Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Contents Human Translation 1 Types of Translator Employment 2 English as the Language of Science 4 Time Required for Scientists to Learn Russian Translation in the United States Government 6 Number of Government Translators 7 Amount Spent for Translation 9 Is There a Shortage of Translators or Translation ? 11 Regarding a Possible Excess of Translation 13 The Crucial Problems of Translation 16 The Present State of Machine Translation 19 Machine-Aided Translation at Mannheim and Luxembourg Automatic Language Processing and Computational Linguistics 29 Avenues to Improvement of Translation 32 Recommendations 34 APPENDAGE S 1. Experiments in Sight Translation and Full Translation 35 2 . Defense Language Institute Course in Scientific Russian 37 3. The Joint Publications Research Service 39 4. Public Law 480 Translations 41
Machine Translations at the Foreign Technology Division, U.S. Air Force Systems Command 43 6. Journals Translated with Support by the National Science Foundation 45 7. Civil Service Commission Data on Federal Translators 50 8. Demand for and Availability of Translators 54 9. Cost Estimates of Various Types of Translation 57 10. An Experiment in Evaluating the Quality of Translations 67 11. Types of Errors Common in Machine Translation 76 12. Machine-Aided Translation at the Federal Armed Forces Translation Agency, Mannheim, Germany 13. Machine-Aided Translation at the European Coal and Steel Community, Luxembourg 87 . . 14. Translation Versus Postediting of Machine Translation 91 15. Evaluation by Science Editors and Joint Publications Research Service and Foreign Technology Division Translations 1 02 16. Government Support of Machine-Translation Research 107 17. Computerized Publishing 113 18. Relation Between Programming Languages and Linguistics 118 19. Machine Translation and Linguistics 121 20. Persons Who Appeared Before the Committee