NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report was prepared by the Committee on Knowledge Assessment. Support for the project and for this report came from the World Bank. The report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress and signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
The Office of International Affairs (OIA) is concerned with the development of international and national policies to promote more effective application of science and technology to economic and social problems facing both industrialized and developing countries. OIA participates in international cooperative activities, engages in joint studies and projects with counterpart organizations, manages scientific exchange programs, and represents the Academy complex at many national and international meetings directed toward facilitating international cooperation in science and engineering. Dr. F. Sherwood Rowland, Dr. Harold Forsen, and Dr. David Rall are the foreign secretaries of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine, respectively.
A limited number of copies of this report are available from:
Office of International Affairs
National Research Council
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Washington, DC 20418
Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
COMMITTEE ON KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT
EDWARD E. DAVID, JR., Chairman,
JENNIFER S. BOND,
National Science Foundation
Harvard University (retired)
International Development Research Center, Canada
AT&T Wireless Services
MICHAEL P. GREENE, Project Director
CONSTANCE REGES, Administrative Assistant
OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
F. SHERWOOD ROWLAND, Foreign Secretary,
National Academy of Sciences
HAROLD K. FORSEN, Foreign Secretary,
National Academy of Engineering
DAVID RALL, Foreign Secretary,
Institute of Medicine
JOHN BORIGHT, Executive Director,
Office of International Affairs