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POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: EVALUATION OF SOURCES AND EFFECTS COMMITTEE ON PYRENE AND SELECTED ANALOGUE S BOARD ON TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH HAZARDS COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES NATIONAL RE SEARCH COUNC IL Na t tonal Academy Pres s Washington, D. C . 1983 hAS-N14t OUT 7 LIBRARY \-, a)
3 . .. .. _ , ., NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its Congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respec- tively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The work on which this publication is based was performed pursuant to Contract 68-01-4655 with the Office of Research and Development of the Environmental Protection Agency.
BOARD ON TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH HAZARDS RONALD ESTABROOK, University of Texas Medical School, Dallas, Texas, Cha irman PHILIP LANDRIGAN, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio, Vice Chairman EDWARD BRESNICK, University of Vermont School of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont VICTOR COHN, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, D.C. A. MYRICK FREEMAN, University of Washington, Seattle,.Washington DAVID G. HOEL, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina MICHAEL LIEBERMAN, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri RICHARD MERRILL, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia VAUN NEWILL, Exxon Corporation, New York, New York JOHN PETERS, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Cal i fornia JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, Environ Corporation, Washington, D.C. LIANE B. RUSSELL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee CHARLES R. SCHUSTER, JR., University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Ex Of ficio Members LESTER BRESLOW, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California GARY P. CARLSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana JAMES F. CROW, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin BERNARD GOLDSTEIN, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey/ Rutgers Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey ROGER O. McCLELLAN, Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico SHELDON MURPHY, University of Texas, Houston, Texas NORTON NELSON, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York JAMES L. WHITTENBERGER, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts
COMMITTEE ON PYRENE AND SELECTED ANALOGUE S EDWARD BRESNICK, University of Vermont School of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont, Chairman MARSHALL W. ANDERSON, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina ROBERT A. GORSE, JR., Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan DANIEL GROSJEAN, Environmental Research and Technology, Inc., Westlake Village, California RONALD A. MITES, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana ATTALLAH KAPPAS, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York RICHARD E. KOURI, Microbiological Associates, Bethesda, Maryland MALCOLM C. PIKE, University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles, California JAMES K. SELKIRK, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee LAWRENCE J. WHITE, New York University, New York, New York JAMES A. FRAZIER, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Staff Of f icer NORMAN GROSSBLATT, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Editor JEAN E. PERRIN, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Secretary
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This document is the result of individual and coordinated efforts by the members of the Commit tee on Pyrene and Se tee ted Analogues. Al though individual members were responsible for specific sections, the entire report was reviewed by the full Committee. The summary (Chapter 8) and the recommendations (Chapter 9) represent a consensus of the Committee members. The executive summary was prepared by the chairman, Dr. Edward Bresnick. Chapters 1, 2, and 3, on sources and atmospheric transforma- tions and persistence, represent a joint effort of Drs. Robert A. Gorse, Jr., Daniel Grosjean, and Ronald A. Hites and Mr. James A. Frazier. Chapter 4, on biologic effects, was written by Dr. Bresnick. Chapter 5, on pharmacokinetics and effective biologic dose, was prepared by Drs. Marshal 1 W. Anderson and James K. Selkirk. Chapter 6, concerning human exposure to and metabolism of the compounds in question, was written by Or. Attallah Kappas. Cllapter 7, on populations of "hypersensitive" persons , was written by Dr. Richard E. Kouri. Appendix C, dealing with buman-cancer risk assessment, was prepared by Dr. Malcolm C. Pike. Appendix D, on public decision-making with respect to source and emission control, was prepared by Dr. Lawrence J. White. We acknowledge the special contributions of Dr. Stanley Blacker of the Environmental Protection Agency, who made a presentation to the Committee at its first meeting, on May 11, 1981, and provided resource material for the Committee's use in preparing its report, and to Dr. Roy Albert of the New York University Medical Center's Institute of Environmental Medicine, who addressed the Committee at its second meeting, on May 29. We express our gratitude to the following persons for providing resource material and other information: · Dr. Kent Berry, Environmental Protection Agency o Dr. William J. Blot, National Cancer Institute ~ Dr. Robert M. Bruce, Environmental Protection Agency · Dr. Marcus Cooke, Battelle Columbus Laboratory · Mr. John Cuttica, Department of Energy Dr. Gregory J. D'Alessio, Department of Energy · Dr. Jack H. Jean, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology o Dr. John W. Farrington, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution · Dr. Wayne H. Griest, Oak Ridge National Laboratory o Dr. Robert Hall, Environmental Protection Agency · Dr. Ronald W. Hart, National Center for Toxicological Research o Dr. Frederick T. Hatch, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory · Dr. Dietrich Hoffman, Naylor Dana Institute for Disease Prevention, American Health Foundation Dr. Dr. O Dr. Dr. Gary L. Johnson, Environmental Protection Agency Ronald O. Kagel, Dow Chemical Co. Daniel W. Nebert, National Institutes of Health Douglas E. Rickert, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology
to: Special thanks for providing printouts of the literature are given · The National Agricultural Library in Beltaville, Md. (AGRICOLA) · The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in Cincinnati, Ohio (NIOSHTIC) We acknowledge the contributions of the following in the National Research Council for providing resource material: · Dr. Scott R. Baker, Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards · Dr. Robert J. Golden, Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards · Mrs. Barbara Jaffe and the Toxicology Information Center staff o Dr. Sushma Palmer, Commission on Life Sciences · Mr. Richard C. Vetter, Ocean Sciences Board The Committee wishes to commend the excellent assistance of Mr. James A. Frazier, the staff officer; Mr. Norman Grossblatt, the editor; Mrs. Jean E. Perrin, secretary; and Mrs. Eileen G. Brown, manuscript typist. Extensive use was made of the resources of the Library of the National Academy of Sciences, the Toxicology Information Center of the Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazarda, the National Library of Medicine, the National Agricultural Library, the Library of Congress, and the Air Pollution Technical Information Center of the Environmental Protection Agency.
CONTENTS Executive Summary Introduction 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Mobile Sources and Their Atmospheric Concentrations Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Natural and Stationary Sources and Their Atmospheric Concentrations Atmospheric Transformations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Biologic Effects of Smoke, Emission, and Some of Their PAH Components Effective Biologic Dose Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Food and Water and Their Metabolism by Human Tissues Some Factors that Affect Susceptibility of Humans to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Summary Recommendations Appendix A Lists of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Appendix B Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Ambient Atmosphere Appendix C Human-Cancer Risk Assessment, by Malcolm C. Pike Appendix D Public Decision-Making with Respect to Atmospheric PAN Sources and Emissions, by Lawrence J. White
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Clean Air Act stipulates that from time to time the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) shal 1 revise a list that includes pollutants that may be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare and for which air-quality criteria have not been issued. As part of a continuing contract with the National Academy of Sciences to prepare scientific and technical assessment reports on selected pollutants, the EPA asked for an evaluation of selected and representative pyrene compounds and their analogues as they occur as pollutants in the ambient air, especially those from mobile sources. The Committee on Pyrene and Selected Analogues, appointed by the National Research Council, selected representative pyrenes and close chemical relatives for study. Great difficulties necessarily are encountered when a study covers a large number of compounds . I t is extremely difficult to be comprehensive and discuss every compound in detail. The Committee found that there were far more sources of human exposure to pyrenes than vehicle exhaust--for instance, cigarette-smoking, coke ovens, wood-burning, and some foods. The Committee is aware that some of its interpretations are founded on data that are neither clear-cut nor complete. This is true of its efforts to extrapolate risks, to identify susceptible groups in the population, and to assess economic alternatives for control or abatement of the pollutants in question. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs ~ have been reviewed pre- viously as components of atmospheric pollution and as potential human- health hazards. This document attempts to make current the information on the sources, formation, atmospheric persistence and transformations, biologic effects, and toxicokinetics of a select group of PAHs and on the identification of populations hypersensitive to them. The document also presents material on human risk assessment and develops an approximate estimate of the societal value of reducing environmental emission of benza [a ~ pyrene . Benz o ~ a] pyrene is used as a surrogate PAR. It may not be the best indicator of the biologic effects of other PAHs in soots and smokes. However, the literature on benzota~pyrene is considerably more voluminous than that on other PARs. It should also be recognized that the benzo~a~pyrene concentrations in soots and smokes is small and that other PAHs present in smokes have greater biologic activity, such as nitro-PAHs. The specific PAHs discussed in this report were selected on the basis of their relative concentrations in various emission or combustion products or because they are pharmacologically active. The structures of the selected compounds are presented in Appendix A. ES-1