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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5788.
×

Index

Accommodations

in assessments, 33, 34, 61, 65, 69, 85, 106, 108, 109, 112, 146, 152-153, 159, 160, 170-182, 187, 191, 204, 256, 257, 274-275

for cognitive disabilities, 2, 65, 108, 110-111

content, 172 n.11

costs, 190

credentialing and, 123

defined, 153, 171-172, 249

designing and evaluating, 85, 177-179, 257

determinants of need for, 111

disability status and, 146, 177-178

IEP documentation of, 59, 61, 159-161

for learning disabilities, 61, 106, 274-275

least restrictive environment, 59

legal basis for, 7, 24-25, 26, 50, 61, 170, 187, 189

logic of, 173, 176-177, 260-261

number of students needing, 111

and predictive validity, 180

presentation changes, 29 n.8, 106, 159

purpose of, 7, 176

recommendations, 204

research evidence about, 179-182

response-mode changes, 29 n.8, 159

and score comparability, 181-182

severity of disability and, 107, 110-111, 153

state policies, 28-29, 159-160

timing changes, 159, 177, 180, 181, 183

validity of, 165-173, 176-182, 190-192, 193

Accountability

assessment used for, 2, 28, 40, 151, 154-157, 183-184

comparison group, 154

defined, 249

enforcement of, 156

fiscal, 49

forms, 151

in general education, 151-152

IEPs and, 54, 56, 147-148, 150, 151-152

measures, 61

overview, 154-155

participation of students with disabilities in, 6-7, 54, 60-61, 71 , 158-161, 192, 254-255

recommendations, 7, 9-10, 197, 200-201, 202-203

reporting of scores and, 185

school, 28, 155

in special education, 49, 151-152, 255

in standards-based reform, 1-2, 3, 27, 28, 65

state variations in, 27, 28, 155

student, 28, 168

teacher, 155

time frame for information, 154-155

units of, 28, 154, 168, 183-184

and validity of assessment inferences, 167

Achievement and outcomes of students.

See also Performance of students with disabilities

academic credits vs vocational credits, 135

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5788.
×

''aging out" of school, 94

cohort, point-estimate models, 266-273

content coverage and, 30, 136, 149

curriculum and, 30, 118-121, 132, 136

as dimension of disability, 77-78

disability status and, 4, 95, 97, 99, 101, 102, 133, 264-265, 268-273, 274, 275

educational expectations of parents and, 101-102, 267

elementary school data, 97, 262-275

employment, 4, 54, 94, 98-99, 101

family attitudes/behavior and, 100, 101, 102, 111, 267, 268-272, 273, 274

gender differences, 264, 265, 267, 274

high school graduation, 4, 54, 94, 95-96

independent living, 101

intelligence and, 78-79

learning, 32

model of outcomes, 119

multivariate estimates of, 266-275

parental involvement and, 6, 100-102, 111, 268-272, 274

point estimates of, 263-265

post-school outcomes, 4, 13, 98-99, 118-121, 252

postsecondary education, 4, 54, 98-99, 101, 118-121

prior, 98, 102, 268-272, 273, 275

Prospects study, 97, 262-275

race/ethnicity and, 264, 265, 267, 268-272, 274

rates of growth, 97

research needs, 97-98, 112

socioeconomic status and, 95, 100, 264, 266-267, 268-272

of special education and, 96-98

trends, 263-265

value-added models, 273-275

Adaptive behavior, 78, 79, 107

Advocacy, parental role, 6, 62-63, 102-105, 147, 204-205

African Americans, 88-89, 90, 104, 264, 265, 267, 268-272, 274

Alabama, 76

Alaska, 138

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 31, 41 n.16, 117

American Federation of Teachers, 27

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 50-51, 52, 68, 174, 187, 189 , 249

Appropriate education

balancing of benefits approach, 58-59

constitutionally adequate public education system, 51

content standards and, 6, 140-141, 145-147, 150

defined, 61, 140, 195-196, 250

educational benefit criteria, 58

entitlement to, 56-59

equality of opportunity approach, 58

IDEA provisions, 3, 46, 58, 61, 92, 107, 140

IEP and, 140

least restrictive environment, 58, 59, 60, 92

parental role, 62-63

related services, 58

requirements for, 140-141

Rowley standard, 57-59, 62, 69, 140

in standards-based system, 59, 65, 140

state laws, 51-52

Arizona Student Assessment Program, 42

Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, 88-89, 264, 265, 267, 268-272, 274

Assessment.

See also Reporting of assessment results;

Tests

accommodations in, 33, 34, 61, 65, 69, 85, 106, 108, 109, 112, 152 -153, 159-160, 170-182, 183, 187, 191, 192-193, 257, 274-275

for accountability, 2, 28, 40, 151, 154-157

administration frequency, 156-157

alternate, 3, 172-173, 174-175, 187, 189, 249

comparability of performance, 33, 168-169, 172, 257

computer-based, 183

consequences attached to, 155, 157, 167, 184, 258

construct-disability relationship, 170-171

content standards linked with, 3, 25-26, 28, 45, 155

context-dependence of, 169-170

costs, 40, 189-190

design, 7-8, 33, 40, 65, 152, 154, 155, 161-162, 182-183

differential item functioning, 181

exemption/exclusion from, 2, 6, 96, 152-153, 191-192, 256, 258

fairness of, 7, 167-168, 184-189

formats/approaches, 3, 27-28, 32, 37, 39-40, 64, 80, 157, 161

item response theory, 182-183

large-scale, 27-28, 37, 70, 152, 155, 161-190, 251

legal frameworks for, 25-26, 162, 174, 186-189, 193

out-of-level testing, 172

participation of students with disabilities in, 24-25, 34, 54, 71, 153, 158-190, 192-193, 254-255, 267, 272

performance assessment, 32, 161-165

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5788.
×

politics of, 39 n.14

portfolio system, 32, 34, 163, 172-173, 174, 175

prior achievement controlled for, 98, 268-272, 273, 275

problems associated with, 32, 39 n.14, 177-179, 266, 268-272

purposes, 155-156, 187

recommendations, 197-204, 205, 210

and referrals to special education, 159

resource implications, 189-190

sampling error, 163-164, 167

scoring, 28, 34, 39, 163, 168, 275

for special education eligibility, 70-71, 77-78, 154, 167, 178

in standards-based reform, 152, 155-157, 160-161

state guidelines, 27-28, 155, 158

student-by-task interactions, 164

task difficulty, 164-165

task variance, 164

technology and, 183, 255

uses, 27, 32, 152, 155, 156, 166-167, 187

Autism, 71, 72, 87, 93


Behavior. See Adaptive behavior; specific behaviors

Belgium, 30

Business Roundtable, 31, 45


California education reforms, 41, 143, 165

Learning Assessment System, 37-38, 39 n.14, 190

standards development, 38, 39

Classification of disabilities.

See also Identification of students with disabilities;

specific categories

and accommodation design, 177-178

and assessments, 178

and comparability of studies, 92, 178

defining disability, 71-82

dimension, 77-80

eligibility policy, 54-56, 64, 82-86

federal regulatory definitions, 71-75

imprecision of categories, 83-86, 171, 177-178, 255

and placement decisions, 90-94, 178-179

severity, 4, 55, 75-77, 110-111

social stigma of labeling, 34, 82-83, 184-185, 254

state variation in policies, 4, 76, 83-84, 110

taxonomy changes, 4, 85-86, 178

and treatment decisions, 84, 85

variability in rates, 75

Cognitive disabilities

accommodations, 2, 65, 108, 110-111

content standards, 137, 146

definition, 79 n.3, 250

instruction strategies, 125-129

mild, 4, 84, 108, 111

severe, 25, 110-111, 137, 169

Colorado, 115, 139, 144, 155

Communication skills and language development

cognitive disabilities, 126, 129

as dimension of disability, 79-80

Connecticut, 29 n.8, 76

Constructivism, 117-118, 126-128, 129, 149-150, 250

Content standards.

See also Curriculum

abstract applications, 116-117

and achievement/outcomes, 136

addressing students with disabilities in, 25, 137-138

alternate, 147-148, 201-202

and appropriate education, 5, 140-141, 145-147, 150

assessments linked with, 25-26, 28, 45

benefits of, 138-137

controversies, 37-38

criteria, 36-37

decision-making process, 6, 145-147, 150

defined, 3, 22, 250

definitional process, 36-39

educational implications, 140-149

IASA, 25-26

and IEP process, 138, 147-148

implementation in individual schools and classrooms, 40-44

instructional implications, 5, 40-44, 114, 115-116, 117-118, 146, 149-150

and learning, 138-139

legal implications, 140-150

purposes, 114

recommendations, 197-199, 201-202

resource implications, 114, 142-145

severity of disability and, 146-147

state variation in approaches, 27, 114-117, 137-138, 149

and teacher education and professional development, 143-144

Council for Exceptional Children, 35, 255-256

Council of Chief State School Officers, 28, 35, 115, 117, 138, 144 , 258

Council of Great City Schools, 115, 258-259

Credentialing, 121, 122-123

Criterion of ultimate functioning, 119-120, 128-129

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5788.
×

Curriculum.

See also Content standards;

General education curriculum

and achievement/outcomes, 30, 118-121, 149

consensus on, 37, 66-67

coverage, 30

international comparisons, 30, 138-139

student participation in, 129, 132-136

Curriculum development

challenges, 65

special education, 35

standards-based reform, 27, 33

participants, 44, 65, 66

time, 33

Deaf-blindness, 71, 72, 80, 81, 88, 93

Deafness, 71, 72, 80, 81, 99, 109, 131, 273 n.5

Disabilities.

See also Classification of disabilities;

specific classifications

age trends, 86-87

characteristics related to, 88-90

defined, 250

gender distribution, 88

medical model of, 80-81

prevalence of, 4, 76, 86, 88-90

social system model, 81-82


Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, 250.

See also Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 25, 253.

See also Improving America's Schools Act

Eligibility for special education.

See also Identification of students with disabilities

assessment for, 70-71, 77-78, 154, 167

criteria, 69, 75, 85

defined, 250

poverty threshold, 26

severity of disability and, 75, 107

taxonomy and, 85

and treatment decisions, 84

Emotional disturbance/disability, 55, 79, 97, 99, 102, 260, 265, 271-273.

See also Serious emotional disturbance

Employment

competitive, 98, 99, 101, 250

disability status and, 98-99, 120

high school graduation/diploma and, 98, 121, 122-123

outcomes of special education students, 4, 54, 94, 98-99

parental involvement in education and, 101

preparation programs, 120-121

transition services, 119, 149


Family.

See also Parental involvement

attitudes, and achievement, 268-272, 273

single-parent households, 90, 105

status, and achievement, 100, 266, 268-272

France, 30

Functional academics, 79

Functional life skills, 146


Gender differences

achievement test data, 264, 265, 267, 274

in disability status, 88

math scores, 274

General education curriculum

course-taking patterns, 134-136

IEP connection to, 4-5, 56, 59

as least restrictive environment, 59

participation time of students with disabilities, 56, 90-91, 109, 129, 132-136, 254-255

secondary school, 134-136

Georgia, 29 n.8, 76

Goals 2000: Educate America Act

assessments, 24-25, 174

charge to committee under, 2

conditions for grants, 23, 26

content standards, 22

controversies, 23-24, 259

defined, 251

National Education Goals, 14-15, 23

opportunity-to-learn standards, 23-24

parental involvement goals, 23

performance standards, 22

professional education, 143

systemic approach to reform, 45


Hawaii, 76

Health and physical education standards, 116

Hearing impairment, 71, 72, 75, 80, 81, 88, 93, 97, 99, 134, 273 n.5

High school graduation

academic credit requirements, 134

course-taking patterns and, 136

credentialing issue, 121, 122-123

differentiated diplomas, 96, 121, 122

and employment, 98, 121, 122-123

litigation, 123

minimum competency tests, 32, 61, 123, 156, 187-188

recommendations, 206-207

special education students, 4, 13, 54, 94, 95-96, 112

Hispanic Americans, 88-89, 264, 265, 268-272, 274

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5788.
×

Identification of students with disabilities.

See also Classification of disabilities

criteria for, 4, 54-56, 65, 110

emotional disorders, 260

factors affecting, 75

fiscal incentives/disincentives, 55, 71

process, 69-71

race/ethnicity and, 88-89, 90, 104

socioeconomic status and, 89-90

teacher referrals, 70, 71, 75

Illinois, 188

Implementation of standards-based reform

barriers to, 3, 8, 64-65, 69

classroom instruction, 41-44

content standards, 36-39, 40-44, 140-141

disabilities and, 34-36, 69

funding incentives, 34

individualization, 35-36, 40-44

legal requirements, 140-141

performance standards, 36-39, 140

personnel requirements, 142, 145

recommendations, 10, 197-208

teachers, 40-44, 143-144

Improving America's Schools Act (IASA)

accommodations and adaptations, 26

assessments and reports, 25-26

content standards, 25-26

defined, 251

Title I programs, 2, 25-26, 165, 174, 253, 262

Individualized education program (IEP).

See also Appropriate education

accommodations, 59, 61, 159-160

and accountability, 54, 56, 147-148, 150, 151-152, 160

assessment participation documented in, 158, 160, 188, 256

connection to general education curriculum, 56, 260

content standards and, 138, 147-148

defined, 3, 47, 251

diplomas, 96, 112

and IDEA implementation, 56-57

instruction and curricular planning, 119, 160-161, 256

litigation, 63

parental involvement in, 6, 56, 62, 64, 102-105, 111, 147, 255, 256

process, 56, 59, 64, 92, 102-103, 111, 147-148, 195-196, 258-259

recommendations, 9, 199-200

rights to, 3, 70, 108, 195-196, 257

shortcomings, 56, 65, 136-137, 257, 258-259

and standards-based reform, 13, 106, 108, 136-137, 255

teachers' views on, 56

team, 59, 158, 159-160, 251

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

See also Individualized education program

appropriate education under, 3, 46, 58, 61, 92, 107, 140

assessment requirements, 187, 193

basic requirements, 46, 58, 68, 189

defined, 251

definitions of disabilities, 54, 71-75, 258

eligibility criteria, 69-71

funding/appropriations, 26, 47, 54

goals, 47, 53

implementation, 47, 53-64

limitations, 259, 260

litigation, 57-59

number of children served under, 86 n.4, 186

parental involvement principle, 62-64, 102

placement data collection, 92 n.7

Section 504 compared with, 50

state participation, 47, 50, 51-52

transition services, 119

voluntary participation by states, 47, 50

Instructional practices.

See also Teachers

classification of disability and, 84-85

content standards and, 5, 40-44, 114, 117-118, 139, 149-150

cooperative learning, 132, 133

criterion of ultimate functioning, 119-120, 128-129

effective special education instruction, 5-6, 121, 123-129, 141-142, 149

experiential learning, 139

explicit-conceptualization, 126-129, 141-142, 146, 149

individually referenced decision making in standards-based reform 40-44, 124-125, 129, 133, 141-142, 149

intensive, 125-126, 129, 141-142, 145, 146, 149

Madeline Hunter Methods, 133

mastery learning, 132, 133

materials, 41, 145

skill-and-drill approach, 128, 131, 255

skills-based, 126-129

for students with disabilities, 125-129, 132-133, 141-142

technology for, 130, 131-132, 145

traditional strategies, 40-41

whole-language pedagogy, 38, 132, 133

Intelligence, 78-79,154.

See also Cognitive disabilities

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5788.
×

International comparisons, curriculum coverage, 30, 138-139

Iowa, 138, 155

Japan, 30


Kansas, 28

Kentucky education reforms

accountability system, 169 n.8

applicability to all children, 34, 36, 51-52

assessment program, 28 n.7, 33 n.12, 34, 38, 39, 157, 172-173, 174 , 175, 190, 255

comprehensiveness, 45

content standards, 43, 115, 137

Education Reform Act, 45 n.20, 157

effectiveness, 33 n.12

implementation process, 33, 41, 43-44

professional development, 44, 144


Language arts

instructional practices, 132, 133

standards, 115, 116

testing, 37-38

Language development. See Communication skills and language development

Learning.

See also Achievement and outcomes of students;

Opportunity to learn

constructivist, 117-118, 126-128, 129, 149-150, 250

content standards and, 138-139

cooperative, 132, 133

hierarchy of, 127-128

instructional technology and, 132

IQ-achievement discrepancy criterion, 154

mastery, 132, 133

outcomes, 32, 274

Learning disabilities

accommodations, 61, 106, 274-275

and achievement test scores, 265, 271-273, 274, 275

characteristics, 76-77, 84, 87

and content standards, 146-147

criteria for determining, 74, 75, 78

definition, 73, 75, 78, 81-82

diagnosis, 78, 81, 83

eligibility for special education, 55

and general education courses, 134

instruction and curricular planning, 120, 133

outcomes of students with, 95, 97, 98, 99, 120

and placement decisions, 92, 93

prevalence, 4, 76, 86, 87, 178

race/ethnic trends, 89

social stigma of labeling and, 83

treatment, 84

Least restrictive environment, 3, 58, 59-61, 92, 94, 251

Legal issues

in assessment, 186-189

in content standards, 140-148

for special education, 53-64

Litigation/lawsuits

Alabama Coalition for Equity v. Hunt, 52

Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley, 57-59, 62, 69, 140

Board of Education, Sacramento City Unified School District v. Holland , 60

Brookhart v. Illinois State Board of Education, 61, 188

Coalition to Save Our Children v. Board of Education, 90

Daniel R.R. v. State Board of Education, 60

Debra P. v. Turlington, 123, 187-188

Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia, 53

Oberti v. Board of Education of Borough of Clementon, 60

Opinion of the Justices of the Alabama Supreme Court, 52

Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 53

Rose v. Council for Better Education, 52

San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, 51

Smith v. Robinson, 53

Low-achieving students, 4, 55, 84, 124 n.3, 152, 160, 165


Maine, 138

Maryland education reforms, 33, 36, 165

accommodations, 178

applicability to all children, 36

assessment program, 28 n.6, n.7, 42, 156, 157, 171 n.10, 172-173, 174-175, 176, 178

content standards, 137, 139

professional development, 143, 144

Massachusetts, 63, 76, 155

special education laws51, 54, 64

Mathematics, 38, 41, 274

achievement, 97, 102, 263, 266, 268-272, 273

assessments, 162, 180 n.14, 181

curriculum coverage, 30, 38, 136-137

hierarchy of learning, 127-128

instructional practices, 132, 133

standards, 31, 37, 115-116, 117

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5788.
×

Mental retardation

classification variations, 76, 83

definition, 71, 72, 78

diagnosis, 78, 79, 81, 83

mild, 4, 55, 81, 83, 84, 87

moderate to severe, 81, 87

outcomes of students with, 95, 96, 99

prevalence, 4, 76, 86, 87, 178

in severe multiple disabilities, 77, 109

social stigma of labeling, 82-83

Michigan, 41, 115, 123, 143

Mild disabilities

and academic achievement, 78

classification variations, 76, 87-89

and content standards, 146

identification of, 4, 75, 81

instruction and curricular planning, 120, 126, 131

and participation in standards-based reform, 106-107

race/ethnicity and, 88-90

and special education, 75-77

Minorities, See Race/ethnicity;

specific minorities

Mississippi, 76

Missouri, 35, 143

Moderate disabilities, 77-78

Motor skills, 80, 107, 146

Multiple disabilities, 72, 75, 81, 88, 93, 94, 96, 99, 108-109, 134


National Academy of Sciences, 31

National Assessment of Educational Progress, 90, 132, 137, 157, 181 , 191-192

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 27 n.3, 31, 41 n.16, 117, 118

National Council on Disability, 104, 256

National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), 91, 95 n.9, 100, 132

National Longitudinal Transitional Study of Special Educational Students (NLTS) , 54, 88, 90, 94-98, 101, 134-136, 252

National Research Council, 82-83, 117, 166

National Science Foundation, 31

Native Americans, 88-89, 104

Nebraska, 139, 155

New Jersey, 51, 76

New Standards Project, 190, 257-258

New York, 76, 123

testing policies, 28 nn.6, 7, 157, 159

North Carolina, 34, 43


Ohio, 28 n.7

Opportunity to learn

content standards and, 140, 147

credentialing and, 123

defined, 23, 252

legal basis for, 189

minimum competency test and, 188-189

recommendations, 10, 204-205

standards, 23-24, 29-30, 141-142

strategies, 12, 24

Oregon, 115

Orthopedic impairment, 73, 75, 88, 93, 97, 99, 273 n.5

Other health impairment, 73, 75, 81, 87, 88, 93, 99, 133, 134, 265

Outcomes. See Achievement and outcomes of students


Parent education, and student achievement, 100, 267, 268-272, 274

Parental expectations, and achievement, 6, 101-102, 111, 267, 268-272, 274

Parental involvement

and achievement, 6, 100-102, 111, 268-272, 274

barriers to participation, 103-104, 111

IDEA requirements, 62-64, 102

in IEP process, 6, 56, 62, 64, 101-105, 111, 147, 255, 256

measures of, 100-101

minority and poverty status and, 6, 104-105, 111, 147

recommendations, 10, 204-205

in special education process, 6, 56, 62-64, 100, 102-105, 257, 259

in standards-based reforms, 63, 100, 111, 255

Participation of students with disabilities

in accountability systems, 54, 60-61, 158-161, 192, 255-256

in assessments, 24-25, 34, 54, 71, 153, 158-190, 192, 254-255, 267 , 272

course-taking in secondary schools, 134-136

definition of, 256-257

in general education curriculum, 56, 90-91, 109, 110, 129, 132-136, 150, 255-256

implications of increases in, 190-192

rationale for, 136-137

recommendations, 197-210

severity of disability and, 80, 107-109, 110-111

special education enrollments, 49, 53-54

time spent in secondary schools, 134

Pennsylvania, 38, 63, 138

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5788.
×

Performance of students with disabilities

comparability of, 168-169

context-dependence of, 169-170

grades, 96-97

measurement of, 39-40, 64, 157;

see also Assessment

Performance standards, 3, 22, 27-28, 36-39, 165, 252

Phonics, 38, 117, 133

Phonological processing, 126, 127

Physical disabilities, 133, 265, 271-272, 273 n.5

Post-school outcomes. See Achievement and outcomes of students

Postsecondary education, 4, 54, 98-99, 101, 120, 169

Prospects study

achievement levels of students, 97, 132, 267-273

cohort, point-estimate models, 266-273

design, 262-263

multivariate estimates of achievement, 266-275

of parental involvement, 100, 101-102

value-added models, 273-275

Public Law 94-142, 46, 47, 52, 62-63, 64.

See also Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975

Qualification for special education. See Classification of disabilities;

Identification of students with disabilities


Race/ethnicity

and achievement test data, 264, 265, 267, 268-272, 274

and identification of children with disabilities, 88-89, 90, 104, 258-259

and high school graduation, 95

and parental participation, 6, 104-105, 111, 147

Reading

achievement, 97, 102, 263, 266, 268-272, 273, 274

disability status and, 102, 274

instruction, 38, 126, 127, 133

standards, 116, 117

Recommendations

accountability system, 7, 9-10, 200-201, 202-203

alterations to standards and assessments, 7, 10, 198-199, 201-202, 202-204

assessment, 10, 197-204, 205, 210

design of standards, 9, 197-198, 201-202

guiding principles, 197

IEP process, 9, 199-200

implementation of standards-based reform, 10, 207-208

opportunity to learn, 10, 205-206

outcomes monitoring, 10, 206-207

parental involvement, 10, 204-205

research, 208-210

Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504, 47, 50, 52, 54, 61, 68, 69, 165, 174, 187, 189, 252

Reporting of assessment results

accommodations and, 177, 179, 183, 184

and accountability for students with disabilities, 7, 185

altered assessments, 173, 175

by broad performance levels, 157

classification of disability and, 178

cohort, point-estimate models, 266-273

confidentiality and labeling concerns, 184-185

design of mechanisms for, 7, 184

disaggregation of data, 184, 185-186, 203, 250

exclusion of students with disabilities, 71, 158, 181

flagging, 158, 184-185

measurement error, 167

multivariate estimates of achievement, 266-275

normative, 157

point estimates of achievement, 263-265

recommendations, 200-201, 202-203, 206-207

reliability, 40, 162, 163-165, 185-186, 252, 275

unit of accountability and, 183-184

and use for tracking students with disabilities, 161

validity of inferences, 39, 65, 162, 163, 165-171, 173, 177, 178, 179, 183, 184, 185, 186-187, 253

value-added models, 155, 273-275

Research needs

accommodated testing, 182, 210

achievement of students with disabilities, 97-98, 112

assessments, 193-194, 210

clinical and psychometric, 65

computer technology applications, 209-210

credentialing alternatives, 210

inclusion of students in general education curriculum, 255

instructional methods, 150, 209

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5788.
×

local decision-making processes, 209

recommendations, 208-210

resource implications of reforms, 209

school experiences of students with disabilities, 209

special education models, 209

special education population, 111-112

Resources

content standards and, 114, 142-145

shortages, 2


Science

assessments, 181

curriculum, 30 n.10, 37, 115-116, 117, 137, 139

Second International Mathematics Study (SIMS), 30

Secondary schools

course-taking patterns, 134-136

curricular priorities, 120, 149

time in general education courses, 134-136

Sensory status, 80, 146

Serious emotional disturbance (SED), 83, 84, 87, 93, 95, 133, 134

definition, 73, 75

diagnosis, 79, 81, 83, 84

prevalence, 4, 76, 86, 87

Severe disabilities, 77, 78

and assessments, 153, 169, 174

content standards for, 137, 138, 146

defined, 252

instruction and curricular planning, 119-120, 126, 128-129

participation in standards-based reform, 80, 106, 108-109

Social competencies. See Adaptive behavior

Social functioning, 79, 107, 126, 129

Social stigma, 59, 82-83, 96

Socioeconomic/poverty status

and achievement test scores, 95, 100, 264, 266-267, 268-272

and identification of disabilities, 89-90, 91

and outcomes of students, 95

and parental participation, 6, 104-105, 111, 147

Special education.

See also Individualized education program;

Instruction practices;

specific legislation

accommodations in services, 61, 92-93

accountability in, 49, 151-152, 255

characteristics of students, 86-100, 111-112

costs and financing, 48-49

declassification rates, 70-71

defined, 252

eligibility, 54-55, 69-86

enrollments, 49, 53-54, 71

federal initiatives, 2-3, 46-51

guiding assumptions, 53-64, 113

history of, 52-53

implementation of, 52-64

least restrictive environment, 59-61

legalization of, 63-64, 65

minority overrepresentation in, 88-89, 90, 104, 258-259

National Longitudinal Transitional Study, 54, 101

parental participation, 6, 56, 62-64, 102-105

placement policies, 1, 90-94, 196-197

policy assumptions, 52-64

rationale behind, 52-53

referral rates, 71, 112, 159

standards-based reform melded with, 20-22, 45, 64-67

state laws, 2, 51-52

Speech and language (Sp/L) disorders

and achievement test scores, 265, 271-272, 273 n.5

characteristics of, 79-80, 87

declassification rates, 71 n.2

definition, 73, 75

instructional methods, 133, 134

and outcomes of students, 96, 97, 98, 99

and placement decisions, 92, 93

prevalence, 4, 76, 86, 87

Standards-based reform.

See also Content standards; Performance standards;

specific legislation

accountability in, 1-2, 27, 28, 65

alignment concept, 25, 65, 113, 141, 249

applicability to all students, 1-2, 3, 12, 33-36, 109

assessment in, 152, 155-157, 158-190

basis for policy, 11, 20-21

costs, 40, 48-49, 142, 143-144

credentialing issue, 121, 122-123

defined, 1, 3, 253

federal initiatives, 22-26

goals, 1, 5, 21, 148-149, 156

guiding assumptions, 2, 33-46, 113, 195

implementation, 3, 33-46, 64-65, 106, 255

issues and challenges, 11-12, 45, 109

and least restrictive environment, 60

local variability, 41 n.16

models for standard setting, 31

parental involvement in, 63, 100, 111, 255

policy assumptions, 33-46

political and perceptual barriers, 65-66

rationale behind policies, 29-32, 140

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5788.
×

recommendations, 197-210

state initiatives, 3, 26-29

State policies and initiatives.

See also individual states

accommodations, 28-29, 159-160

accountability systems, 27, 28, 155

assessment formats, 27-28, 155, 158

classification of disabilities, 4, 76, 83-84

content standards, 27, 114-117, 137-138, 149

plan requirements under Goals 2000, 24

special-education laws, 51-52

standards-based reform initiatives, 26-29

variations in education policies, 3, 21, 27-28

Students with disabilities.

See also Achievement and outcomes of students;

Participation of students with disabilities;

Performance of students with disabilities

characteristics, 86-100

disability-related characteristics, 88-90

educational placement, 90-94

entitlement to appropriate education, 56-59

in general education curriculum, 129, 132-136

identification of, 54-56, 185-186

longitudinal studies/databases, 91-92

number qualifying for special education, 69, 110

Systemic reform, 31, 34, 44-46, 253


Teachers.

See also Instructional practices

acceptance of standards-based reform, 36, 40-41, 42, 66

accountability, 155

capacity-building, 42 n.17

caseloads in special education, 145

curriculum development role, 44

IEP, views on, 56

licensure standards, 144

training and professional development, 44, 64, 130, 142, 143-144, 148, 189, 259, 260, 261

Technology

and assessments, 183, 255

assistive devices, 130-131

instructional, 130, 131-132, 255

Tennessee, 28 n.7, 123, 154, 155

Tests.

See also Assessment;

Reporting of assessment results

Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, 263

Graduate Record Examination, 177, 179

high-stakes, 108, 152, 156, 159, 168, 187, 251

Law School Admission Test (LSAT), 180

minimum competency, 32, 61, 123, 156, 187-188

Scholastic Aptitude Test, 177, 179, 180

standardized, 107, 151, 173, 176, 252-253, 256

"teaching to,"; 152

Texas, 28 n.7

Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 30

Title I programs, 2, 25-26, 165, 174, 185, 253, 262

Traumatic brain injury, 74, 75, 80, 81, 88, 93


Vermont, 34, 39, 137, 143, 163

Visual impairment including blindness, 74, 80, 81, 88, 93, 99, 134 , 186

Vocational/occupational programs

achievement/outcomes, 135, 136

content standards, 5, 115, 146, 149

participation, 135

skills, 79

training, 98, 101


Washington state, 139

Workshop

questions posed for, 254

presentations and discussions, 254-261

Writing, 38, 116, 132

Wyoming, 155

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1997. Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5788.
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Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform Get This Book
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In the movement toward standards-based education, an important question stands out: How will this reform affect the 10% of school-aged children who have disabilities and thus qualify for special education?

In Educating One and All, an expert committee addresses how to reconcile common learning for all students with individualized education for "one"—the unique student. The book makes recommendations to states and communities that have adopted standards-based reform and that seek policies and practices to make reform consistent with the requirements of special education.

The committee explores the ideas, implementation issues, and legislative initiatives behind the tradition of special education for people with disabilities. It investigates the policy and practice implications of the current reform movement toward high educational standards for all students.

Educating One and All examines the curricula and expected outcomes of standards-based education and the educational experience of students with disabilities—and identifies points of alignment between the two areas. The volume documents the diverse population of students with disabilities and their school experiences. Because approaches to assessment and accountability are key to standards-based reforms, the committee analyzes how assessment systems currently address students with disabilities, including testing accommodations. The book addresses legal and resource implications, as well as parental participation in children's education.

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