86, 90, 94-95, 105-106, 123-124, 131

Thermally enhanced NAPL recovery, 95, 106-107

Thermally enhanced SVE, 95

Thermal reduction, 92, 124

TIS. See Environmental Technology Information System

Toxicity, determining, 204

Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), 6, 74, 77

Transferring remediation technologies, 227-240

site-specific technical expertise needed for, 46

Treatment fluids, pumping, 7

1,1,1-Trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 113

Trichloroethylene (TCE), 21, 113

U

Underground storage tank (UST) cleanup program. See Leaking underground storage tanks

U.S. Department of Agriculture, contaminated sites on land owned by, 1, 18

U.S. Department of Defense (DOD)

Air Force use of bioventing, 109, 209

conditionally implementing ISO 14001 standard, 69, 193

contaminated sites on land owned by, 1, 18, 29, 31

major component of remediation market, 45

using few new technologies, 38

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

contaminated sites on land owned by, 1, 18, 21, 29, 31, 134-136

funding research on remediation technologies, 142-14359

major component of remediation market, 45

using few new technologies, 38, 81

using "template sites" approach, 256

U.S. Department of the Interior, contaminated sites on land owned by, 1, 18

U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), 2, 4, 38, 47, 53-54

investigating Massachusetts program for licensing site professionals , 6, 77

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 212

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

enforcing reporting of environmental liabilities, 5, 66-67, 75-76

present requirements, 67

Users. See Site owners

V

Vacuum-assisted NAPL recovery, 95

Vadose zone, 24, 91, 228

"Valley of Death" phase of start-up companies, 59, 61

Vapor-phase transport, 27

Vapor stripping, 216-217

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
×

Vendor Information System for Innovative Treatment Technologies (VISITT) , 277

Venture capital sources

characteristics of industries attracting venture capital, 55-62

little funding of innovative remediation technologies, 3, 49-50

Verification of innovative remediation technology performance, 14-15, 202-216, 240-248

developing protocols for, 243

entering findings in national data base, 15, 249

establishing cause-and-effect relationship, 203, 206-207

specifying range of contaminant types and hydrogeological conditions , 15, 24, 219-223, 249

standardized summary sheet needed, 14-15, 248

Vitrification, 36, 64, 90-91, 131, 142-143

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 86, 90, 92, 94.

See also Semivolatile organic compounds

Volatilization, 102-103, 147

W

Wastewater treatment, 81, 138

Water contamination. See Ground water contaminants

Western Governors Association, 11.

See also Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC) Working Group

Wetlands, constructed, 139-141, 156-157

Wildlife health risks, 186

Work-breakdown structure (WBS). See Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable

Z

Zero-valent iron barriers, 92, 117-119

testing, 222-223

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
×
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5781.
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Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup: From Concept to Commercialization Get This Book
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Most books on ground water and soil cleanup address only the technologies themselves—not why new technologies are or are not developed. Innovations in Ground Water and Soil Cleanup takes a holistic approach to the entire field, addressing both the sluggish commercial development of ground water and soil cleanup technologies and the attributes of specific technologies. It warns that, despite cleanup expenditures of nearly $10 billion a year, the technologies remain rudimentary.

This engaging book focuses on the failure of regulatory policy to link cleanup with the financial interests of the company responsible for the contamination. The committee explores why the market for remediation technology is uniquely lacking in economic drivers and why demand for innovation has been so much weaker than predicted.

The volume explores how to evaluate the performance of cleanup technologies from the points of view of the public, regulators, cleanup entrepreneurs, and other stakeholders. The committee discusses approaches to standardizing performance testing, so that choosing a technology for a given site can be more timely and less contentious. Following up on Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup (NRC, 1994), this sequel presents the state of the art in the cleanup of various types of ground water and soil contaminants. Strategies for making valid cost comparisons also are reviewed.

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