Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space
Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space Committee on Human Exploration Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the further- ance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is President of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's pur- poses of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accor- dance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engi- neering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 4627 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Cover: Mars mosaic image courtesy of Alfred McEwen of the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Arizona. Lunar crescent image courtesy of Dennis di Cicco. Cover design by Penny Margolskee. Copies of this report are available from Space Studies Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
COMMITTEE ON HUMAN EXPLORATION NOEL W. HINNERS, Martin Marietta Astronautics Company, Chair RICHARD L. GARWIN,* IBM T.J. Watson Research Center LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI, AT&T Bell Laboratories ELLIOTT C. LEVINTHAL,* Stanford University WILLIAM J. MERRELL, JR., Texas A&M University ROBERT H. MOSER, University of New Mexico JOHN E. NAUGLE,t National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired) GEORGE DRIVER NELSON, University of Washington SALLY K. RIDE,* University of California, San Diego MARCIA S. SMITH,l Congressional Research Service GERALD J. WASSERBURG,l California Institute of Technology Staff DAVID H. SMITH, Executive Secretary BOYCE N. AGNEW, Administrative Assistant *Former committee member who participated in writing this report. "Committee members added for third CHEX study who participated in writing this report. . . .
SPACE STUDIES BOARD LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Chair JOSEPH A. BURNS, Cornell University ANDREA K. DUPREE,* Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics JOHN A. DUTTON, Pennsylvania State University ANTHONY W. ENGLAND, University of Michigan LARRY ESPOSITO,* University of Colorado JAMES P. FERRIS, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute HERBERT FRIEDMAN, Naval Research Laboratory RICHARD GARWIN,* IBM T.J. Watson Research Center RICCARDO GIACCONI,* IBM T.J. Watson Research Center HAROLD J. GUY, University of California, San Diego NOEL W. HINNERS, Martin Marietta Astronautics Company JAMES R. HOUCK,* Cornell University DAVID A. LANDGREBE,* Purdue University ROBERT A. LAUDISE, AT&T Bell Laboratories RICHARD S. LINDZEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN H. McELROY, University of Texas, Arlington WILLIAM J. MERRELL, JR., Texas A&M University RICHARD K. MOORE,* University of Kansas ROBERT H. MOSER,* University of New Mexico NORMAN F. NESS, University of Delaware MARCIA NEUGEBAUER, Jet Propulsion Laboratory SIMON OSTRACH, Case Western Reserve University JEREMIAH P. OSTRIKER, Princeton University CARLE M. PIETERS, Brown University JUDITH PIPHER, University of Rochester MARK SETTLE,* ARCO Oil Company WILLIAM A. SIRIGNANO, University of California, Irvine JOHN W. TOWNSEND, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired) FRED W. TUREK, Northwestern University ARTHUR B.C. WALKER, JR., Stanford University MARC S. ALLEN, Director *Former member. TV
COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS RICHARD N. ZARE, Stanford University, Chair RICHARD S. NICHOLSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vice Chair STEPHEN L. ADLER, Institute for Advanced Study JOHN A. ARMSTRONG, IBM Corporation (retired) SYLVIA T. CEYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology AVNER FRIEDMAN, University of Minnesota SUSAN L. GRAHAM, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation HANS MARK, University of Texas, Austin CLAIRE E. MAX, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE, University of California, Berkeley JAMES W. MITCHELL, AT&T Bell Laboratories JEROME SACKS, National Institute of Statistical Sciences A. RICHARD SEEBASS III, University of Colorado CHARLES P. SLIGHTER, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign ALVIN W. TRIVELPIECE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director v
Preface In 1988 the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering stated in the report, Toward a New Era in Space: Realigning Policies to New Realities, that "the ultimate decision to undertake further voyages of human exploration and to begin the process of expanding human activities into the solar system must be based on nontechnical factors." It is clear, however, that if and when a program of human exploration is initi- ated, the U.S. research community must play a central role by providing the scientific advice necessary to help make the relevant political and technical . . decisions. Since its establishment in 1958, the Space Studies Board (SSB; for- merly the Space Science Board) has been the principal nongovernmental advisory body on civil space research in the United States. In this capacity, the board established the Committee on Human Exploration (CHEX) in 1989 to examine many of the science and science policy matters concerned with the return of astronauts to the Moon and eventual voyages to Mars. The board asked CHEX to consider three major questions: 1. What scientific knowledge must be obtained as a prerequisite for prolonged human space missions? 2. What scientific opportunities might derive from prolonged human space missions? 3. What basic principles should guide the management of both the prerequisite science activities necessary to enable human exploration and . . vat
. . . vile PREFACE the scientific activities that may be carried out in conjunction with human exploration? This report focuses on the second of these topics. The first topic was covered in Scientific Prerequisites for the Human Exploration of Space, published in 1993; the third topic is the subject of a future report. The Space Studies Board and CHEX concluded that the existing re- search strategies of several of the board's discipline committees form a basis for beginning to determine the scientific research opportunities that might arise if and when humans undertake voyages to the Moon and Mars. (See the appendix for a list of these committees and their contributing members.) CHEX thus asked the discipline committees to identify those scientific opportunities and classify them under two headings: (1) those that can be conducted only in association with long-term human missions and (2) those that could also be conducted by other means (for example, robotic or ground-based) to achieve the same or equivalent goals. Early in their analyses the discipline committees found that, with one exception, they were not able to identify opportunities that unambiguously require human presence. The exception, the study of the effects of pro- longed missions to the Moon and Mars on human physiology and psychol- ogy, is in and of itself of low priority absent a program of human explora- tion. Regarding opportunities that are in competition with other means, difficulty was encountered because of the considerable uncertainty existing concerning the practical capability of humans and the eventual capabilities of robotic missions over the long time scale involved in any program of human exploration. The committees thus expanded their advice to include the following considerations: 1. Identification of those scientific objectives for the Moon and Mars for which human presence can play a significant role; 2. Discussion of the realistic capabilities of humans and robots in planetary exploration and in carrying out scientific investigations in those environments; 3. Discussion of the appropriate phasing and mix of human and robotic activities in achieving those objectives; 4. Discussion of the requirements for crew selection and training, tech- nical development, and program structure to meet the scientific objectives in a program of human exploration; and 5. Identification of robotic scientific opportunities that may be enabled by some of the technology developed for the human exploration program. CHEX itself developed a description of the overall role of science in a program of human exploration. In that context, it then assimilated, evalu
PREFACE MIX ated, and integrated the contributions of the discipline committees. Infor- mation on the biomedical research opportunities arising from prolonged space missions was provided by the SSB's Committee on Space Biology and Medicine. Input on field science, the relative capabilities of humans and robots, and the search for planets around other stars was supplied by the SSB's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration. (CHEX consulted A Strategy for the Scientific Exploration of Mars, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mars Science Working Group, for additional information on the planetological and exobiological aspects of Mars precur- sor science.) Research opportunities in astrophysics and solar and space physics were considered by the SSB's Committee on Solar and Space Phys- ics and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate's Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research. Astronomical input from these discipline com- mittees was augmented with material from The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics, a report written by the National Research Council's Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. Details of the individual scientific strategies and goals of the relevant discipline committees, on which they based much of their input, are contained in the reports listed in the bibliography. Noel W. Hinners, Chair Committee on Human Exploration
Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SPACE SCIENCE AND HUMAN EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM Enabling Science, 5 Enabled Science, 6 References, 7 3 ROBOTS AND HUMANS: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH 9 Relative Advantages, 9 Relative Limitations, 10 The Optimal Mix of Humans and Robots, 11 Science Precursor Missions, 12 Technology to Optimize the Scientific Return, 14 References, 15 SCIENCE ENABLED BY HUMAN EXPLORATION Field Science, 17 Unraveling Solar Particle Emission History, 19 The Search for Life on Mars, 20 Impact History of the Terrestrial Planets, 21 Martian Climate History, 22 x~ 17
xt! CONTENTS Emplacement and Attendance of Large or Complex Instruments, 22 Detection and Study of Other Solar Systems, 24 Study of High-Energy Cosmic Rays, 25 Advanced Pinhole Occulter, 25 Life Sciences, 26 Science Enabled by Technology Developed for a Moon/Mars Program, 26 Scientific Community Participation, 27 References, 28 BIBLIOGRAPHY 30 APPENDIX: PARTICIPATING DISCIPLINE COMMITTEES 33
Executive Summary What role should the scientific community play if a political decision is made to initiate a program for the human exploration of the Moon and Mars? As the first phase of its study to answer this question, the Commit- tee on Human Exploration (CHEX) found that certain critical scientific information is needed before humans can safely return to the Moon for extended periods and, eventually, undertake voyages to Mars.i In addition to the scientific challenges of ensuring human survival in space, CHEX found that a Moon/Mars program offers "opportunities for the participation of the scientific community."2 What are these opportunities? What, if any, scientific research is "enabled" by the existence of a program of human exploration of the Moon and Mars? Does the technology developed for a Moon/Mars program open new avenues for scientific research? In attempting to answer these questions, CHEX reached the following conclusions: 1. Given that a program of human exploration is undertaken primarily for reasons other than scientific research, humans can make significant con- tributions to scientific activities through their ability to conduct scientific field work and by using their capabilities to emplace and attend scientific facilities on planetary bodies. 2. The fractional gravity environment of the Moon and Mars and of space vehicles in transit to and from Mars offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of prolonged exposure to fractional gravity levels on living
2 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE systems. Similarly, space missions lasting as long as 2 to 3 years will provide an unusual opportunity to study human behavior under uniquely stressful conditions (confinement with no immediate possibility of escape). The committee emphasizes, however, that both of these possibilities are at this time not inherently of high scientific priority in the absence of a pro- gram of human exploration. 3. There will be significant limitations on humans performing scien- tific activities because of safety concerns and the restrictions on mobility and manipulation imposed by the design of current spacesuits. Technology development is required to improve spacesuits, biomedical diagnostic pro- cedures, life support systems (both open and closed), and tools. 4. With the robotic technology expected to be utilized over the next few decades, using robots to perform certain scientific activities (e.g., field work) on extraterrestrial planetary surfaces will not be a realistic alternative to having humans on site. Technology development is required to improve both the capability of robotic field aids and the ability to control them remotely. 5. The next steps in the exploration of Mars should be carried out by robotic spacecraft controlled from Earth. As the program evolves to in- clude human exploration, the optimal mix of human and robotic activities is likely to include proximate human control of robots with a shorter time delay than can be achieved from Earth. 6. Space scientists in non-planetary science disciplines will be in the best position to take advantage of the scientific opportunities enabled by a Moon/Mars program if there is a steady, phased program of scientific projects on Earth and in Earth orbit. 7. Astronauts with a high level of relevant scientific knowledge and experience must be included in Moon/Mars missions. Crew training and exploration planning should be designed to take advantage of human initia- tive, flexibility, adaptability, and deductive and inductive reasoning abili- ties. 8. Scientists must be involved in every stage of a Moon/Mars program from conception to execution to ensure that quality science is accomplished, the science supported best takes advantage of human presence, and resources available to the whole of space science are competitively allocated. REFERENCES 1. Space Studies Board, Scientific Prerequisites for the Human Exploration of Space, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1993. 2. Space Studies Board, Scientific Prerequisites for the Human Exploration of Space, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1993, page 46.
1 Space Science and Human Exploration of the Solar System The post-Apollo directions of a U.S. program of human exploration of the solar system have long been the subject of study, discussion, debate, and controversy. Most concepts for the next steps in the human exploration of space, including those going back as far as the mid-1960s, have focused on missions to the Moon and Mars and their immediate vicinity.- Those studies were conducted largely in the context of a future program of human exploration of the Moon and Mars that was assumed to be inevitable. Political support, however, has not materialized for initiating a piloted return to the Moon or for journeying to Mars; in fact, it has been difficult to get a political consensus to support the funding of a space station, the prime goal of which is, arguably, to prepare for long-duration human space explo- ration. The arguments, pro and con, for continued human spaceflight have shifted as the basic rationale has changed. No longer is competition with the Soviet Union a compelling force as it was for Apollo, and the economic pressures faced by the nation are causing many to question whether this is the time for human exploration of the solar system. Despite the current uncertainty, however, the possibility for future hu- man exploration of the Moon and Mars remains. In this regard, the Com- mittee on Human Exploration (CHEX) recognizes that political factors can change rapidly and can have profound effects on the pace and content of a human space exploration program, as they did when President Kennedy committed to the Apollo program. CHEX views the current interlude as an opportune time in which to calmly and methodically study and stipulate the 3
4 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE role of science in any future program of human exploration of the solar system. Given the often lofty, but still ill-defined, human exploration aspira- tions, what is the role of science in a Moon/Mars program? CHEX started with the recognition that one of the major goals in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) original charter was the acquisition of new scientific knowledge about space and the terrestrial environment. In- deed, scientific goals have always played an important part in NASA's activities. Thus it is natural to expect that science will play a major role in any future program of human exploration, as it did in Apollo and in all subsequent piloted spaceflight programs. The specific nature of that role and the way in which the scientific community has historically interacted with human space exploration will be dealt with in the third CHEX report. It is not surprising then, that many, if not all, concepts for human exploration of the Moon and Mars include scientific investigations. Many proponents also propose using the Moon as an observational platform from which to conduct astronomical and space physics studies. Is science then the motivation for a Moon/Mars program? This ques- tion was answered in the negative by the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering in a report on space policy prepared in 1988. It stated that "the ultimate decision to undertake further voyages of human exploration and to begin the process of expanding human activities into the solar system must be based on nontechnical factors."7 In other words, the expansion of human presence and activity into the solar system does not demand any a priori scientific research component beyond the enabling research needed to provide for the health and safety of the astro nauts (see next section). Nevertheless, recognizing the need for enabling research and that pi- loted flight can result in new or modified space science opportunities, the U.S. research community has the opportunity and obligation to provide the best and most constructive scientific advice it can to help shape the political and technical decisions regarding piloted flighty Accepting such a role commits scientists to participating in establishing human exploration strat- egy and goals, mission planning, management, implementation, and analy- sis of results. During mission design and operations, scientists must partici- pate to ensure optimal scientific return. Part of that optimization is the inclusion in the crews not only of people trained to perform particular scientific tasks, but also of experienced scientists. Indeed, scientist-astro- nauts have an important role to play in planning, postmission analysis, and preparations for future exploration. Since the end of the Apollo program in 1972, humans have not set foot on another body in the solar system. The Apollo experience involved hun- dreds of scientists in many disciplines. Although science was not empha
SPACE SCIENCE AND HUMAN EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM sized or well planned at the beginning of the program, Apollo evolved a highly successful mechanism to include scientific input that ultimately pro- duced important scientific results. Participation of scientists in a program of human exploration is a sensi- tive subject in the broad scientific community. Some individuals fear that any involvement is an implicit endorsement of such a program. Others fear that science is or will be used as a justification or that low-priority and/or low-quality science will be funded under the umbrella of an expensive hu- man spaceflight program. Indeed, experience shows that these concerns cannot be dismissed out of hand thus part of the Space Studies Board's (SSB) rationale for establishing CHEX was to ensure that the scientific aspects of a Moon/Mars program are established in the proper context. That is, only science that truly takes unique advantage of human presence should be undertaken and then only if it is of competitive quality. ENABLING SCIENCE CHEX concluded in its first study that the most important responsibil- ity facing the scientific community, in the initial stages of a program of human exploration, is to define the conditions necessary to maintain the health and safety and ensure the optimal performance of astronauts during exploration missions. Answers are urgently needed to such questions as, Can humans function effectively on the Moon for long periods? and, Can they survive the lengthy journey to Mars? CHEX identified these enabling science issues in its first reports and classified them according to their degree of urgency. Critical research issues were defined as those for which inadequate scientific data lead to unacceptably high risks to any program of extended space exploration by humans. They are the potential "showstoppers" for a Moon/Mars project. Items in this first category include, for example, the effects of prolonged exposure of humans to the microgravity and space radiation environments. Optimal performance issues, the second category, were defined as those that, based on current knowledge, do not appear to pose serious dangers to the health and well-being of humans in space. They could, however, reduce human performance in flight or on planetary surfaces and result in a less than optimal return from the mission. Research to understand these factors cannot be neglected, and some of them may become critical research issues relative to long-duration human spaceflight and return to terrestrial gravity, when extraterrestrial habitation is considered or when new research infor- mation is obtained.
6 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE ENABLED SCIENCE Given an eventual political decision to undertake a Moon/Mars pro- gram, how might prolonged human space voyages enable or enhance the accomplishment of overall space science objectives? Before addressing this question, CHEX reiterates the earlier position of the Space Studies Board that a program of solar system exploration that includes only the Moon and Mars and their immediate vicinity is scientifically incomplete.~° The obvi- ous concern is that a program of human exploration, which by its very nature would be expensive, could dominate NASA budgetarily, manageri- ally, and programmatically to the detriment of a balanced scientific pro- gram. The existence of a vigorous ongoing space science program can go a long way toward creating a receptive environment for a program of human exploration. Many of the scientific objectives for the Moon and Mars are a subset of the general goals for the scientific exploration of the solar system outlined in past SSB reports. For the Moon and Mars in general, we seek to learn their thermal, magmatic, and tectonic evolution; their bombardment history; and the origin and evolution of their volatiles. We hope to learn about the origin of the Moon and its relationship to the Earth. For Mars we strive to understand the history of its climate, the processes of surface weathering and modification, and global aspects of the magnetic field and associated interactions with the interplanetary medium. Also of high priority is under- standing the history of martian biogenic elements and determining whether life ever existed there.~-~3 Human exploration of the Moon and Mars might also lead to the achievement of objectives in fields other than the planetary sciences. Studies of the lunar regolith and martian ice cores may, for example, reveal the long-term evolution of the particle and photon outputs of the Sun. Similarly, if a human exploration program includes the construction and operation of sci- entific observatories on the Moon, it might, for example, aid our under- standing of the mechanisms operating in solar flares, the origin of very high energy cosmic rays, and the frequency of occurrence of planets around other stars.~4-~6 A Moon/Mars program might enable studies of the response of living organisms to microgravity and fractional gravity environments.~7 In addi- tion, crews on Mars exploration missions will experience a combination of circumstances, including prolonged sequestration with no immediate possi- bility of escape, that might enable unique studies of human behavior. It must be stressed, however, that these research opportunities in the life sci- ences are fundamentally different from those in the physical sciences (out- lined above), because the latter are inherently of high scientific priority to
SPACE SCIENCE AND HUMAN EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM 7 their relevant research communities, whereas the former are currently not, absent a program of human exploration. Over the years the SSB has made many specific recommendations for scientific investigations in space, but none of the board's previous reports considered possible opportunities in the physical or biomedical sciences enabled by prolonged human space missions. For this report, CHEX con- sidered ways in which human presence might enhance the accomplishment of previously recommended robotic scientific investigations and also con- sidered what new investigations, consistent with the SSB's scientific strate- From this ex gies, might be enabled by a human exploration program. tended list, CHEX selected a number of specific examples that have valid scientific and technical reasons for being performed in conjunction with a Moon/Mars program and that would _ science. Be enhanced or enabled by prolonged human space missions, and Contribute in a major way to achieving the overall goals of space The investigations in the physical sciences described in Chapter 3 meet these criteria. But, as is discussed below, some of those suggested in other reports do not. This observation raises a major concern of the scientific community too often little or no competitive analysis and prioritization have been done, with respect to alternative modes or other science, to assess the merit of the proposed science for a Moon/Mars programed REFERENCES President's Science Advisory Committee, Joint Space Panels, The Space Program in the Post-Apollo Period, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., February 1967. 2. NASA, Beyond the Earth's Boundaries: Human Exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1988. 3. Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, Report of the Advi- sory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program (the "Augustine report"), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1990. 4. NASA, Leadership and America's Future in Space, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1987. 5. Synthesis Group, America at the Threshold, Report of the Synthesis Group on America' s Space Exploration Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991. 6. NASA, Report of the 90-day Study on Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1989. 7. Committee on Space Policy, Toward a New Era in Space: Realigning Policies to New Realities (the "Stever report"), National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988. 8. Space Studies Board, Scientific Prerequisites for the Human Exploration of Space, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1993, page 2. 9. Space Studies Board, Scientific Prerequisites for the Human Exploration of Space, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1993, pages 3-4.
8 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE 10. Space Studies Board, 1990 Update to Strategy for the Exploration of the Inner Planets, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990. 11. Space Studies Board, Strategy for Exploration of the Inner Planets: 1977-1987, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1978. 12. Space Studies Board, 1990 Update to Strategy for the Exploration of the Inner Planets, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990, Chapters 5 and 6. 13. Space Studies Board, The Search for Life's Origins: Progress and Future Direc- tions in Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990. 14. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991. 15. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991. 16. European Space Agency, Mission to the Moon: Europe's Priorities for the Scien- tific Exploration and Utilization of the Moon, Report of the Lunar Study Steering Group, ESA SP-1150, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, June 1992. 17. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991. 18. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, Chapter 4. 19. See, for example, Nancy Ann Budden and Paul D. Spudis, "SKI Science: Measuring the Return," Aerospace America, March 1993, page 22.
2 Robots and Humans: An Integrated Approach Most concepts for Moon/Mars exploration envision a mix of robots and humans. However, the criteria for deciding how each of them should be used, and in what combination, are not usually stated and probably were never formally developed. The result is that the concepts are biased accord- ing to the background of the study group; human exploration advocates tend to minimize the use of robots, whereas traditional space scientists tend to downplay the potential of human presence. CHEX believes that decisions regarding the mix of robots and humans to explore the Moon and Mars, and to carry out other scientific investigations in space, should be made with explicit cognizance of the relative strengths and weaknesses of each evalu- ated in the context of well-defined and specific tasks to be performed. RELATIVE ADVANTAGES Human presence can bring to planetary exploration a level of capability representing an essential aspect of scientific methodology: an iterative process of observing, hypothesizing, testing, and synthesizing. Activities ideally suited to humans include those requiring the techniques of intensive field study and tasks requiring complex, physical articulation combined with expert knowledge and the ability to adapt to new situations. Humans con- ducting scientific observations on planetary surfaces can perform their work with an inherent flexibility not easily equaled by the more cumbersome and delay-ridden methods of remote control, especially at significant radio-de 9
10 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE lay distances (for example, at Mars). Assessment of complex natural sys- tems makes excellent use of the human capability for serendipitous discov- ery and response. This human advantage is, for the time being, taken to pertain also to the activities of machines manipulated remotely by humans in near-real-time (that is, in a relatively local control loop with a short time delay). Robots have several obvious advantages. They are inherently expend- able and thus should be used in situations in which the risk to humans is excessive or for which there is no clear advantage to using humans. Robots excel at performing repetitive, tedious tasks that are amenable to program- ming and that do not need or take advantage of unique human capabilities. Lastly, robots can have a duty cycle that is uninterrupted by the need to rest, sleep, or perform the mundane tasks that devour so much time in the everyday life of humans. RELATIVE LIMITATIONS Although humans offer specific advantages in the exploration of plan- etary surfaces, they have their limitations as well. Because of the harsh environments of the Moon and Mars and the amount of challenging physical work involved, safety considerations will always constrain the amount of time available for people to explore and perform scientific tasks. Humans working in spacesuits will always have less mobility and flexibility than humans working on Earth, despite anticipated improvements in spacesuits. In addition, scientific activities are not the only things people will be doing during human exploration missions. Routine maintenance of the habitat and other equipment is likely to occupy a significant fraction of the astronauts' time (as has become apparent for space station activities). Because of the broad range of scientific investigations proposed for human exploration, the crew (like robots) will not be expert in all relevant activities, although every attempt should be made to select crews that are highly qualified scientifically. Lastly, as was demonstrated in the Chernobyl nuclear acci- dent, the potential for rapid human reaction in response to a local stimulus or observation has a concomitant potential for rapidly introducing errors. Robots likewise have limitations. The creation of nearly autonomous machines with humanlike cognitive abilities continues to elude the robotic research community and may well do so for a considerable time into the future. At the moment, robots are capable of only simple manipulation; techniques for human-quality dexterity have yet to be demonstrated. Given current capabilities, robots require considerable human control and interac- tion to accomplish most scientific tasks. Their capabilities are appropriate for simple reconnaissance or prescribed activities in which no major diffi- culties are encountered. Whether their capabilities will remain at this level
ROBOTS AND HUMANS: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH 11 will depend on advances in robotic technology prior to the initiation of a program of human exploration. Lastly, even though robots are inherently expendable relative to humans, their cost can be sufficiently large that they ought not be exposed to excessive risk. This limitation can be overcome to the degree that inexpensive robots are developed. THE OPTIMAL MIX OF HUMANS AND ROBOTS As a result of its deliberations, CHEX is convinced that the humans- versus-robots controversy is outmoded. The space program has perpetuated this antiquated either/or dichotomy for too long. Examining various aspects of exploration in terrestrial situations clearly shows the proper approach to be a mix. Considerable experience has been gained in assessing the relative capa- bilities of humans and robots operating in hostile environments for the location, development, and operation of underwater oil and gas fields. Divers are used primarily to perform tasks beyond the manipulative capability of robots. Robots are used, increasingly, to perform programmable repair tasks and to assess the physical state of systems. Similarly, robots are increasingly used in the hazardous environments presented by nuclear acci- dents and hazardous waste cleanup. Clearly, safety and risk minimization are paramount determinants in terrestrial situations; no less should be ac- ceptable in human space exploration. A particularly germane example of the mix of human and robotic ac- tivities is in undersea exploration. Even though their exact role is still actively debated, robots are routinely used in oceanographic surveys to scan the ocean floor, emplace sensors, and collect samples. Even when human presence is desired, scientists do not usually study the deep ocean bottom in diving suits (read "spacesuits") but, rather, in pressurized submers- ibles using teleoperated manipulators and/or robotic devices to probe and acquire samples. The analogy to potential lunar and martian exploration by humans and robots is clear: a synergistic mix based on safety, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness must be the goal. Given the relative strengths and weaknesses of humans and robots, CHEX envisages that their relative roles in a Moon/Mars program will evolve as knowledge increases and as technological capabilities advance. The initial phases, largely an extension of current space science and involv- ing such activities as global orbital reconnaissance and the deployment of geophysical and meteorological networks, will be conducted exclusively by robots controlled from Earth or operating with varying degrees of autonomy. Further technical developments are needed in both robotics and operational capabilities (e.g., life support systems and exploration tools) to permit hu- mans to survive and function effectively on planetary surfaces. These will
12 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE lead to a subsequent phase consisting first of a mix of advanced robotic missions, such as those designed to return samples from Mars to Earth for analysis, and, eventually, the first human expeditions. CHEX envisions further evolution into advanced exploration performed by a synergistic mix of humans and sophisticated robots. Such a mix could, for example, include human operation on Mars supported by robots teleoperated in near-real-time by astronauts on, or in orbit around, Mars. One might think that an important issue bearing on the relative contri- butions of humans and robots in a Moon/Mars program would be cost- effectiveness. Ideally, the relative mix of humans and robots used for achieving a particular scientific goal would be based on cost-effectiveness. The concept of cost-effectiveness is, however, difficult to adhere to in a human exploration program, because even though it is axiomatic that ro- botic missions would cost less than those involving humans, the basic deci- sion to proceed with human exploration is not rooted in science. In that light, CHEX recognizes that at any given time opportunity plays a signifi- cant role in prioritizing scientific projects and selecting means of imple- mentation. Rather than dwell on cost-effectiveness, a more realistic principle, stated in the first CHEX report, is that, "Robotic options should be used until they provide enough information to . . . define a set of scientifically important tasks that can be well performed by humans in situ.... It cannot be demanded that these tasks be best and most cost-effectively performed by humans."2 Subsequently, a mix of robots and humans should be used to optimize performance from both a scientific and a safety point of view. SCIENCE PRECURSOR MISSIONS Much information about the Moon and Mars has been collected by the Ranger, Surveyor, Lunar Orbiter, Luna, Apollo, Mariner, and Viking mis- sions. However, an orderly series of future robotic missions will be re- quired for collection of data relevant to human safety, for site selection, and for the effective identification and development of enabled scientific oppor- tunities. Such a series of robotic missions would include many that would be a normal complement of an ongoing robotic planetary science program. For the Moon, several robotic missions are desirable, especially for site selection. A high-resolution global chemical and mineralogical survey of the Moon will allow a much more complete understanding of the variety of lunar geologic features, their origin, and their evolution. Such a survey will also allow for extrapolation of Apollo and Luna data and is needed for targeting more detailed local investigation. Robotic sample returns will greatly aid in further refining site selection and planning scientific investi- gations. Moreover, a global geophysical network, deployed by landers, will
ROBOTS AND HUMANS: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH 13 greatly increase our ability to weave the characteristics of the interior into an understanding of the surface evolution and the origin of the Moon.3 The pioneering observations performed by the Mariner and Viking mis- sions to Mars were to have been extended by Mars Observer. This remote sensing orbiter mission was designed to characterize martian global geochem- istry and the general circulation of the atmosphere. Its high-resolution imaging capabilities, important for geological studies, would also have been useful for selecting future landing sites and planning surface operations. The failure of Mars Observer in August 1993 is therefore a major setback to the scientific exploration of Mars, and the accomplishment of its objectives remains a high scientific priority. Assuming that a recovery program leads to the accomplishment of some or all of the Mars Observer objectives, a next step in the robotic exploration of Mars should be in situ robotic investigations of its geophysical and me- teorological properties. Seismic activity should be explored for its intrinsic scientific value and to define more refined experiments that humans would emplace. Meteorological measurements are required to characterize the atmospheric boundary layer through which the key exchanges of energy, volatiles, and dust occur. The Viking landers made measurements at only two sites and had no capability to measure such important properties as water vapor concentration or to follow up on the discovery of chemical reactivity of the surface material.4 To take best advantage of human capabilities in scientific exploration, it will be desirable, some argue essential, to return reconnaissance samples from Mars prior to human exploration. Such sample return missions must deal with the obvious issues associated with planetary quarantine (both forward- and back-contamination).5 Returned samples will also address potential toxicity issues associated with the highly oxidizing properties of martian soil. This problem may also be tackled by in situ chemical analysis on robotic missions. Possibly more important, precursor sample returns will lead to a major increase in our knowledge of martian processes and history. This will permit a more informed choice of the landing sites for human missions and the types of investigations to be conducted during surface exploration. The Space Studies Board has recommended that "the next major phase of Mars exploration for the United States involve detailed in situ investigations of the surface of Mars and the return to Earth for laboratory analysis of selected martian surface samples."6 Stepping-stone missions, or "waypoints" in the language of the Syn- thesis Group's report, may provide significant scientific return and at the same time help to develop the technological capabilities required to get humans to Mars.7 For example, possible waypoints are human exploration of a near-Earth asteroid or the martian moons Phobos and Deimos.8-l0 An . . ~. . . ~ 1 c7 am. ~. . . ~. . 1 , 1 1
14 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE asteroid mission could be used to test a Mars transfer vehicle and provide useful operational experience in deep space. TECHNOLOGY TO OPTIMIZE THE SCIENTIFIC RETURN CHEX recognizes that a program of human exploration would present an opportunity for major advances in our understanding of the Moon and Mars. To realize that potential, high-quality science must be an integral part of the exploration. The optimal strategy for accomplishing the associ- ated science over the next several decades cannot be developed yet because of the uncertain prospects for advances in robotic systems and artificial intelligence. Major improvements in the human-machine interface of the type needed for the scientific activities discussed below require a focused program dedi- cated to the challenge of extending human capabilities in hostile environ- ments by developing remote control techniques. A Moon/Mars program cannot rely totally on the development of robotics for terrestrial use. Ro- botic systems developed, for example, to replace a human welder on an assembly line will not be adequate to function as an extension of humans engaged in field work or maintaining complex instruments on the Moon or Mars. Special features not currently found in industrial robots, such as high-resolution stereoscopic vision and multispectral imaging, would most likely be required to conduct robotically assisted geological field worked i2 Coincident with the development of suitable robotics, one must address their effective use. For example, what and how much information should be transmitted to the human operator, and how large a time delay in the human-machine control loop can be tolerated? The extent to which a human exploration program is able to drive the development of more capable robotic systems over the next several decades, coupled with improved spacesuits (and development of mobile pressurized environments with teleoperations capability enabling humans to perform field work without the encumbrances of a spacesuit), will contribute to determining the optimal mix of humans and machines. Developments in robotics for use in hostile terrestrial environments (deep-sea exploration and activities in "hot" nuclear environments are examples already cited above) will be of great value. The biomedical research enabled by human exploration will also de- mand certain technological developments. Prime among these is the need to develop sophisticated, compact diagnostic equipment (some with telemetering capability) to perform essential studies on the responses of the crew and other living organisms to prolonged exposure to the environment of the spacecraft. Such equipment might also serve an important health and safety role in the event of accident or illness in the crew.
ROBOTS AND HUMANS: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH 15 The call for technology development could appear obvious and gratu- itous; it might be expected that such would occur as a normal consequence of a well-structured plan for both scientific and human exploration. That has not, generally, happened. Study after study, several specifically dealing with the issue,~3 i4 has urged greatly increased (by a factor of three) funding and more focused technology development by NASA and a more effective methodology for using existing and future funding. That not much progress has been made can be attributed to a combination of many factors, not all of which are under NASA's control: bureaucratic inertia, organizational con- flicts, persistence of irrelevant technologies, low priority relative to near- term flight programs, inadequate justification of the need, lack of an appro- priate requirement for an approved program, and political fear of enabling future programs. This combination of somewhat disconnected reasons begs for top-level, determined attention inside and outside of NASA. Without such attention, the committee is pessimistic that the United States will en- joy in the future the leadership in human and robotic space exploration that it has demonstrated in the past. REFERENCES 1. See, for example, Paul J. Fox and Craig E. Dorman, "Alvin and Deep Ocean Re- search" (letter), Science, 261, July 2, 1993. 2. Space Studies Board, Scientific Prerequisites for the Human Exploration of Space, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1993, page 9. 3. Space Studies Board, 1990 Update to Strategy for the Exploration of the Inner Planets, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990, pages 18-19. 4. Space Studies Board, 1990 Update to Strategy for the Exploration of the Inner Planets, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990, pages 21-24. 5. Space Studies Board, Biological Contamination of Mars: Issues and Recommenda- tions, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1992. 6. Space Studies Board, International Cooperation for Mars Exploration and Sample Return, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990, pages 1, 3, and 25. 7. Synthesis Group, America at the Threshold, Report of the Synthesis Group on America' s Space Exploration Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991, page A-9. 8. NASA, Beyond the Earth's Boundaries: Human Exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1988, page 32. 9. Synthesis Group, America at the Threshold, Report of the Synthesis Group on America' s Space Exploration Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991, page A-37. 10. NASA, Science Exploration Opportunities for Manned Missions to the Moon, Mars, Phobos, and an Asteroid, NASA Office of Exploration Doc. No. Z-1.3-001 (also JPL Publica- tion 89-29), NASA, Washington, D.C., 1989. 11. G. Jeffrey Taylor and Paul D. Spudis, "A Teleoperated Robotic Field Geologist," Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Space II: Proceedings of Space '90, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 1990. 12. Paul D. Spudis and G. Jeffrey Taylor, "The Roles of Humans and Robots as Field
16 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE Geologists on the Moon," Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, 2nd Sympo- sium, LPI Contribution 652, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas, 1990. 13. Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, Committee on Advanced Space Technol- ogy, Space Technology to Meet Future Needs, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1987. 14. Space Studies Board, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, Committee on Space Science Technology Planning, Improving NASA's Technology for Space Science, Na- tional Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1993.
Science Enabled by Human Exploration Given the scientific goals of space science and the relative capabilities of robots and humans, CHEX has identified two areas in which human presence can enhance important scientific opportunities: (1) field studies of planetary surfaces and (2) the construction and maintenance of large and/or complex scientific instruments. Both of these areas can benefit from human cognitive abilities and from the flexibility provided by in situ or proximate human presence. Additional scientific opportunities arise in the study of the physiological response of living organisms to microgravity and frac- tional gravity environments and in studies of human behavior during pro- tracted sequestration and other stressful situations. Moreover, technology developed for a human exploration program may enable unrelated robotic . . . space science missions. FIELD SCIENCE Field work, a collection of activities in which processes and materials are studied in their natural setting, is intrinsic to several natural sciences, especially geology and biology. Humans bring unique capabilities to field studies: discovery and response accommodate the unexpected and allow the opportunity to redesign an approach. Human presence allows real-time testing of hypotheses using techniques ranging from simple manipulation to conducting a well-designed in situ experiment. Initiative and inductive and deductive thinking are uniquely human capabilities. People innovate and 17
18 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE anticipate; their thought processes allow them to distinguish the trivial from the important. Humans are capable of intuitive leaps based on incomplete information. Such an ability enables us to sort out logical from illogical or contradictory information. Humans experienced in field studies can synthe- size diverse and disparate field observations, thereby expanding the oppor- tunity for further discovery. The value of human presence in conducting field work will depend on the inclusion in crews of experienced scientists with relevant scientific judgment and intuition. Their participation is, however, insufficient if they are not given the opportunity to perform as scientists. For example, the plans, procedures, and schedules of geological traverses must be sufficiently flex- ible to allow scientist-astronauts to modify sampling procedures, time on site, traverse routes, and so on, on the basis of their real-time assessment of in situ observations. To restrict this flexibility is to relegate the scientist- astronaut to the role of a human robot controlled from Earth. The discussion of the advantages of human presence in planetary explo- ration is not theoretical: it has been demonstrated on the Apollo lunar missions.) Twelve astronauts, in six missions of increasing complexity, conducted tasks ranging from surface sample collection, with associated observations and photographic documentation of the geological context, to drilling and coring of the regolith, to emplacement of geophysical instru- ments. Photographic documentation of the sample sites proved invaluable in the interpretation of analyses of the returned samples. The astronauts, despite being encumbered by the spacesuits, proved adept at dealing with unforeseen problems such as repairing their roving vehicle and wrestling stuck drill bits and core tubes out of the ground. The geological training of the crews and the (relayed) interaction with the science teams in the Hous- ton "back room" were sufficiently good to prove that excellent science can be accomplished in human exploration. Although the last Apollo mission included a scientist, many of the potential advantages of his presence were negated by the short duration of the mission and its rigid timeline. As illustrative examples of human exploration activities, four diverse applications are examined that are particularly enhanced by the techniques of field investigation. In no particular order, these are the study of the lunar regolith as a probe of solar history, the search for martian fossil and extant life, determination of the meteorite bombardment history of the inner solar system, and the study of martian climate history. It can obviously be ar- gued that, in theory, any of the discussed field activities could be accom- plished robotically given sufficient advances in robotics and an adequate budget. That Possibility is not examined here: CHEX's sole Purpose is to ~ ~ , , 1 r ~ , ~ , 1 , 1 ~ · 1, 1 look at the more useful activities that human explorers might conduct given their presence on the Moon or Mars for reasons other than science. The committee hastens to note that it does not expect that a few mis
SCIENCE ENABLED BY HUMAN EXPLORATION 19 signs or so will provide sufficient data to yield final, definitive answers to the scientific problems addressed by the examples of field activities men- tioned below. Field experience on Earth relevant to determining climate history and to the origin of life and Apollo experience pertaining to solar emission history and to deciphering cratering flux demonstrate the com- plexity as well as the potential of the challenge. Unraveling Solar Particle Emission History Knowledge of long-term variations in the properties of the solar wind and solar energetic particles could provide important clues about the evolu- tion of the Sun and the role of the solar wind in the formation and early development of the solar system.2 Because solar wind particles impinge on and are implanted in the Moon's regolith, it may be possible to measure these variations by analysis of carefully selected lunar samples with a known geological context. This selection entails establishing the age of a given subunit. We must understand the early growth, formational dynamics, and continued evolution of the regolith through time. Thus, this activity is a field study problem in both geology and solar physics. Study of the early growth and formation of the regolith is best accom- plished by a two-pronged approach. First, excavations into the regolith should be studied to provide detailed geological information on its three- dimensional structure. At mare sites, it should be possible to excavate (in trenches or pits) and/or core down to the local lava flow bedrock (at depths of 5 to 8 meters). In such a manner, researchers could study regolith- bedrock contacts and learn about the earliest stages of regolith growth, an area that is poorly understood. Second, study of the incipient growth of regolith on fresh bedrock sur- faces on the Moon (for example, melt sheets of large fresh craters) would provide data for making inferences about stages of early growth exposed in regolith-bedrock contacts elsewhere on the Moon.3 4 Both of these studies require detailed field work, not only to collect samples intelligently, but also to make the observations and synthesize the visual clues needed to understand regolith growth dynamics. Outcrops of bedrock, such as those discovered on the wall of Hadley Rille by the Apollo 15 astronauts, are logical sites to begin such explorations. To obtain "snapshots" of the solar particle output in ancient times, we need to find ancient regoliths on the Moon. Such fossil regoliths might be found sandwiched between lava flows of radiometrically determinable age. Locating such deposits and selecting unaltered or minimally altered samples for laboratory analysis (to measure the chemical and isotopic properties of these precisely controlled samples) are complex tasks requiring field study. Data from a variety of sites will constitute a set of solar wind "index fos
20 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE sirs," that is, detailed measurements of the chemical and isotopic properties of the Sun at precisely defined intervals in the geological past. These can then be used to interpret and understand the solar record preserved in the regolith all over the Moon. Such knowledge will enable scientists to better interpret the solar record at regolith trenches and pits that may be excavated at other sites on the Moon, for example, during the construction of an underground habitat or the emplacement of instruments. The Search for Life on Mars The search for potential fossil and extant life on Mars, however low the probability for its existence is thought to be, continues to be a substantial goal of Mars exploration.5 6 Detailed field studies will be required for this search, using robots initially but with increasing proximate human partici- pation as the capability develops. Indeed, the robotic search for evidence of life on Mars began with the Viking landers in 1976. The identification of sites to be analyzed for traces of life will require both extensive and intensive studies. These will include preliminary sam- pling by machines and, probably, robotic sample return to Earth. Even on Earth, however, the environments occupied by organisms are diverse and not necessarily obvious: there are organisms that thrive or survive within rock surfaces, in association with thermal vents and hot springs, at ice- water interfaces, and in liquid inclusions in salt deposits.7 Proper site selec- tion therefore may be motivated to a considerable extent by subtle idiosyn- crasies: a crust within a sediment bed, a discoloration on ice or rock, or a boundary film between permafrost and regolith. Site selection will require subjective decisions based on astute observations of the specific locale, probably requiring a trained field observer. Additionally, access to important sites may require the versatility of human workers. For instance, complex maneuvers will be required to reach sites in the polar ice caps or in the canyons of Valles Marineris, and coring or drilling may be required to reach ice-regolith interfaces or geothermal zones. Evidence for past or present life on Mars will probably be sought in at least three ways: macroscopic and microscopic imaging, isotopic and chemical analysis, and culturing suspected life forms. Imaging procedures are ca- pable of detecting macroscopic remains (such as stromatolites) and micro- scopic fossils. Because of the unique character of biomolecules, chemical methods are by far the most sensitive methods available to identify life, past or present. Isotopic analysis of carbon-bearing (e.g., organics, carbonate) or inorganic (e.g., sulfur) deposits can provide evidence for life because biochemical reactions create distinct isotopic fractionations. Each of these analytical methods requires highly sophisticated sample
SCIENCE ENABLED BY HUMAN EXPLORATION processing and instrumentation. Imaging to search for microfossils will require sample preparation and electron microscopy. Chemical analyses will require chromatographic separations and mass spectrometry. Isotopic analyses will rely on chemical processing and high-resolution mass spec- trometry. Initially, samples should be returned to Earth for analysis. How- ever, the subsequent search for life will probably require iterative field study and in situ analysis because of the need for rapid feedback between analysis and further sampling. The sophistication of the analytical methods and the variability of sample types that must be anticipated weigh against full automation of such analy- ses in the foreseeable future; human field workers/laboratory technicians will be required. On the other hand, this required analytical sophistication and complexity could argue for continued sample return. CHEX anticipates that trade-offs between in situ analysis and sample return will have to be made on the basis of further experience with martian materials and develop- ment of microanalytical techniques. 21 Impact History of the Terrestrial Planets Through the study of impact history, the geological time scale for the formation of the surface units of the terrestrial planets can be reconstructed.8 This process involves understanding the flux history of impacting bodies and then using such knowledge to convert relative ages determined by the density of impact craters into the estimates of absolute age required to address such topics as geological evolution and biological history.9 Determining the history of the cratering bombardment flux for the plan- ets is, in practice, difficult. It involves obtaining samples appropriate for Isotopic age dating from a variety of geological settings and locations; one must be able to unambiguously relate such samples to geological features of known relative age. For the latest stages of planetary evolution on both the Moon and Mars, there exists a variety of volcanic plains, from which "grab" samples are likely to yield lava crystallization ages appropriate to interpret as extrusion ages for the flows. ~. ~. Thus absolute ages for large tracts of planetary surfaces can be determined rather directly. Selecting a variety of grab samples is easily accomplished through robotic means and was, in fact, accomplished on the Moon in the 1970s by the Luna 16, 20, and 24 mis- sions of the former Soviet Union. In the earliest phases of planetary history, most geological units consist of crater deposits. In contrast to determining the absolute ages of lava plains, the dating of impact features is rather difficult. The only samples appropriate for dating large impact craters are relatively class-free samples of impact melt, which typically constitute a few percent of the ejecta in cratering events. Although traces of a crater impact melt sheet can be
22 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE recognized remotely and robotic missions can retrieve samples from such locales, it is not certain that such samples will be appropriate for radiomet- ric dating. Even if such samples yield analytically good ages, their inter- pretation and relation to the age of the impact crater remain problematical. The careful collection of geologically controlled samples for dating impact craters is a difficult and complex problem and can be aided by human decisions and interactions. Martian Climate History Extensive channel systems on Mars suggest a warmer and wetter cli- mate in the past. Layered deposits visible in the polar ice caps may have preserved a unique record of climate swings that occurred over the last few hundred million years.~° Portions of this record may be recovered by drill- ing into the "sediments" and ice and analyzing the core samples. The two major causes of climate variations are thought to be martian orbital effects and temporal changes in solar irradiance. Because orbital effects have periods in the range of 105 to 106 years, their signal might be determined by studying a statistically significant number of cycles. After extraction of the signal due to orbital effects, the remaining variations might reveal the solar effects. Comparison with similar terrestrial data may verify a common external forcing function for global climatic changes in planetary atmo- spheres. The martian atmosphere is in many ways a simpler system than the terrestrial atmosphere because of the absence of a biosphere and mas- sive oceans. Sorting out orbital from solar effects on climate may therefore be done more easily for martian samples than for terrestrial ones. Human participation in these experiments would have two advantages: human judgment is needed to locate the best sites for drilling, and the number of samples would probably be so large that it would be best to conduct at least some of the chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical analyses in situ rather than after return to Earth. EMPLACEMENT AND ATTENDANCE OF LARGE OR COMPLEX INSTRUMENTS The use of the Moon as a platform for continuing studies of the planets, the Sun, other astronomical objects, and cosmic rays is an intriguing possi- bility. Although many instruments could be emplaced robotically, improved results could come from human interaction through more accurate position- ing and troubleshooting capability. In addition, larger and more complex instruments conceivably could be constructed with human intervention. To some extent, having humans nearby could expedite maintenance and repair of broken equipment.
SCIENCE ENABLED BY HUMAN EXPLORATION 23 For probing the properties and environments of the Moon and Mars, instruments such as seismometers and meteorological stations will be nec- essary. While rudimentary facilities can be deployed globally by robotic probes, careful emplacement and attendance of advanced instruments at a few sites by humans may enable more sophisticated measurements with greater accuracy and precision. For example, placing a seismometer squarely on bedrock provides good coupling to the planet and improves the quality of the data dramatically over its emplacement on loose rubble. In fact, humans have significant experience emplacing seismometers, including on the Moon and, via robot surrogates, on the ocean floor and Mars. With the establishment of martian meteorology stations, significantly advanced in- strumentation could be emplaced by humans, including tall towers or active sounders such as lidars, which could profile the atmosphere in considerable detail. The surface of the Moon represents, potentially, an excellent platform for selected astronomical studies. i2 The lack of any appreciable atmo- sphere allows distortion-free images and complete spectral coverage. Sites shielded from direct sunlight can use passively cooled infrared detectors, obviating the need for expendable cryogens. Early missions to the Moon could carry small telescopes, which could be emplaced robotically. How- ever, studies have indicated that fully assembled telescopes with apertures of the order of 1 to 2 m are the largest that could be deployed on the Moon in the initial phases of a lunar exploration programed Larger telescopes would require assembly in place, most likely with on-site human assistance. Several examples of the types of astronomical observations CHEX be- lieves to be appropriate for a lunar observatory are noted below. However, the committee cautions that there has not yet been an independent, system- atic analysis of how one should plan for astronomical or space physics observations in conjunction with a program of human exploration. Indeed, studies sponsored by proponents look at the Moon essentially in isolation from alternative ways (for example, in Earth orbit or ground-based) of con- ducting the desired observations.~4 i5 The report of the Synthesis Group, for example, discusses the possibility of establishing a magnetospheric ob- servatory on the Moon. However, spacecraft in other orbits around Earth might be far superior platforms for studies that use remote sensing tech- niques to study the global properties of the magnetosphere. Others have suggested that astronauts on the Moon set up and maintain an observatory for monitoring variations in the composition of the solar wind. Although the lunar surface is a good place to study the solar wind's long-term, inte- grated composition, experience from the Apollo program shows that local magnetic fields complicate and invalidate the study of any short-term varia- tions from the lunar surface. Although much was learned about the solar wind from analysis of samples collected in aluminum foils deployed by the
24 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE Apollo astronauts, future studies of the solar wind's composition using col- lection techniques would be better performed from a free-flying spacecraft that can face the Sun at all times.~7 The Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee addressed lunar- based astronomy in its chapter, "Astronomy and the Space Exploration Ini- tiative."~8 It recognized the potential to conduct some first-rate astronomy from the Moon, at the same time pointing out potential disadvantages as well as unknowns about the lunar environment that must be ascertained before one can properly evaluate the possibilities. As is true with planetary science, any program of lunar-based astronomy must be constructed in the context of a vigorous and comprehensive astronomy program with Earth- based and free-flying components. The European Space Agency's recent Phase-1 study of science on and from the Moon also found specific opportunities for astronomical observa- tions, especially interferometry. However, it too urged a conservative ap- proach and recommended a set of further studies.~9 CHEX endorses the findings of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Sur- vey Committee report on the next decade in astronomy,20 which called for an evolutionary approach to lunar astronomy, one that complements the Earth-orbiting and ground-based astronomy program. It urged that such a step-by-step approach incorporate a comparative analysis of different op- portunities, assessment of the lunar environment, initiation of advanced technol- ogy and instrument development (both, as has already been mentioned, con- siderably underfunded in current NASA programs), and progressive use of certain new techniques first on Earth, then in Earth orbit, and finally on the Moon. The Survey Committee advocated early initiation of a suitable small automated lunar astronomy mission as a reasonable way to start.2i Detection and Study of Other Solar Systems A major objective that can be addressed from the Moon is the detection and characterization of planetary systems around other stars.22 This goal was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee23 and in a recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration report.24 A particularly powerful tool for such a search is a large optical or infrared interferometer. One approach is to use an array of five 1.5-m passively cooled telescopes that could be individually soft-landed on the Moon and put into operation with limited human intervention for observations in the 0.2- to 5-micron range.25 The Moon is potentially superior to Earth orbit for such a device be- cause its gravity and solid surface (free from seismic disturbances) can stabilize interferometer baselines without the complex metrology and con- tinuous station-keeping needed with free-flying telescopes. Proposals to
SCIENCE ENABLED BY HUMAN EXPLORATION 25 use humans to construct and align such a large interferometer recognize the difficulty in trying to do so robotically. Study of High-Energy Cosmic Rays The energy spectrum of galactic cosmic rays is known to have a change in slope, or a knee, between 10~5 and 10~6 electron volts (eV).26 Possible explanations for the knee include a decrease in the effectiveness of accel- eration of particles by shocks or an increase in the leakage of the more energetic particles out of the galaxy. To distinguish between these and other possibilities, researchers need to know the variation of elemental abund- ances of the cosmic-ray particles both above and below the knee.27 There are, however, no direct composition measurements near the knee, and esti- mates of the composition range from pure hydrogen to pure iron. A lunar site would be highly suitable for an experiment designed to make such measurements, the so-called High Energy Abundance Project (HEAP).28 The Moon is ideal because it has no atmosphere and the heaviest part of HEAP, more than 150 metric tons of inert absorbing material, could consist of lunar soil. These measurements are not possible from Earth because of the atmosphere, nor are they practical in Earth orbit because of the cost of transporting that necessary amount of material into space. The 4-m cube of layered detectors and soil is perhaps most easily constructed by robotically assisted humans rather than robots, and humans would probably need to perform occasional maintenance. Advanced Pinhole Occulter The study of high-energy processes both in the Sun and in cosmic sources requires subarc second imaging in corresponding high-energy emis- sions such as hard x rays and gamma rays.29 At such energies, imaging by conventional techniques (such as mirrors and lenses) is not possible. The emissions can, however, be imaged using "pinhole-camera methods" such as coded aperture masks and pairs of parallel-slit grids, which produce a Moire fringe pattern in the detector plane.30 The requirement for a suffi- ciently large field of view sets lower limits on the characteristic dimension of the apertures (be they pinholes or slits), and in turn the angular resolu- tion requirement sets a lower limit to the separation of the grid pairs or masks. Instrumentation of this type with modest collecting area and angular resolution down to a few arc seconds has been considered for use in Earth orbit around the turn of the century. Advanced, second-generation (subarc second) instruments of this genre would require accurate and stable posi- tioning of apertures some hundreds of meters apart, an apparent impracti
26 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE cality for orbiting structures. Such a goal might, however, be met by a large lunar-based structure, one that would be extremely stable to both translational and torsional deformation. On-site engineers might be re- quired to construct such a structure to the necessary tolerances and to con- duct maintenance operations such as realignment of apertures. C7 C7 7 LIFE SCIENCES One of the more important physical features that influenced the evolu- tion of life on Earth, and which places constraints on the development and functioning of all living organisms, is gravity. Once the factor of gravity is removed from the environment, living systems are altered, and the study of such alterations may lead to new insights into life processes. The space life sciences are still in their infancy, and there have been few opportunities to carry out well-controlled experiments on living organ Thus it is not yet possible to predict how prolonged expo- sure to near-zero or fractional Cavity will alter living systems. However. 1sms in space. C7 ~ C7 ~ sufficient information is available to know that the absence of normal grav- ity profoundly alters living systems; thus exploration missions to the Moon and Mars will offer additional opportunity beyond Earth-orbiting space sta- tions. to investigate the fundamental biological processes by which gravity affects living organisms.3i Missions to the Moon and Mars will also provide an opportunity for behavioral studies on crews under highly stressful conditions as well as over prolonged periods of time in close confinement. Such research would build on more than three decades of experience of human behavior and performance gathered from overwintering personnel at polar research sta- tions. However, behavioral studies of the crews at a lunar outpost or on a Mars mission will provide new insights into human behavior because no polar base or even space station environment can duplicate all the condi- tions astronauts would experience on extended mission in deep space.32 In the case of Mars, additional stress will result from the absence of any ready means of escape. Both the gravitational biology and the behavioral studies are truly op- portunistic; they are not now currently of high scientific priority in the life sciences community absent a program of human space exploration. SCIENCE ENABLED BY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED FOR A MOON/MARS PROGRAM The technology developments needed for successful exploration of the Moon and Mars are numerous and are spread throughout many disciplines. For example, a recent study identified 14 relevant areas of technology de
SCIENCE ENABLED BY HUMAN EXPLORATION 27 velopment.33 Some of the general benefits to scientific investigations of two of these areas spacesuits and telerobotics are discussed above. Some technology developments could enable robotic space-science missions unrelated to Moon/Mars exploration. For example, nuclear electric propul- sion could enable several high-priority missions in heliospheric physics. Principal among these is the so-called interstellar probe.34 This mission would penetrate a significant distance beyond the heliopause to provide the first comprehensive in situ studies of the plasma, energetic particles, cosmic rays, magnetic fields, gas, and dust in interstellar space. An advanced propulsion system is required to send a spacecraft 250 astronomical units from the Sun in significantly less than the 25 years or more required by conventional propulsion aided by gravity assists. Once such an advanced propulsion system is available, it could also be used for other high-energy missions, such as to propel instruments to large distances above the solar poles or into a short-period, circular solar polar orbit, and, perhaps, even a short-period eccentric orbit that skims through the solar corona at altitudes as low as three solar radii.35 SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION CHEX has given considered thought to how space science might ben- efit from the existence of a program of human exploration of the Moon and Mars, undertaken primarily for reasons other than science. History tells us that no matter when such a program is undertaken, a major activity will be scientific research. Indeed, CHEX concludes that there will be opportuni- ties offering the potential for significantly enhancing our understanding of the Moon and Mars and for using them selectively as observation platforms. CHEX thus foresees a productive scientific role for human explorers as well as for continuing and enhanced robotic missions. The obvious conclusion is that scientists must participate in any eventual program of human explora- tion, although the question of how best to involve them must still be an- swered. Scientists' past experiences with piloted spaceflight have been both good and bad. We can learn much from those (particularly the Apollo program) in terms of how NASA should approach science management and the involvement of scientists in a program of human exploration. That topic is under study and will be the subject of the third CHEX report. It is already clear to the committee, however, that scientists must be intimately involved in every stage of the endeavor and contribute to success by assur- ing that quality science is accomplished, that the science supported takes the best advantage of human presence, and that the resources available to the whole of space science are competitively allocated.
28 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE REFERENCES 1. William David Compton, Where No Man Has Gone Before, A History of the Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions, The NASA History Series, NASA SP-4214, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1989. 2. NASA, A Planetary Science Strategy for the Moon, JSC-25920, Lunar Exploration Science Working Group, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, July 1992. 3. NASA, Geosciences and a Lunar Base: A Comprehensive Plan for Lunar Explora- tion, NASA Conference Publication 3070, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990. 4. NASA, A Planetary Science Strategy for the Moon, JSC-25920, Lunar Exploration Science Working Group, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, July 1992, page 8. 5. Space Studies Board, The Search for Life's Origins: Progress and Future Direc- tions in Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990, page 8. 6. Space Studies Board, 1990 Update to Strategy for the Exploration of the Inner Planets, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990, page 24. 7. Space Studies Board, Biological Contamination of Mars: Issues and Recommenda- tions, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1992, Chapter 4. 8. Space Studies Board, Strategy for Exploration of the Inner Planets: 1977-1987, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1978, page 71. 9. NASA, A Planetary Science Strategy for the Moon, JSC-25920, Lunar Exploration Science Working Group, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, July 1992, page 6. 10. Space Studies Board, Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015-Planetary and Lunar Exploration, National Academy Press, Wash- ington, D.C., 1988, page 101. 11. Y. Kondo (ed.), Observatories in Earth Orbit and Beyond, Proceedings of the 123rd Colloquium of the International Astronomical Union, Greenbelt, Maryland, April 24-27, 1990, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1990. 12. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, Chapter 6. 13. Synthesis Group, America at the Threshold, Report of the Synthesis Group on America's Space Exploration Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991, page A-24. 14. NASA, Future Astronomical Observatories on the Moon, NASA Conference Publi- cation 2489, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1988. 15. Michael J. Mumma and Harlan J. Smith (eds.), Astrophysics from the Moon, AIP Conference Proceedings 207, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1990. 16. Synthesis Group, America at the Threshold, Report of the Synthesis Group on America's Space Exploration Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991, page A-26. 17. Space Studies Board, A Strategy for the Explorer Program for Solar and Space Physics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1984, pages 29-30. 18. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, Chapter 6. 19. European Space Agency, Mission to the Moon: Europe's Priorities for the Scien- tific Exploration and Utilization of the Moon, Report of the Lunar Study Steering Group, ESA SP-1150, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, June 1992. 20. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991. 21. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, page 108.
SCIENCE ENABLED BY HUMAN EXPLORATION 29 22. Bernard F. Burke, "Astrophysics from the Moon," Science, 250, December 7, 1990, page 1365. 23. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, page 104. 24. NASA, TOPS: Toward Other Planetary Systems, A report by the Solar System Exploration Division, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1992. 25. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, page 104. 26. Space Studies Board, Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995-2015-Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988, page 31. 27. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, page 14. 28. Michael L. Cherry, "Particle Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Studies from a Lunar Base," Astrophysics from the Moon, Michael J. Mumma and Harlan J. Smith (eds.), AIP Conference Proceedings 207, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1990, page 593. 29. Laurence E. Peterson, "High Energy Astrophysics from the Moon," Astrophysics from the Moon, Michael J. Mumma and Harlan J. Smith (eds.) AIP Conference Proceedings 207, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1990, page 345. 30. Paul Gorenstein, "High-Energy Astronomy from a Lunar Base," Future Astronomi- cal Observatories on the Moon, NASA Conference Publication 2489, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1988, page 45. 31. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991. 32. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, Chapter 4. 33. Synthesis Group, America at the Threshold, Report of the Synthesis Group on America's Space Exploration Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991, page 83. 34. Space Studies Board, Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015-Solar and Space Physics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988. 35. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, Chapter 4.
Bibliography Committee on Human Exploration of Space, Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's 90-Day Study and Alternatives, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990. Committee on Space Policy, Toward a New Era in Space: Realigning Policies to New Reali- ties, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988. Space Science Board, HZE-Particle Effects in Manned Spaceflight, National Academy of Sci- ences, Washington, D.C., 1973. Space Science Board, Life Beyond the Earth's Environment: The Biology of Living Organisms in Space, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1979. Space Science Board, Origin and Evolution of Life-Implications for the Planets: A Scientific Strategy for the 1980's, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1981. Space Science Board, Post-Viking Biological Investigations of Mars, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1977. Space Science Board, Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Ura- nus, Neptune, and Titan, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1978. Space Science Board, Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015-Life Sciences, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988. Space Science Board, Strategy for Exploration of the Inner Planets: 1977-1987, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1978. Space Science Board, A Strategy for Space Biology and Medical Science for the 1980s and 1990s, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1987. Space Studies Board, 1990 Update to Strategy for the Exploration of the Inner Planets, Na- tional Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991. Space Studies Board, Biological Contamination of Mars: Current Assessment and Recommen- dations, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1992. 30
BIBLIOGRAPHY 31 Space Studies Board, International Cooperation for Mars Exploration and Sample Return, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990. Space Studies Board, The Search for Life's Origins: Progress and Future Directions in Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990.
Appendix Participating Discipline Committees COMMITTEE ON SPACE BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE FRED W. TUREK, Northwestern University, Chair ROBERT M. BERNE, University of Virginia, Charlottesville PETER DEWS, Harvard Medical School R.J. MICHAEL FRY, Oak Ridge National Laboratory FRANCIS (DREW) GAFFNEY, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas EDWARD GOETZL, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco ROBERT HELMREICH, University of Texas, Austin JAMES LACKNER, Brandeis University BARRY W. PETERSON, Northwestern University CLINTON T. RUBIN, State University of New York, Stony Brook ALAN L. SCHILLER, Mt. Sinai Medical Center TOM SCOTT, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill WARREN SINCLAIR, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements WILLIAM THOMPSON, North Carolina State University, Raleigh FRED WILT, University of California, Berkeley 33
34 APPENDIX COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS MARCIA NEUGEBAUER, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Co-Chair THOMAS CRAVENS, University of Kansas JONATHAN F. ORMES, Goddard Space Flight Center GEORGE K. PARKS, University of Washington DOUGLAS M. RABIN, National Optical Astronomy Observatories DAVID M. RUST, Johns Hopkins University RAYMOND J. WALKER, University of California, Los Angeles YUK L. YUNG, California Institute of Technology RONALD D. ZWICKL, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration COMMITTEE ON SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH DONALD J. WILLIAMS, Applied Physics Laboratory, Co-Chair ALAN C. CUMMINGS, California Institute of Technology GORDON EMSLIE, University of Alabama DAVID C. FRITTS, University of Colorado ROLANDO R. GARCIA, National Center for Atmospheric Research MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California, Los Angeles DAVID J. McCOMAS, Los Alamos National Laboratory JONATHAN F. ORMES, Goddard Space Flight Center EUGENE N. PARKER, University of Chicago JAMES F. VICKREY, SRI International *The National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) and Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) meet jointly as a federated committee and report directly to their parent NRC boards, the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate for CSTR and the Space Studies Board for CSSP.
APPENDIX COMMITTEE ON PLANETARY AND LUNAR EXPLORATION LARRY W. ESPOSITO, University of Colorado, Chair RETA BEEBE, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces ALAN P. BOSS, Carnegie Institution of Washington ANITA L. COCHRAN, University of Texas, Austin PETER J. GIERASCH, Cornell University WILLIAM S. KURTH, University of Iowa, Iowa City LUCY-ANN McFADDEN, University of California, San Diego CHRISTOPHER P. McKAY, NASA Ames Research Center DUANE O. MUHLEMAN, California Institute of Technology NORMAN R. PACE, Indiana University GRAHAM RYDER, Lunar and Planetary Institute PAUL D. SPUDIS, Lunar and Planetary Institute PETER H. STONE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GEORGE WETHERILL, Carnegie Institution of Washington RICHARD W. ZUREK, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 35