National Academies Press: OpenBook

Space Technology for the New Century (1998)

Chapter: Appendix D

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
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Page 40

Appendix D—
Technologies Assessed by the Committee

Communications

broadband, high-power, high data-rate, redundant systems

communications system-on-a-chip

high-dielectric constant patch antennas

high-frequency (› Ka band) antennas

high-power (broadcast) antennas

high-power, solid-state transponder systems

phased-array antennas

up-down transmission technologies, including raindrop compensation

wideband (i.e., optical) communications

Earth-Based Systems

automated and semi-automated processing of image data

autonomous ground control

development of space systems using nanotechnology

image storage and dissemination

integrated design systems

large-scale information management and simulation

low-cost operations

paperless designs

rapid system prototyping tools using multimedia capabilities

verification and validation approaches and databases for commercial off-the-shelf technologies

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
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Page 41

Guidance and Control

advanced attitude-control technologies

all star-tracker attitude-reference system

avionics-on-a-chip (multichip module)

coordinated operation of spacecraft fleets

fault-tolerant electromechanical actuators

high-accuracy, low-mass star trackers and gyros

interferometric fiber-optic gyros (IFOGS)

low-cost, reliable, position-tracking and telemetry systems (with built-in collision avoidance)

micromechanical sensors

miniature momentum-exchange devices

modular avionics

precision spacecraft pointing

redundant (multistring) solid-state avionics

use of Global Positioning System for guidance and control

Information Technologies

artificial intelligence systems

automatic fault recovery

autonomous systems

data compression technologies

data fusion

digital systems processing

distributed functions among spacecraft

effective human-machine interfaces

high-density, fiber-optic sensor networks

high-density, low-cost command and data handling with open architecture

high-temperature electronics

hundred-fold increase in processing capability

integrated vehicle health-monitoring systems

low-cost, high-capacity, low-mass, radiation-resistant, solid-state memories

neural nets

neuro-engineering systems

onboard image processing

onboard mission planning capability

parallel computer processor architectures

radiation-hardened electronics

sequencing systems

system standards to expand software reuse

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
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Page 42

Launch

‹ 3,000 lb. thrust scale pump-fed liquid rocket propulsion

air-augmented/breathing rockets

automated ground processing

clean solid propellants

electromagnetic launch/assist

environmentally compatible boosters

gel propellants

high-energy density chemical propellants

high-energy liquid propellants

high thrust-to-weight engines

hybrid launch vehicle

hypersonic airplane first stage

integrated solar upper stage

laser propulsion for ground-to-orbit launch

lightweight integrated vehicle structures

lightweight launch vehicle structures

lightweight propellant tanks

low-cost, reliable cryogenic propulsion

lower-cost launchers

mass drivers

modular launch vehicle

oxygen/kerosene rocket-based combined cycle engines

reusable oxygen/kerosene rocket engines with thrust-to-weight ratios greater than 100

single-stage to orbit launchers

Materials

advanced coatings

advanced composite materials

advanced composites manufacturing and processing

atomic oxygen-resistant coatings for solar cells

high-temperature materials for rocket engines

lightweight, high-strength, high-temperature materials for launch vehicles

low-mass, high-reflectivity composites (for telescope mirrors)

organic coatings (instead of hermetically sealed containers)

silicon carbide structures

Power

advanced solar power

arc-proof, environmentally durable solar arrays

beamed power

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
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Page 43

compact electrical power supplies

flywheels

high-conversion efficiency, low-mass solar arrays

high-efficiency, high-power, low-mass power generating systems

high-power sources at millimeter wavelengths

higher-energy density batteries

integrated energy conversion/energy storage concepts

large-capacity energy storage systems

large gossamer fresnel lenses for concentrating solar energy

lithium ion batteries

long life, lighter, cheaper regenerative fuel cells

long-term, compact nuclear-electric systems

long-term nonphotovoltaic power sources

low-cost, high-efficiency solar arrays

low-cost power storage devices

low-mass, high-capacity, low-cost power storage

more efficient long-term solar power conversion

nuclear power sources

power conversion

power management and distribution-on-a-chip

smart power-management systems

sodium sulfur batteries

solar cells with different bandgap energies with better than 40 percent efficiency

thin-film solar arrays

Propulsion

antimatter propulsion

concentric combustion chamber engine

electric propulsion

high-energy density matter propulsion

high-energy density storable propellants

high-performance, less expensive, more producible electric propulsion

high thrust-to-weight engines

laser propulsion

magnetic sail

nontoxic storable bipropellants

nuclear fusion propulsion

nuclear propulsion

nuclear-thermal rocket

propulsion for 50 kg spacecraft

rockets using native propellants

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
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Page 44

solar sail

solar-thermal propulsion

tethers for momentum exchange/electromagnetic maneuvering

xenon thrusters

Robotics

curious, autonomous, adaptive probes

mobile robots

partially self-replicating robots

rovers

small robots for planetary mining, manufacturing, assembly

telerobotics

Sensors

active sensors using synthetic aperture radar and high-frequency microwaves

free-flying, synthetic-aperture radars and interferometers

high-power local oscillators

high-resolution, stereoscopic Earth sensing systems

high-sensitivity, room temperature mid-infrared detector arrays

highly-integrated, multifunctional atmospheric sounders

hyperspectral focal planes

infrared interferometer (for planet detection)

large-aperture, deployable, optical telescopes with active alignment

large-format, low-noise, long-wavelength, direct-detection sensors

low-cost, low-power imaging sensors

low-mass, low-power radars

low-noise heterodyne mixers

microcalorimeters for high throughput spectroscopy

microsensors

microwave technologies

multiband phased arrays

multispectral sensors

remote sensing signal chain miniaturization

smaller autonomous instruments

solid-state sensor systems with high spectral and spatial resolution

space-based lidars

Spacecraft Systems and Electronics

almost monolithic small spacecraft

highly integrated multifunction modules

integrated instruments

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
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Page 45

integrated low-power electronic microsystems (communications, guidance)

integrated power and propulsion bus

microminiaturization

miniaturized electronics

multichip modules and chip-on-board technologies

optical buses

superconducting devices

Structures

active interferometric system technologies, such as active delay lines and space-qualified precision metrology

adaptive membranes and space fabrication techniques for large optics

adaptive structures

deployable structures

gossamer films in multi-km sizes

inflatable structures

lightweight composite spacecraft

lightweight debris shielding

lightweight structures

microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)

multifunctional structures

spinning spacecraft (for gravity)

structures to reduce vibrations on crewed platforms

technologies and processes for deploying ''quiet" structures to precise dimensional tolerances

tethers

Thermal Control

advanced coatings for thermal control and electrostatic discharge control

electrochromic radiator surfaces

electronics able to function at high temperatures

electronics able to function at low temperatures

electronics cooling with direct immersion heat pipe

graphite/aluminum radiator panels

improved heat-rejection technologies

long-life cryocoolers

low-mass, low-power cryocoolers

multichip modules with integral thermal control

nuclear heat sources

rugged thermal protection for reentry

spacecraft that can approach the sun

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
×

Page 46

Working in Space

aerocapture/aerobraking

autonomous landing

chemical processing of off-Earth resources

construction with off-Earth resources

lasers for debris shielding/removal

lightweight, high-efficiency cryogenic liquefaction

long-term cryogenic fluid storage in space

planetary surface transportation technologies

remote (cryogenic) fluid transfer and handling

remote robotic rendezvous, docking, and other operations

space traffic management systems

structures for planetary surfaces

surface/subsurface sample acquisition

terraforming technologies

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
×
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
×
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
×
Page 42
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
×
Page 43
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
×
Page 44
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
×
Page 45
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Research Council. 1998. Space Technology for the New Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6068.
×
Page 46
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