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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
×

Index

A

Accomplishments

birth through age four, 58, 59

first grade, 106, 107

kindergarten, 83, 84

second grade. 117, 118

third grade, 117, 119

Adults, 1

day care providers, 43

interaction with children, general, 14, 16, 17

reading to and with children, general, 10, 13, 14, 17, 134, 143

talking with children, 36, 50-52, 134

birth through age four, 17, 19-20, 23, 28, 30

kindergarten, 70-72, 75, 81

see also Families;

Parents;

Questions;

Teachers

Alphabetic principle, 6, 9

birth through age four, 21, 28, 29, 54-55, 57

computer-based instruction, 57, 121

curriculum, optimal, 129

day care settings, 54

defined, 127, 147

first grade, 91, 92-94, 102

identifying/preventing difficulties, 127

second and third grades, 108

teacher certification, 123

see also Letter identification;

Print awareness;

Word recognition

Apples and Bananas, 22

Assessment, see Evaluation;

Screening and identification

Attitude, see Motivation and attitude

Audiovisual presentations

audiotaped stories, 35, 50, 74, 120

birth through age four, 37, 135

CD-ROMs, 37, 51, 56, 120

television, 19, 34, 37, 166

see also Computer-assisted instruction

Auditory impairments, see Hearing impairments

B

Babysitters, see Day care environments

Beliefs, see Motivation and attitude

Big books, 52, 129, 147

Bilingual education, 124, 130, 131, 132

Birth through age four, 1-2, 4, 8, 14, 15-60, 153

alphabetic principle, 21, 28, 29, 54-55, 57

audiovisual presentations, 37, 135

book reading, 8-9, 17, 19, 20, 22, 27-28, 37, 38, 52-53, 59

access to, 8-9, 17, 37, 38, 53

libraries and librarians, 36, 37, 38, 53

pretend reading, 17, 28, 37

classroom design, 45

cognitive skills, 18, 60

computer-based instruction, 47, 49, 56-57

conceptual knowledge, 10, 36, 44, 60

curricular design, 45, 46

directionality, concept of, 18, 60

emergent writing, 15, 17, 30, 32, 37, 45, 55-56, 59, 60

families, 18, 27, 139;

see also “parents” below

funding, 138

goals outlined, 6, 8, 10, 59

grammar, 19

identifying/preventing difficulties, 24, 42, 128, 137, 138-139

instructional materials, 29, 49, 54, 55

access to books, 8-9, 17, 37, 38, 53

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
×

language skills, general, 1, 2, 6, 15-17, 18, 44, 138

letter identification, 34, 53, 54-55, 57, 59

libraries, 36, 37, 38, 53

listening comprehension, 50, 52

literacy, general, 1, 7, 8, 15-17, 18, 42, 44, 45, 120, 137, 139, 148

computer-based instruction, 56-57

day care, 43, 53

play activities, 37

teacher knowledge of, 123

motivation, 7, 8, 10, 13, 37, 42, 44, 60

motor skills, 8, 18, 60, 74, 138

oral reading, 20, 52

parents, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 17, 18-20, 27, 30, 42

phonemic awareness, 46-47, 57

phonological awareness, 20-22, 46-48, 50, 55

phonology, 23, 57

pictures, 10, 15, 17, 23, 25, 28, 36, 37, 59, 88

list of 100 great picture books, 38-41

pretend reading, 17

print awareness, 18, 27-28, 29, 30, 32-33, 52, 55, 59

questions posed to children, 20, 21, 32, 35, 36, 37, 44, 55

reading problems, 24, 42, 128, 137, 138-139

rhymes and songs, 17, 19, 20-22, 24, 42, 43, 46, 47-48, 57, 59, 135

spelling, 55-56

spoken words, 18, 19, 35, 50, 56

storybooks, 15, 19, 26, 44, 45, 51, 52, 57

talking with adults, 17, 19-20, 23, 28, 30, 36, 50-52

teachers, 44, 45, 50-51, 52, 58, 60

teaching activities, 2, 9, 11, 19, 21, 23-25, 26, 29, 32-35, 37, 47-56, 58

talking with children, 17, 19-20, 23, 27, 28, 30, 36, 50-51

vocabulary, 6, 8, 19-20, 35, 50-51, 59, 60

word recognition, 17, 19, 34, 44, 57, 59, 60

writing, 49, 51, 55-56

emergent writing, 15, 17, 30, 32, 37, 45, 55-56, 59, 60

see Day care environments;

Emergent reading

Book reading, 8, 9

access to books, 53, 62, 63, 65, 74, 76, 127, 134, 135, 143

birth through age four, 8-9, 17, 36, 37, 38, 53

see also Libraries and librarians

big books, 52, 129, 147

birth through age four, 8-9, 17, 19, 20, 22, 27-28, 37, 38, 52-53, 59

pretend reading, 17, 28, 37

curriculum, optimal, 129

day care settings, 53

first grade, 62, 63, 90-94

kindergarten, 65, 66, 74, 85

sound-focused, 22

summer reading lists, 10

see also Storybooks

C

Capitalization, letters, 80, 82, 85, 92, 94-95, 107

CD-ROMs, 37, 56, 120

Child care settings, see Day care environments

Choral reading, see Group reading

Classroom design

first grade, 62-63

kindergarten, 72

preschool, 45

Classroom support, 140

Class size

first grade, 87

poor children, 62

see also Student-teacher ratios

Cognitive deficits, 128, 136, 137, 138

intelligence quotient, 136, 138

special education, 112, 127, 131, 138, 140

Cognitive skills

birth through age four, 18, 60

problem-solving activities, 5, 32

second and third grades, 111

space and directionality, 18, 60

teacher education, 123

Comprehension, see Reading comprehension

Computer-assisted instruction, 120-121

alphabetic principle, 57, 121

birth through age four, 47, 49, 56-57

CD-ROMs, 37, 56, 120

Internet resources, 165-167

K-3, 63

phonemic awareness, 47

second grade, 114

World Wide Web, resources available, 165-167

Conceptual knowledge, 10, 117, 129, 134

birth through age four, 10, 36, 44, 60

first grade, 90, 98-100, 107

kindergarten, 65, 71, 85

labeling and labeling games, 19, 29, 37, 49, 59, 72, 86

literacy, 9, 65, 123-124

pedagogical, 123-124

second and third grades, 111, 118, 119

see also Questions;

Reading for meaning;

Summarizing

Conversation, adults talking with children, 36, 134

birth through age four, 17, 19-20, 23, 28, 30, 36, 50-52

kindergarten, 70-72

parents, 17, 19-20, 27, 50-51, 52, 89, 135

see also Questions

Cost factors

computer instruction, 120

funding, 138, 140-141

remedial programs, 130

teacher training, 122

CROWD questions, 52

Cultural factors, 62

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
×

see also Dialects;

English as a second language;

Minority groups

Curricular design, general, 2

birth through age four, 45, 46

comprehensive, 129

defined, 147

first grade, 87, 94

identifying/preventing problems, 131

K-3 teachers, 61, 63, 90

optimal, 129-130

primary education, 10, 61

second and third grades, 108, 110-111

spelling, 102

teacher certification, 124

see also Instructional materials;

Teaching activities

Curriculum casualties, 130, 147

D

Day care environments, 1, 18, 32, 43, 44, 53-54, 136

books, access to, 53

Deafness, see Hearing impairments

Decoding

computer instruction, 120

curriculum, optimal, 129

defined, 147, 151

first grade, 94-96, 107

kindergarten, 78-81

second and third grades, 108, 110, 113, 115, 118

Developmental factors, see Birth through age four;

Cognitive deficits

Diagnostics, see Screening and identification

Dialects, 124, 133, 148

Dialogic reading, see Paired reading

Dictation activities, 51, 66, 85, 129

Dictionaries, letters of the alphabet

first grade, 92

kindergarten, 83, 84

Directionality, concept of, 18, 60

Disabilities

cognitive deficits, 128, 136, 137, 138

special education, 112, 127, 131, 138, 140

early language impairments, 24, 42, 44, 136, 137, 148

hearing impairments, 24, 136, 137

learning disabilities, 5, 112, 128, 136, 140

speech impairments, 24

Dramatic play, 26-27, 49, 72-73, 85, 101, 114, 115, 129

Dr. Seuss, 22, 80

Dyadic reading, see Paired reading

E

Early childhood development, see Birth through age four;

Day care environments;

Emergent reading;

Emergent writing

Early language impairments, 24, 42, 44, 136, 137

defined, 148

letter identification, 15, 42, 141

Economic factors, see Cost factors;

Funding;

Poverty

Emergent reading, 1, 28, 37, 85

defined, 148

pretend reading, 17, 28, 37, 59

teacher education on, 60

videotaped, 51

Emergent writing

birth through age four, 15, 17, 30, 32, 37, 45, 55-56, 59, 60

defined, 148

first grade, 88, 89, 102-106, 107

invented spelling, 10, 45, 55-56, 85, 88, 102, 105, 107

kindergarten, 10, 65, 81-84, 85

teacher education on, 60

Employment, 5

English as a second language, 5, 130-132

bilingual education, 124, 130, 131, 132

Hispanics, 130, 131

teacher certification, 124

Ethnic groups, see Minority groups

Evaluation

continuous classroom assessment, 10, 123

peer, 103

teachers, 122-123

see also Screening and identification;

Standards

Explicit instruction, general, 96, 111, 112, 129

Expressive language capacity

defined, 148

delayed development, 136

see also Spoken words

F

Families

birth through age four, 18, 27, 139

Internet resources, 166

literacy programs, 127, 143

see also Adults;

Parents

First grade, 2, 4, 10, 86-107

alphabetic principle, 91, 92-94, 102

book reading, 62, 63, 90-94

conceptual knowledge, 90, 98-100, 107

decoding, 94-96, 107

goals, 10, 88, 90, 96, 102, 107

group/choral reading, 88, 97

group instruction, other, 63, 64, 87, 96

independent reading, 10, 88

instructional materials, 92, 93, 94, 95

language skills, general, 96-102, 106

letter identification, 63, 88, 90-96, 102, 106, 107

literacy, general, 106, 107

oral reading, 10, 63, 88, 94-96, 97, 107

parents, 2, 4, 87, 97

phonemic awareness, 10, 88, 90-94, 102, 107

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
×

phonics, 10, 86, 96, 102, 106, 107

pictures, diagrams and charts, 89, 91, 92, 93, 101, 102, 103, 105

print awareness, 10, 90-94

questions posed to children, 93, 98, 99-100, 102, 107

reading comprehension, general, 88, 96-102, 107

reciprocal teaching, 112

rhymes and songs, 62, 95, 102

sentences, 102, 107

spelling, 10, 62, 63, 88, 91, 95, 102-106, 107

storybooks, 88, 96-102

summarizing, 88, 96, 101, 107

syllables, 90-91, 94, 95, 107

teachers, 86, 87, 91, 98, 102

teaching activities, 62-63, 87, 90-106

vocabulary, 90, 98, 99, 107

word recognition, 10, 63, 88, 94-96, 99, 107

writing, 10, 62, 63, 101, 102-106, 107

emergent writing, 88, 89, 102-106, 107

see also Primary grades, general

Fluency, 6

curriculum, optimal, 129

defined, 148

first grade, 94, 96

K-3, 62

second and third grades, 110, 113, 114

see also Alphabetic principle;

Frustration level;

Phonemic awareness;

Reading comprehension;

Word recognition

Follow the Leader, 74

Foreign language speakers, see English as a second language

Frequency of reading, 53, 64, 96, 111

practice, 94, 96, 112

rereading, 10, 74, 97, 115

Frustration level, 10, 64

defined, 148

Funding, 140-141

birth through age four, 138

early grades, 140

poor children, funding for, 133-134

G

Games, see Play-based instruction

Government role

funding, 133-134, 138, 140-141

politics and policy makers, 1, 5-6, 11, 140-141

Group reading

first grade, 88, 97

kindergarten, 74

second and third grades, 112

see also Small-group instruction

H

Health care professionals, 14, 24, 134-135, 136

Health care services, Internet resources, 167

Hearing impairments, 24, 136, 137

Hickory Dickory Dock, 82

High-risk children, see Risk factors

Hispanic persons, see Spanish speakers

Home environment, see Families;

Parents

Homework, 10

see also Independent reading

I

I Can Hear the Rain, 47

Identification of problems, see Screening and identification

IEP (Individualized educational program), see Tutors and tutoring

Income, see Poverty

Independent reading, 10, 11, 64

curriculum, optimal, 129

first grade, 10, 88

second and third grades, 10, 108-115 (passim), 118

Individual instruction, see Tutors and tutoring

Inference, 10, 88, 129

Instructional materials, 47, 112

access to books, 53, 62, 63, 65, 74, 76, 127, 134, 135, 143

birth through age four, 8-9, 17, 37, 38, 53

see also Libraries and librarians

birth through age four, 29, 49, 54, 55

commonplace, 49, 93, 105

first grade, 92, 93, 94, 95

letter recognition, 54, 83, 84, 92

kindergarten, 72, 76, 82

second and third grades, 108

toys, 16, 17, 29, 49, 76, 93

see also Audiovisual presentations;

Book reading;

Curricular design

Instructional methods, see Teaching activities

Internet resources, 165-167

Interventions, see Preventive interventions;

Remedial interventions;

Special education

Invented spelling, 10, 45, 55-56, 85, 88, 102, 105, 107

defined, 149

K

Kindergarten, 1, 65-84

attention levels, 65, 75, 85

book reading, 65, 66, 74, 85

conceptual knowledge, 65, 71, 85

decoding, 78-81

goals of, 10, 65, 84-85

identification/prevention of difficulties, 138

poor children, programs, 133-134, 138

instructional materials, 72, 74, 82

language skills, general, 65, 72, 74

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
×

letter identification, 10, 53, 68-69, 74, 78-81, 82, 85

letter dictionaries, 83, 84

listening comprehension, 65, 68, 70, 74, 75, 85

literacy, general, 65, 72

oral reading, 66, 72

phonemic awareness, 65, 68-69, 85

phonics, 10, 65, 66, 80

pictures, 72, 73, 79, 82-84

print awareness, 10, 65, 66, 74, 85

questions posed to children, 70, 74, 85

reading problems, 138

poor children, programs, 133-134, 138

rhymes and songs, 66, 82, 85

sentences, 65, 74, 85

spelling, 81-84, 85

storybooks, 65, 66, 70, 72, 74, 75

summarizing, 74

teaching activities, 66-84

vocabulary, 10, 70, 71, 72, 82, 85

word recognition, 10, 78-82, 85

writing, 10, 65, 66, 81-84, 85

Knowledge, conceptual, see Conceptual knowledge

L

Language-minority children, see Dialects;

English as a second language

Language skills, general

birth through age four, 1, 2, 6, 15-17, 18, 44, 45, 138

first grade, 96-102, 106

identification/prevention of difficulties, 138

early language impairments, 24, 42, 44, 136, 137, 148

Hispanics, 130

kindergarten, 65, 72, 74

milestones, defined, 149

oral, 7, 8, 88, 130;

see also Oral reading

primary grades, 10

second and third grades, 108, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119

teacher certification, 123

see also English as a second language;

Literacy;

specific skills

Learning disabilities

funding, 140

identification/preventive of difficulties, 5, 128, 136

Internet resources, 166

reciprocal teaching, 112

see also Cognitive deficits;

Special education

Letter identification, 7, 8, 10

birth through age four, 34, 53, 54-55, 57, 59

capitalization, letters, 80, 82, 85, 92, 94-95, 107

computer-based instruction, 57

day care settings, 53, 54

early deficits, 15, 42, 141

first grade, 63, 88, 90-96, 102, 106, 107

kindergarten, 10, 53, 68-69, 74, 78-81, 82, 85

letter dictionaries, 83, 84, 92

second and third grades, 10, 110, 113, 114, 115, 119

see also Alphabetic principle;

Capitalization

Letters (correspondence)

teacher-parent, 128

written by children, 10, 30, 63, 66

Libraries and librarians, 10, 143

birth through age four, 36, 37, 38, 53

kindergarten, 76

New York Public Library’s list of 100 great picture books, 38-41

Limited-proficiency English, see English as a second language

Listening comprehension

birth through age four, 50, 52

first grade, 105

kindergarten, 65, 68, 70, 74, 75, 85

speech discrimination, defined, 150

teacher education on, 60

see also Oral reading

Literacy, general, 1, 2, 5

birth through age four, 1, 7, 8, 15-17, 18, 42, 44, 45, 120, 137, 139, 148

computer-based instruction, 56-57

day care, 43, 53

play activities, 37

teacher knowledge of, 123

computer instruction, 120, 121

conceptual knowledge, 9, 65, 123-124

defined, 149

emergent, defined, 148

family programs, 139

first grade, 106, 107

identifying/preventing difficulties, 120, 135, 137, 138

Internet resources, 165, 166

kindergarten, 65, 72

primary school, individual children, background, 61, 64

second and third grades, 111, 112, 119

teachers, 112, 123

Local risk factors, see Poverty;

School-based factors

M

Medical professionals, see Health care professionals

Memory, see Letter identification;

Summarizing;

Word recognition

Mental retardation, see Cognitive deficits;

Special education

Minority groups, 5, 62, 130

African Americans, 133

Hispanics, 130, 131

see also English as a second language

Morphology, 123, 149

Motivation and attitude, 20

birth through age four, 7, 8, 10, 13, 37, 42, 44, 60

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
×

computers in the classroom, 120

English as a second language, 132

first grade, 96

identifying/preventing difficulties, 127, 139

kindergarten, 65, 70, 85

parents, 139

questions posed to children,

birth through age four, 20, 21, 32, 35, 36, 37

first grade, 93, 98, 99-100, 102, 107

kindergarten, 70, 85

second and third grades, 112, 113, 114, 115, 118

second and third grades, 108, 110, 113

teachers, 60, 63, 124

see also Frustration level;

Independent reading

N

Narrative comprehension, 35, 59

day care settings, 53

first grade, 63

kindergarten, 66, 72, 74

predicting, reading comprehension, 10, 26

second and third grades, story maps, 110-111, 118

teacher education on, 60

see also Dramatic play

New York Public Library, list of 100 great picture books, 38-41

Non-English speakers, see English as a second language

Non-standard dialects, see Dialects

Norm-referencing, teacher certification, 123

Nursery rhymes, see Rhymes and songs

O

This Old Man, 48

Oral language skills, general, 7, 8, 88, 130

Oral reading, 7

birth through age four, 20, 52

curriculum, optimal, 129

first grade, 10, 63, 88, 94-96, 97, 107

group reading, 74, 88, 97, 112

kindergarten, 66, 72

paired reading, 35, 63, 74, 93, 110, 112

parents, reading to and with children, 2, 16-17, 20, 111, 135, 143

pretend reading, 17, 28, 37, 59

second and third grades, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 119

Orthography, see Spelling

Outings, 20, 37, 71, 143

Outreach, 131, 139, 143

health care professionals, 14, 24, 134-135, 136

P

Paired reading, 35, 63, 74, 93, 110, 112

Parents, 1, 2

birth through age four, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 17, 18-20, 27, 30, 42

first grade, 2, 4, 87, 97

Hispanics, 130

Internet resources, 166-167

kindergarten, 74

reading problems

identifying/preventing, 128, 131, 135, 137, 138

parents with, 137

reading to and with children, 2, 16-17, 20, 111, 135, 143

second and third grades, 110

talking with children, 17, 19-20, 27, 50-51, 52, 89, 135

teacher communication with, 45, 127, 128

see also Adults;

Families

Pediatricians, 14, 24, 134-135

PEER sequence, 52

Phonemes

birth through age four, 21

computer-based instruction, 47

defined, 149

invented spelling, 10, 45, 55-56, 85, 88, 102, 105, 107, 149

see also Decoding

Phoneme segmentation

curriculum, optimal, 129

defined, 149

first grade, 107

invented spelling and, 10

Phonemic awareness

birth through age four, 46-47, 57

computer-based instruction, 57

curriculum, optimal, 129

defined, 149

dialect speakers, 133

first grade, 10, 88, 90-94, 102, 107

invented spelling and, 10

kindergarten, 65, 68-69, 85

Phonics, 6, 7, 13

computer instruction, 121

curriculum, optimal, 129

defined, 150

first grade, 10, 86, 96, 102, 106, 107

invented spelling and, 10

K-3, 62, 80

kindergarten, 10, 65, 66, 80

reading difficulties, 141

dialect speakers, 133

second and third grades, 10, 110, 113, 114, 118, 119

Phonological awareness, 7, 9

birth through age four, 20-22, 46-48, 50, 55

computer instruction, 120, 121

defined, 150

early deficits, 15

kindergarten, 66-70

see also Rhymes and songs

Phonological decoding, see Decoding

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
×

Phonology

birth through age four, 23, 57

computer-based instruction, 57

defined, 150

dialect speakers, 133

teacher certification, 123

see also Dialects;

Hearing impairments;

Phoneme segmentation;

Phonemic awareness;

Phonological awareness;

Rhymes and songs;

Spoken words

Play-based instruction, 49

alliteration, 42

birth through age four, 44

dramatic play, 26-27, 49, 72-73, 85, 101, 114, 115, 129

kindergarten, 66, 72-73

labeling and labeling games, 19, 29, 37, 49, 59, 72, 86

letter recognition, 55

outings, 20, 37, 71, 143

parents, 42

pretending, 26-27, 37;

see also Pretend reading

second grade, 114

toys, 16, 17, 29, 49, 76, 93

see also Rhymes and songs;

Word games

Poetry, see Rhymes and songs

Policy makers and political factors, 1, 5-6, 11, 140-141

funding, 138, 140-141

Poverty, 5, 133-134, 137, 139

books, access to, 53, 143

early language environments, 44

first grade, 62

Hispanics, 130, 131

language disabilities programs, 24

Practice, 112

first grade, 94, 96

frequency of reading, 53, 64, 96, 111

rereading, 10, 74, 97, 115

homework, 10

see Play-based instruction

Predicting, reading comprehension, 10, 26

curriculum, optimal, 129

first grade, 88, 107

kindergarten, 85

second and third grades, 112

Predictors of reading difficulties, see Risk factors

Preschool education, see Birth through age four;

Day care environments;

Emergent reading;

Emergent writing

Pretending, 26-27, 37

Pretend reading, 17, 28, 37, 59

Pretend writing, see Emergent writing

Preventive interventions, 13, 127-145, 153

birth through age four, 128, 137, 138-139

defined, 149

Primary grades, general, 1, 11, 14

books, access to, 9

goals outlined, 10, 61, 62

literacy, general, 61, 64

see also First Grade;

Kindergarten;

Second and third grades

Primary prevention, see Preventive interventions

Print awareness, 7, 8, 10, 13

birth through age four, 18, 27-28, 29, 30, 32-33, 52, 55, 59

curriculum, optimal, 129

day care settings, 53

first grade, 10, 90-94

kindergarten, 10, 65, 66, 74, 85

sentences, 33, 65

see also Letter identification

Problems with reading, see Reading problems

Professionals, see Health care professionals;

Libraries and librarians;

Specialists;

Teachers

Psychological factors, see Motivation and attitude

Q

Questions

birth through age four, 20, 21, 32, 35, 36, 37, 44, 55

first grade, 93, 98, 99-100, 102, 107

K-3 teachers, 63

kindergarten, 70, 74, 85

labeling games, 19

print awareness, 33

problem-solving activities, 5, 32

reciprocal teaching, 112

second and third grades, 112, 113, 114, 115, 118

word-picture associations, 24-25

R

Race-ethnicity, see Minority groups

Readiness, see Reading readiness

Reading aloud, see Oral reading

Reading comprehension, general, 6, 7, 10, 13, 101

audiotapes and, 35

defined, 147

developmental stages, general, 35

first grade, 88, 96-102, 107

K-3, 62

identifying/preventing difficulties, 127, 128

recall, 114, 118

second and third grades, 108, 110-111, 112, 115, 117, 118, 119

teachers,

certification of, 123

identifying/preventing difficulties, 128

see also Fluency;

Narrative comprehension;

Predicting, reading comprehension;

Summarizing

Reading for meaning, 7, 46

curriculum, optimal, 129

first grade, 93

identifying/preventing difficulties, 127, 129

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
×

second and third grades, 10, 108, 110, 117

see also Phonological awareness;

Summarizing

Reading level

English as a second language, 132

Hispanics, 130

first grade, 87, 107

first-second grade summer reading skill losses, 108

second and third grades, 108, 110, 111, 113, 118, 119

Reading problems, 11, 13, 127-128, 130-145

birth through age four, 24, 42, 128, 137, 138-139

cognitive deficits, 128, 136, 137, 138

intelligence quotient, 136, 138

special education, 112, 127, 131, 138, 140

curriculum casualties, 130, 147

defined, 150

dialects, 124, 133, 148

English as a second language, 5, 124, 130, 132

Hispanics, 130-132

first-second grade summer reading skill losses, 108

kindergarten, 138

poor children, programs, 133-133, 138

literacy general, 120, 135, 137, 138

local factors,

interventions, 140-141, 143

school-based factors, 130, 131-132, 140

morphology, 127, 139

motivation, 127, 139

parents, 128, 131, 135, 137, 138

phonics, 133, 141

school-based, 130, 131-132, 140

second and third grades, 108, 111

special education, 112, 127, 131, 138, 140

teachers, identification/prevention roles, 128, 131, 141

see also Disabilities;

Poverty;

Preventive interventions;

Remedial interventions;

Screening and identification

Reading readiness, 5, 150

Reciprocal teaching, 112, 150

Remedial interventions, 13, 127

defined, 149

K-3, 61

“pull-out,” 128

reciprocal teaching, 112

see also Special education;

Tutors and tutoring

Repeating (grade level), 45

Rereading, 10, 74

first grade, 97

third grade, 115

Retardation, see Cognitive deficits;

Special education

Retention in grade, preschool quality and, 45

Rhymes and songs

birth through age four, 17, 19, 20-22, 24, 42, 43, 46, 47-48, 57, 59, 135

computer-based instruction, 57, 121

curriculum, optimal, 129

early childhood learning difficulties, 24, 42

first grade, 62, 95, 102

kindergarten, 66, 82, 85

specific rhymes and songs,

Apples and Bananas, 22

Follow the Leader, 74

Hickory Dickory Dock, 82

I Can Hear the Rain, 47

This Old Man, 48

The Spider, 48

Teddy Bear, 21

Rime, see Onset-rime

Risk factors, 4, 15, 142, 153

defined, 150

reciprocal teaching, 112

see also English as a second language;

Poverty;

Preventive interventions;

School-based factors;

Screening and identification

S

School-based factors

class size, 62, 87

reading problems, 130, 131-132, 140

student-teacher ratios, 134, 138

see also Teachers

Screening and identification, reading problems, 141

classroom, ongoing, 10

early childhood, 15, 24

health care professionals, 24, 134

language disabilities programs, 24

parental role, 24, 42

school-level factors, 130, 131

specialists, 136

teacher role, 129, 131

volunteer tutors, screening of, 142

see also Outreach;

Risk factors

Second and third grades, 108-120

alphabetic principle, 108

computer-based instruction, 114

conceptual knowledge, 111, 118, 119

curricular design, 108, 110-111

decoding, 108, 110, 113, 115, 118

goals outlined, 10, 108, 117-119

independent reading, 10, 108-114 (passim), 118

language skills, general, 108, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119

letter identification, 10, 110, 113, 114, 115, 119

literacy, general, 111, 112, 119

oral reading, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 119

phonics, 10, 110, 113, 114, 118, 119

pictures, diagrams and charts, 111, 114, 118

questions posed to children, 112, 113, 114, 115, 118

reading comprehension, general, 108, 110-111, 112, 115, 117, 118, 119

reading for meaning, 10, 108, 110, 117

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
×

reading level, 108, 110, 111, 113, 118, 119

reading problems, 108, 111

sentences, 113, 118

spelling, 108, 114, 117, 118, 119

summarizing, 112, 117

teachers, 108, 110-112

vocabulary, 110, 111, 114, 115, 117

writing, 111, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119

see also Primary grades, general

Second-language speakers, see English as a second language

Shared reading, see Group reading;

Paired reading

Sight word recognition, 7

curriculum, optimal, 129

first grade, 10, 94, 107

K-3, 62

kindergarten, 80-81, 85

Singing, see Rhymes and songs

Small-group instruction

audiotaped books, 51

curriculum, optimal, 129

first grade, 63, 64, 87, 96

see also Group reading

Sociodramatic play, see Dramatic play

Socioeconomic status, see Poverty

Software, see Computer-based instruction

Songs, see Rhymes and songs

Sounds, see Phonics;

Phonology

Space/directionality, concepts of, 18, 60

Spanish speakers, 130, 131

Special education, 112, 127, 131, 138, 140

Specialists, 87, 123, 134, 136, 139, 140, 141

health care professionals, 14, 24, 134-135, 136

speech-language therapists, 24, 44

see also Teachers;

Tutors and tutoring

Speech, see Listening comprehension;

Oral reading;

Phonology;

Spoken words

Speech impairments, 24

Speech-language therapists, 24, 44

Speech sounds, see Phonology

Spelling, 6, 7, 13

birth through age four, 55-56

computer instruction, 120

curriculum, optimal, 129

first grade, 10, 62, 63, 88, 91, 95, 102-106, 107

invented spelling, 10, 45, 55-56, 85, 88, 102, 105, 107, 149

kindergarten, 81-84, 85

morphology, 123, 149

orthographic awareness, defined, 149

primary grades, general, 10

second grade, 108, 114, 118

teacher certification, 123

third grade, 117, 119

see also Phonics

The Spider, 48

Spoken words, 23-24

birth through age four, 18, 19, 35, 50, 56

computer instruction, 120

curriculum, optimal, 129

developmental stages, 35

dialects, 124, 133, 148

English as a second language, 132

Hispanics, 130

hearing impairments, 24, 136, 137

kindergarten, 66

listening comprehension, 60, 65, 68, 70, 74, 75, 85

third grade, 115, 117

see also Conversation;

Oral reading;

Phonemic awareness;

Phonological awareness;

Phonology

Standards, teacher certification, 122-123

Storybooks, 36

audiotaped, 35, 50, 74, 120

big books, 52, 129, 147

birth through age four, 15, 19, 26, 44, 45, 51, 52, 57

computer-based instruction, 57, 120

day care settings, 53

developmental stages in reading, general, 35

first grade, 88, 96-102

Internet resources, 165-166

kindergarten, 65, 66, 70, 72, 74, 75

Storytelling, 20, 26-27, 51

computer-based instruction, 57, 121

kindergarten, 66

Student-teacher ratios, 134, 138

class size, 62, 87

see also Small-group instruction;

Tutors and tutoring

Summarizing, 10

curriculum, optimal, 129

first grade, 88, 96, 101, 107

kindergarten, 74

second and third grades, 112, 117

Summer reading lists, 10

T

Talking, see Conversation

Talking books, 25, 50, 74, 120

Teacher education, 122-124

birth through age four, 58, 60

identifying/preventing difficulties, 131, 141

Teachers

approach to book at hand, 1, 4, 5

birth through age four, 44, 45, 50-51, 52, 58, 60

certification, 122-124

day care, 53

first grade, 86, 87, 91, 98, 102

identifying/preventing difficulties, 128, 131, 141

K-3, 61-64, 75, 81

outstanding, qualities of, 62-63, 112, 122-124

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
×

parents, relations with, 127, 128

print awareness, 32

reading/storytelling, 21

reciprocal teaching, 150

second and third grades, 108, 110-112

see also Student-teacher ratios;

Tutors and tutoring

Teaching activities, 10

birth through age four, 2, 9, 11, 19, 21, 23-25, 26, 29, 32-35, 37, 47-56, 58

talking with children, 17, 19-20, 23, 27, 28, 30, 36, 50-51

first grade, 62-63, 87, 90-106

kindergarten, 66-84

see also specific activities

Teaching materials, see Instructional materials;

Toys

Teddy Bear, 21

Television, 19, 34, 37, 166

Third grade, see Primary grades, general;

Second and third grades

Time factors

birth through age four, preschool routines, 45

book reading by children, 53

first-second grade summer reading skill losses, 108

parents reading to children, 2

writing frequency, 10

see also Frequency of reading

Toys, 16, 17, 29, 49, 76, 93

Trips, see Outings

Tutors and tutoring, 2, 61, 141, 144

first grade, 87

individualized education programs, 140

program development, 1, 127-128

volunteer, 74, 87, 127, 141, 142

V

Videotapes, see Audiovisual presentations

Vocabulary, 13

birth through age four, 6, 8, 19-20, 35, 50-51, 59, 60

dialect speakers, 133

early language development, 6, 8, 19-20, 35

first grade, 90, 98, 99, 107

K-3, 62

kindergarten, 10, 70, 71, 72, 82, 85

second and third grades, 110, 111, 114, 115, 117

see also Sight word recognition;

Word recognition

Volunteer tutors, 74, 87, 127, 141, 142

W

Word attack, 23

computer instruction, 121

defined, 150-151

first grade, 62, 63, 94-96

Word decoding, see Decoding

Word games, 19, 23

labeling and labeling games, 19, 29, 37, 49, 59, 72, 86

see also Rhymes and songs

Word recognition, 6, 7, 11, 23

adult interaction with children, 16

automaticity and, 88, 94, 108;

see also Sight word recognition

birth through age four, 17, 19, 34, 44, 57, 59, 60

computer-based instruction, 57

defined, 151

first grade, 10, 63, 88, 94-96, 99, 107

kindergarten, 10, 78-82, 85

second and third grades, 10, 108, 113, 115, 117, 118, 119

teacher certification, 123

see also Alphabetic principle;

Frustration level;

Spoken words;

Word games

World Wide Web, resources available, 165-167

Writing, 6, 13

birth through age four, 49, 51, 55-56

computer instruction, 120, 121

curriculum, optimal, 129

dictation activities, 51, 66, 85, 129

first grade, 10, 62, 63, 101, 102-106, 107

kindergarten, 10, 65, 66, 81-84, 85

letters, correspondence, 10, 30, 63, 66

primary grades, 10

second and third grades, 111, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119

see also Alphabetic principle;

Emergent writing;

Spelling

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6014.
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Starting Out Right: A Guide to Promoting Children's Reading Success Get This Book
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A devastatingly large number of people in America cannot read as well as they need for success in life. With literacy problems plaguing as many as four in ten children in America, this book discusses how best to help children succeed in reading. This book identifies the most important questions and explores the authoritative answers on the topic of how children can grow into readers, including:

  • What are the key elements all children need in order to become good readers?
  • What can parents and caregivers provide all children so that they are prepared for reading instruction by the time that they get to school?
  • What concepts about language and literacy should be included in beginning reading instruction?
  • How can we prevent reading difficulties starting with infants and into the early grades?
  • What to ask school boards, principals, elected officials, and other policy makers who make decisions regarding early reading instruction.

You'll find out how to help youngsters build word recognition, avoid comprehension problems, and more--with checklists of specific accomplishments to be expected at different ages: for very young children, for kindergarten students, and for first, second, and third grade students. Included are 55 activities to do with children to help them become successful readers, a list of recommended children's books, and a guide to CD-ROMs and websites.

Great strides have been made recently toward identifying the best ways to teach children to read. Starting Out Right provides a wealth of knowledge based on a summary of extensive research. It is a "must read" for specialists in primary education as well as parents, pediatricians, child care providers, tutors, literacy advocates, policy makers, and teachers.

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