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IN QUEST OF GLACIAL MAN A PLAN OF COOPERATION BETWEEN EXCAVATORS AND :REPRE SENTATIVES OF THE SCIENCES OF MAN AND OF THE EARTH The extension of human life backward through hundreds of thousands of years has been widely demonstrated throughout the world. Fossil re- mains of man and articles of his primitive handiwork have been discovered in most of the great continental areas. China Man (Sinanthropus pekinen- sis), recently found in a stone quarry near Peking, may have lain buried ..................... ....... ....................................... FIGURE I. Pithecanthropus erectus, or Java Man. Restored by J. H. McGregor. Used by permission of the American Museum of Natural History. over a million years, and so also may the famous fragments of lava Man (Pithecanthropus erectus), discovered by the Dutch surgeon Dubois nearly forty years ago ~ Figure 1 ~ . Only in the Americas is the great antiquity of man still in doubt. Most archaeologists believe that the first families of America were migrants from Eastern Asia, who probably crossed from Siberia and gradually made their
2 In Quest of Glacial Alan: Bentley way down the coast and across the land. But there is still a question whether the first American migrations occurred before the Ice Ages (approximately the Pleistocene, as the geologist reckons time), during the successive glacia- tions that swept down in enormous ice sheets from Northwest Canada and from Labrador, or well after the last ice sheet had melted and delivered its roaring waters to such great river channels as the Mississippi system, the Connecticut, and the Susquehanna. Our abundant Indian cultures, as we novv' know them, belong to a much later period. Here we reckon time in centuries, or at most in single millen- niums. What lies behind in human history? The entire Pleistocene may have lasted a half-~nillion years; perhaps much longer. Was man living in North America then ? Did he retreat to caves and rock-shelters in the north, as he did from time to time during long ages in France and Spain ? Had he primitively adjusted himself to life on the western plains or to the deserts of our Southwest, where he was afterwards discovered through the remains of his basket-makina. his cliff-dwellin~s. and his Dlaces of worship? ~ r - Was he already present in Yucatan, in Honduras, in the Andes, in the Brazilian Basin? Was he there as the ancient ancestor of the Maya and the Aztec? We have hints and indications, but we do not assuredly know. On the other continents our surer knowledge has largely come by way of those who disturb the earth and the rocks, excavating for the purposes of modern man, for highways and railroads, for building materials and power plants. It is sometimes said that in western Europe every person is an amateur archae- ologist, keeping an alert eye open for fossil bones and the buried works of ancient man. Although this statement is an obvious exaggeration, it suggests a clear advantage to other countries, where the early history of man and of other forms of life have long been matters of common and popular interest. In America we are only now building up a tradition of helpfulness as between the archaeologist and the man who digs and transports soil, gravel and stone. Already our Indian archaeology has begun to profit in this way. A vigorous campaign of information, communication, and careful scrutiny of discovered objects is well under way. Within the last few years several discoveries of note have been made through this sort of enlightened search and report. Expert archaeologists are at hand in almost all quarters of the land to verify fresh reports and to separate the important from the trivial and the spurious. A similar opportunity now appears for still older times, for the securing of information about men of the Ice Ages, provided these men actually lived in the glaciated regions that covered Ned;- England, the Middle West down to the Ohio, and much beyond which is nov;- lake, furrowed hillside, and broad prairie (Figure 2~.
In Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley 3 But on our own continent the problem is a little different. In recovering our Indian cultures we have generally reached back from the present, relating the past to that which we know at first hand of living tribes and peoples. In 1 ~ \ ,r-_ ~ ~='=._~ ~ t - FIGURE 2. Map showing areas covered by the great ice sheets in North America at their maximal extension, and the centers of ice accumulation. Compiled by Wm. C. Alden. Used by permission of the U. S. Geological Survey. the recovery of very remote human remains, on the other hand, it is necessary to relate the occasional fossil or the chipped flint to the geological time from which it came. That is because the date of deposit will usually be recover- able only in terms of succeeding changes in rock formation, in deposition of
4 It' Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley sand and gravel, or some similar geological process at or near the earth's surface. The geological record isj: therefore, of the foremost importance to our search. Many rumors of the discovery of Pleistocene man in this country have stood unverified either because the geological record is itself uncertain or because no competent reader of the geological record has been at hand to note just where and how the fossil or artifact lay before it was disturbed. In addition, the student of extinct forms of life (the paleontologist), and the student of the history, the forms, and the races of man (the anthropologist) must also be consulted in order to make the discovery wholly authentic. But the geological dating is fundamental; and since the earth is too vast to be scrutinized in detail by men of science, the primary cooperation must be ar- ranged between the geologist and those who extensively excavate for com- mercial and other purposes. Now it was this urgent demand for an intelligent and generous coopera- tion that induced the National Research Council to arrange a Conference on the Discovery and Preservation of Pleistocene Man, and to invite to it geologists and other representatives of the sciences of earth and of man, as well as representative engineers, railway executives, and commercial excava- tors, to serve as a focus of information and execution among those who ac- tually remove rock, sand, gravel and soil. The response from both sides was exceedingly prompt and generous. The Conference was held in Chicago on April 10th, 1931. The program and list of invited members and guests will be found at the end of this account. The gradual development of the problem and its apprehension by the mem- bers of the Conference may be learned from the following comments made by those who took part and by others who sent communications incorporating their suggestions and proposals of assistance. GENERAL IMPORTANCE OF THE SEARCH I am deeply interested to learn of the conference called by the National Research Council to enlist cooperation between the great museums and those private industries whose operations involve excavations, to further the search for authentic fossil remains of Pleistocene Man in this country. Science will indeed be greatly enriched if such discoveries can be made, and this appeals to me as a most thorough method of systematizing research. I wish this movement all success. Herbert Hoover, President of the United States. I applaud your scientific efforts. I believe that there are many questions which your trained minds will not find beyond solution when you are given proper popular support. I hope that what we are doing in Chicago will arouse the interest of the people at large and will make it easier for you to call upon railroad men, engineers, excavators and others to assist you in the
In Quest of Glacial Mart: Bentley search for, and examination of, material useful to you. Rufus C. Dawes, President. Chicago Century of Prn~res~ F~r,ncitinn Ad. . . .. -an red 5 l he story of man's history as it has been worked out through long-con- tinued scientific investigations in the old world gives us one of the most spectacular of many fascinating stories made available to us by science. Among the most interesting facts brought out by this story are those indi- cating the vast length of time during which man has been present on earth. Another lies in the evidence of man's wide distribution geographically in a very remote period. One of the most important questions which long- continued study of human history has raised concerns the story of early man in America. Involved in this problem are matters relating to the period of man's appearance on this continent, the length of time covered by human occupation of America, the stage of advance of the human race at the time of discovery of this continent, and the extent of development or evolution in the physical and cultural sense since the beginning of the story of his occupation of this hemisphere. If, as seems to be true, the record of human life in America reaches back of so-called documentary history, we become immediately dependent upon means of investigation which include the methods of archaeology, of geology and of paleontology. The nature of the circumstances which surround this investigation makes it extremely important to have evidence from every possible source. We . know that,) whereas the scientist may nick out specific points in which his ~ . . ~ 1 ~ , ~ delicate scratcn~ngs of the earth may be carried out with the idea of un- covering remains, there are great projects involving immense excavations in the course of which materials of great value may be uncovered. It would be of enormous importance to science if all of the effort put forth in excava- tion could be made to contribute toward the solution of problems which the scientist sees as his field of activity.-John C. Merriam, President, The Carnegie Institution of Washington. The central idea of the National Research Council is thorough investi- gation. Find the facts, and from them deduce the laws and principles that stand behind them. We need practical, as well as theoretical, truths. We specialists are few; but the ten thousand men who may get our idea will multiply a thousand-fold the chance that the specialists will have something to specialize upon. Arthur Keith, Chairman, Division of Geology and Geography, National Research Council. GEOLOGICAL HISTORY; THE GREAT ICE SHEETS OF EUROPE AND AMERICA Most of us probably think of the glacial period, or Pleistocene epoch, as a thing of the past, as having ended ten or twenty thousand years ago; yet
6 > :sssSsssssssssssssss Am ~!~ sass sass s.:s.:s A A s.~.:s~s Sass ....... ........ /~ 0~ of // ~: ~) -- ssssssssssssssssssss:: sssssss sssssssssss :::::: . . ....... Ha! ~ .~.. FICORE 3. Pebble scratched by the grluding of the ice in the Arst glaclatlon, prob- ably 800,0~ or I,OCO,OOO years ago. Used by permission of the Onlted States Geologlca1 Survey. there are thousands of monntaln glaciers, the Antarctic is even now shrouded in about i>000,000 square miles of ice, and the ice cap on GreenIap] alone ~ estimated as over 700,000 square miles In extent. It ~ quite I[keIy that the inhabitants of Canada and the Upper ~bskslppl VaIIey may some time be driven southpaw] before the lrres~tibIe advance of another c~ntinen+~1 Ice sheet. . . .
In Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley 7 The North American ice sheets appear to have had three or four main centers of accumulation; one on the Labrador Peninsula, one in the Keewatin region west of Hudson Bay, and one in the Patrician region southwest of Hudson Bay, in addition to the Cordilleran ice of the West. All the moun- tain peaks of New England were overridden by the ice and probably all those of the Adirondacks. Ice 5,000 feet thick in the lobes of the Cordilleran ice sheet crossed the International Boundary into northwestern Montana, Idaho, and Washington. At the maximum stages ice thousands of feet thick spread southward from Canada into the United States and reached about to the line of the Ohio and Missouri rivers. These two great rivers owe their present courses to the diversion of the water about the margins of the great ice sheets. Were the ice to re-advance in the future, the works of man would be demolished and abundant evidence of his occupancy of the area would be buried in the drift. (For extent of the ice sheets, see map, Figure 2.) Glacier ice is an enormous flexible rasp, an excavator and a transporting agent. A stone axe or other artifact, one of whose faces received such severe tratment as this, would bear strong evidence of the presence of man in America during the Ice Ages; and if it came, as did the pebble in the illus- tration (Figure 3), from the oldest drift, it would be evidence of an age of something like 800,000 or 1,000,000 years. Human bones would hardly survive such rough treatment in the glacial mill itself; but in the edges of the ice deposits or till have been found bones and teeth of mastodon, three kinds of elephants, and other animals now extinct. ~ See Figure 4.) BY. C. golden, Glacial Geologist, United States Geological Survey. Animals that preceded the Pleistocene have left their remains in abundance in the Bad Lands southeast of the Black Hills of South Dakota. Many investigators have studied these mammalian deposits, have laboriously gath- ered and patiently prepared their embedded fossils for observation, and have from the beginning cooperated in deciphering and interpreting their mar- velous history. In the study of the bones of these mammals, paleontologists have shown that the sediments containing them, totalling many thousands of feet in thickness, may be readily separated into a series of geological divisions. In these divisions can be read a tendency toward climatic rhythms, continuing with apparent increasing significance through the Pleistocene to the present time. C. C. O'Hara (from a paper presented to the Conference by Samuel H. Cady, General Solicitor, Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company) . RESULTS OF THE QUEST IN OTHER LANDS WESTERN EUROPE. Many of the greatest discoveries in the historic, pre- historic and geologic fields have been chance discoveries. It may not be amiss to list some of the cases where invaluable records have been salvaged.
8 In Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley One of the earliest was the large flint hand'axe found in 16-90, probably chipped out 250,000 years ago. This was found during the exploitation of a gravel bed in what is now the heart of London. A second example was the discovery in 1797 in Suffolk of the series of similar flint implements in another gravel deposit. ' then Came, just one hundred years ago, the dis- coveries in the Somme valley at Abbeville and Amiens of Paleolithic imple- ments in beds that were being exploited on a considerable scale. Exploitation . . . FIGURE 4. Type of mastodon which roamed over Illinois, Indiana and Michigan several thousand years ago. Painted by Charles R. Knight.- Used by permis- sion of the Field Museum of Natural History. is still going on in this valley by wo'rkmen so well trained that' a specimen is seldom allowed to pass unnoticed. Under properly trained workmen the Mauer sands yielded the lower jaw of Heidelberg, which otherwise would have been lost. The widening of a highway resulted in the chance discovery of one of the richest Mousterian rock shelters in all Europe, La Quina with 'its skeletal remains of Neanderthal man. (Compare Figure 5.) Removing of talus for filling, preparatory to laying the tracks of a railway line, led to the discovery of the now celebrated skeletons of Cro-Magnon. An industrial company exploiting the guano and phosphates in the cavern of Aldene near Fauzan
17~ Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley 9 were fortunate in having expert advice so that many prehistoric objects are being collected, along with well preserved bones of fossil animals, particularly the cave bear. Unfortunately for prehistory, the exploitation of the earth's superficial deposits began long before the birth of prehistoric archaeology as a science. The Romans were great builders of cities and highways, but they knew nothing about the records bearing on man's prehistoric past. If all the FIGURE 5. Les Eyzies, Abri du Chateau, where an ancient rock shelter was dis- covered beneath the ruins of an old chateau, now restored as a branch of the national museum. Courtesy of George Grant MacCurdy. records which they inadvertently destroyed could be assembled, the collec- tion would fill museums and add much to our present knowledge. And that which was true of the Romans was true also in varying degree of the Egyp- tians, Babylonians, Greeks, and even of Europeans during the first seventeen centuries of our era. Let us of the twentieth century make amends to the best of our ability for what was ignorantly, if innocently, destroyed by our predecessors.-G. G. MacCurdy, Director, American School of Prehistoric Research in Europe. WESTERN ASIA. Some three years ago when construction of docks at Haifa in Palestine was in progress, some rare relics of the Old Stone Age
10 In Quest of Glacial Marl: Bentley were accidentally uncovered. The discovery was at once reported to the Department of Antiquities at [erusalem, and the site turned over to the British School of Archaeology. The deposits are exceedingly rich and rep- resent almost every phase of prehistory for a period of about 100,000 years; Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age, and up to the Middle Ages. Scores of thousands of specimens have already been unearthed. G. G. Mac- Curdy. EASTERN Asia. The first specimen of China AIan or Peking Man was found in a pocket in an ancient cavern, the roof of which had fallen in, FIGL-RV 6. Cave where the bones of Si'~anth;r- opals peki'~e~:sis were discovered. Used by permission of the American Museum of Natural History. thus protecting its contents till the present time. The cavern was near an old lime quarry, about forty miles southwest of Peking (See Figure 6~. lTos- sil remains of some sixty species of extinct animals were obtained from the locality and in these caverns. Both the geologic facts and the fossil mammals testify in no uncertain way that this fauna antedates the Mid-Pleistocene and is not later than the Lower Pleistocene. No trace of fire hearths or of cultural remains has been found in the Sinanthropus deposits in spite of the utmost vigilance of the investigators and after the sifting of thousands of baskets of debris from the excavations. Also the absence of flint imple
In Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley 11 meets to date constitutes strong evidence that at this stage the primitive human race in this locality had not yet learned to produce them. It is the mature judgment of Professor Davidson Black and of Professor Elliot Smith that this very ancient type stood at or near the point of junction of the branches that led to Homo sapiens on the one hand and to the Neanderthal race on the other. In spite of the enormous antiquity of the Peking Man, as measured by the brief span of human life, we must realize that even the men of the Lower Pleistocene times belonged only to an age which was but as yesterday com- pared to the vast evolutionary history of the human race before it attained human status. In a striking chart, Professor Osborn shows a graphic sum- mary of the history of vertebrate life in the Gobi desert region so far as discovered. (See Figure 7.) Here are dinosaurs of various strange types and of several widely separated ages, followed by wholly extinct mammals equally strange and of many successive ages, the record culminating in the now vanished Dune Dwellers of the Gobi, who were the contemporaries of the giant ostrich. But you realize that this is not a continuous story of evolu- tion. It is simply a fragment of the record of the animal life of a particular region, in which the successive populations were ebbing and flowing, emi- grating and immigrating, under the changing pressures of the environment. Thus we realize that this story of Pleistocene man in Asia forms only a fraction of the vast picture that we are trying to piece together, which, as far as we can decipher it, tells the story of man's rise from the lower verte- brates. DVilliam K. Gregory) American Museum of Natural History. INDICATIONS OF EARLY MAN IN NORTH AMERICA It seems to me that on the question of Pleistocene Man in America we still have to bring in the Scotch verdict of 'not proved'. A hundred men, or more, have made a claim to his discovery; but most of these discoveries have been made under conditions that would not permit of a check upon time. Either serious doubts arose from the evidence itself, or there was no opportunity to examine the exact place where the remains were found. There are three discoveries, however, that offer a strong probability of the presence of man in America during the Pleistocene. Two of these are in the South- west, but one is in New Jersey beneath a deposit of from three to five feet of yellow soil that may have been glacially deposited. If it was actually laid down by glaciers, then man lived, made flint implements, and built fires before the glaciers swept down upon his villages. If other sites can be found in places whose geologic age can be more clearly read, we can complete the record. Ralph Lipton', University of Wisconsin.
In Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley S. HABARAKH I ~: ~ ' 1000 I-_ I TUNG GUR 100 250 KHOLO~OLCH: . .: . . .3 0 ~ . . . .'t~i4SH~O"" ::2 :' ' 2: 2'222 ... ............... . Ha..., ,~ ....,, .. ~ Am~&PZ?Oa70A - FIGUR~ 7. Chart showing succession of animal life in Mon~olia from Jurassic to Recent times (from Osborn). Used by permission of the American Museum of Natural History.
I,z Quest of Glacial Mar`: Bentley 13 There is some evidence in Post-Glacial times which causes us to hesitate in saying that the American Indian was the only type to enter this continent and that all his typical characteristics, differences and linguistic divergencies have been developed on this continent. Several very primitive types of some antiquity have been found in various regions of the New World. These may be throw-backs to ancestral types; but possibly they give us hints of an earlier population. Ten days ago I accompanied Dr. Gamio to the remains of an ancient settle- ment lying buried beneath the lava flow which skirts Mexico City. Here we saw evidences of a people who lived by agriculture, made pottery, and even built pyramids. We saw the skeletons of people who had been buried long before the lava flow passed over their settlement. The physical type found there apparently is much like that of the modern Indian, yet geologists and archaeologists date this flow at not less than five thousand years. But there are an increasing number of hints that uniformity of type did not always exist; that there have been marked changes in physical type which it must have taken thousands of years to bring about. Fay-Cooper Cole, University of Chicago. WHERE TO LOOK; PROMISING PLACES AND CONDITIONS FOR DISCOVERY The out-washed gravels are one great source of fossils. Human remains may have been deposited between successive layers. An eye should be kept open for them. A second type of place that should be examined is that in which the old soil or wind-blown drift can be discovered beneath glacial drift. In some cases such profiles have been cut down by later erosion or are exposed by cuts and gradings. A third situation which offers promise is in the crevices that occur at the top of the limestone formations that are now being quarried. In the crevices there may be, under the loess or the glacial deposits, the remains of man's occupation. Fourth, the caves, caverns and rock shelters along the major drainage lines offer promising places for search. These caves have been used by men and animals for shelter for thousands of years. Beneath the present floor or underneath debris blow-e in and fallen from the roof of the cave may be discovered~signs of human life. A fifth place that is promising is beneath the foundations of the Indian mounds. Village sites of comparatively recent date may have been occupied for many thousands of years, and beneath the mounds have often been found signs of earlier occupation. The mounds on the flood plains are almost sure
14 In Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley to be young, because the flood plains have been developed by the rivers; but the terraces offer a better opportunity for finding remains of older habita- tions. Only last summer there came to my attention a mound that has a very well-developed soil profile passing over it, which proves that that mound is geologically older than the archaeologists might have been able to guess. This particular mound was probably very early post-glacial. M. M. Leigh- ~on, State Geologist of Illinois. The best area to date human remains as of Nebraskan or Kansan age (the oldest and next oldest glacial periods), if such be found, would be in places in Iowa and adjacent parts of neighboring states, where one or both of the very old tillsheets can be surely identified. That is to say, there is good evidence of long-interglacial stages both between the Nebraskan and the Kansan glaciations, and the Kansan and the next succeeding ice advance, the Illinoian, during which the ice fields were probably wholly absent from the northern part of the North American continent; and each of these stages of deglaciation may have been as much as 20().()()() vears in length with climate as mild as or milder than. the present. In Figure 8 you may see a view of a cut made by the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway near Rhodes, Iowa. This view shows about 20 feet of Kansan till at the bottom, very much weathered before it was buried by the Peorian loess. Possibly as much as 300,000 years is represented by the interval between the melting of the Kansan ice sheet and the deposition of the loess, which itself probably took 100,000 years. The Wisconsin (or last glaciation) till is 5 to 12 feet in thickness. bY. C. Alder. METHODS OF SEARCH AND OF ADEQUATE PRESERVATION Everyone knows that, in court procedure, the evidence of eye witnesses of an episode may differ to such a degree that no conclusions can be drawn regarding details. Therefore the first request that students of early man make is that, if any objects of interest are found, they be left undisturbed in the location in which they occur. The objects themselves, taken away from the bed in which they have lain so long. are of relatively little significance tn history. am- . 1. . , =, ~ near value lies In the associations which they have in the material deposited, and their relationship to nearby remains of life. If you encounter such objects, please do not disturb them, no matter how great your curiosity may be. After finding such material, the next step would be to secure the coopera- tion of students of the subject who are competent to judge the value of the discovery. It is necessary for at least two trained men to see the material as it was found, in order that they may write complete and satisfactory state- ments regarding the evidence. These men will take the responsibility for
In Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley 15 securing the necessary records in the form of eye-witness evidence, notes and photographs. Anything which seems to be unnatural in its location or in its form may be of the greatest value to those who have been trained to understand the difficult problems involved. A bone, even an ordinary looking bone, a chipped arrow head, spear head, chipped pebble, or charcoal and burnt stones occurring at considerable depths, may be important in the story of man's development. All of these materials, which indicate existence of life at the time when the gravels, sands or clays were deposited, are of interest to the students of the history of life. C. E. Guthe, Director, Anthropological Museum, University of Michigan. PLANS FOR COOPERATIVE SEARCH . ~. We wish to suggest to you a plan of procedure that involves a number of simple steps: (1) The National Research Council will prepare a printed pamphlet re- porting the addresses that have been given here this afternoon, incorporating the facts and the suggestions of experts, and making these available to the men who are doing the actual excavating for the commercial firms, and to the educational institutions of the country. (2) The National Research Council will keep a list of geologists who are especially interested and skilled in the differentiation of drift deposits and loess deposits and- of the deposits of the Pleistocene age in America. These men should be marshalled into the work of the Council, together with archaeologists who may cooperate with the geologists; and they should stand ready to investigate reported finds in their particular localities, at the request of the Council. (3) The commercial excavating companies, railroads, road-builders, and engineers may inform their foremen engaged in this work of the opportunity for a splendid contribution to science regarding the record of man in America; ask them to keep an eye out for such discoveries, and, when made, to report immediately to the Council. (4) The Council will then telegraph to the nearest geologist and archae- ologist upon their list, asking them to proceed at once to the reported dis- covery in order to ascertain its value. M. M. Leighton. With regard to plans for further procedure, I should say, after reading one of the reports of the committee on State Archaeological Surveys of the National Research Council, that we already have a sort of model organiza- tion upon which to found our work of search for Pleistocene Man.-Paul S. Martin, Field Museum of Natural History.
~6 In Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley Probably there is no group who would be as interested in this search or who could carry it on as well as the civil engineers. They are in on all the various engineering projects. They direct the work of the contractor. There would be a tremendous army available for the work if you enlisted them; and since this lost primitive man is a rare bird, you will need an especially large army to find him. The engineer must know what is sought and how it may be identified; where it may be found; and whom to notify and how to protect the finds. There are 48 states with tremendous highway depart- ments, employing not less than 500 engineers. There are 2,000 counties with county engineers and many others engaged in construction work. About 3,000 cities of over 25,000 population have city engineers and these cities are constantly digging. In starting this work you will be able to interest many thousands of engineers and millions of workers who move each year millions of cubic feet of earth. Mr. Upham, the director of our organization, is A nationally known engineer. I am sure that you can count upon him for any assistance that our organization can give you. C. N. Conner, Engineer-Executive, American Roadbuilders Association. I wish to say that in any program that can be worked out, we of the rail- roads of the Southwest will be glad to do everything we can to help you; and we shall also try to help you in the working out of the program. I have asked our people in charge of engineering work to report any evidences that they may run across that may indicate the existence of prehistoric or Pleis- tocene man. [Y. B. Stores, President, Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway System. You can depend upon the cooperation of the Illinois Central Railroad Company, as well as the Madison Coal Corporation, as far as they can consistently be of help. A. J. Moorshead, President, Madison Coal Corpo- rat~on. When the literature giving directions as to procedure in the handling once .. ,, .. . . . , . _ to ~ ~--~ ~^ ~ ^~4 I, AA".AA~, "AA" reporting Ot tosslls IS received from the Council, we can prepare instructions for distribution over the railroad. J. L. Beven, NTice-President, Illinois Central System. The Smithsonian Institution has always retained a keen interest in this particular branch of anthropology. We have sent out men from our force where investigations have been requested, and in most instances where such work has been conducted by recognized scientists, the staff members have corroborated the findings. It seems to me the most interesting problem that we have at this time is to find out who the first man was who came into this country, and it is not necessary to presuppose that his coming was in ancient geologic times. It is just as interesting if we bring him back to ten or fifteen or twenty thousand
In Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley 17 years, which are very small periods to the geologist, but which many of our archaeologists are adopting as the most probable for the first coming of man to this country. We may hope that levity the sort of progress that we have had in the past, and adding the cooperation of organizations outside of the educational and academic institutions, we shall increase the held activity and the number of eyes that are open in this search. I think that we may then safely predict that our knowledge of early man in America ten years from now will be increased at least a hundred-fold. M. M. Stirling, Chief, United States Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. FIGURE S. Cut on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway near Rhodes Iowa, showing levels of glacial drift and loess. Courtesy of W. C. Alden, U. S. Geological Survey. DIRECTIONS ( 1 ~ In your excavations watch for all indications of prehistoric life. These indications will include fossilized bones, weapons, tools, implements, ashes, blackened stones and other signs of fire. (2) When you make such a find, stop digging immediately around the objects. Take the greatest care not to move or disturb them. The original position and arrangement may prove to be the only means of determining the time and living conditions of those who left these signs of their life. (3) Report your discovery to the person or company in charge of the excavation, or report by telegraph to the National Research Council the
18 In Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley place and general character of the objects discovered. The Council will pay the charges on the telegram; and, if the discovery promises to be of importance, it will direct the nearest competent geologist or archaeologist to visit your excavation, remove the objects, and care for them. Your name will be mentioned as the discoverer in all later records of the objects or bones. CONFERENCE ON DISCOVERY AND PRESERVATION OF PLEISTOCENE MAN Hotel Stevens, Chicago, April 10, 1931 Held undoer the ~ auspices o f the NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL PRO GRAM Afternoon Session, 2:30 o'clock Address of Welcome. Mr. Rufus C. Dawes. Response for the National Research Council. Mr. Arthur Keith. The Importance of the Conference for the Study of Early Man. Mr. John C. Merriam. Early Man in North America. Mr. Fay-Cooper Cole. The Great Ice Sheets of the Middle West. Mr. W. C. Alden. Glacial Man in Europe. Mr. George Grant MacCurdy. Pleistocene Man in Asia. Mr. William K. Gregory. Cooperation of the Railroads in Preservation of Indian Cultures in the South west. Mr. W. B. Storey. Present Evidences of Pleistocene Man in America. Mr. Ralph Linton. Prospects for Discovery: A Suggested Procedure for Cooperation. Mr. M. M. Leighton. Dinner, 7 o'clock An Engineer's View of the Cooperative Task. Mr. C. N. Conner Primitive Man in the Field Museum. Mr. Paul S. Martin Preservation of Indian Cultures in the Middle West. Mr. Carl E. Guthe Mammalian Deposits in the Northwest. Mr. Samuel H. Cady The Interest of the Smithsonian Institution in the Discovery of Pleistocene Man. Mr. M. W. Stirling John C. Merriam, Honorary Chairman Madison Bentley, Presiding MEMBERS AND INVITED GUESTS V. P. Ahearn, Secretary, National Sand and Gravel Association, Washington, D. C. W. C. Alden, Geologist in Charge, Section of Glacial Geology, U. S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. John Rice Ball, Department of Geology and Paleontology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.
172 Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley 19 E. S. Bastin, Chairman of the Department of Geology, University of Chicago. S. F. Beatty, President, Austin Western Road Machine Association; Vice-President, American Roadbuilders Association? Chicago. Madison Bentley, Chairman, Division of Anthropology and Psychology, National Research Council. J. E. Buckbee, President, Northern Gravel Company; Member Executive Committee, National Sand and Gravel Association, Chicago. Ralph Budd, President, Great Northern Railway, St. Paul. H. A. Buehler, State Geologist, Missouri Bureau of Geology and Mines, Rolla. Samuel H. Cady, General Solicitor, Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company Chicago. <Sol. O. P. Chamberlain, President, Dolese & Shepard Company; Member Executive Committee, National Sand and Gravel Association, Chicago. R. T. Chamberlain, Professor of Geology, University of Chicago. H. G. Clark, Chief Engineer, Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway, Chicago. C. N. Conner, Engineer-Executive, American Roadbuilders Association, Washing- ton, D. C. Fay-Cooper Cole, Chairman of the Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago. Rufus C. Dawes, President, the Chicago World's Fair Centennial Celebration. Oliver C. Farrington, Curator of Geology, Field Museum, Chicago. E. H. Witch, Secretary, Association of American Railway Engineers, Chicago. U. S. Grant, Head of the Department of Geology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. W. K. Gregory, Curator of Physical Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, New York. C. E. Guthe, Director, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Chairman, Committee on State Archaeological Surveys, National Research Council. C. M. Hathaway, Illinois State Highway Engineer, Springfield. R. M. Hutchins, Presidents the University of Chicago. Dugald C. Jackson, Chairman, Division of Engineering and Industrial Research, National Research Council. G. F. Kay, Head of the Department of Geology, University of Iowa, Iowa City. Arthur Keith, Chairman, Division of Geology and Geography, National :Research Council. A. R. Kelly, Professor of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana. F. P. Keppel, President, Carnegie Corporation of New York. M. M. Leighton, Chief, Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana. Ralph Linton, Professor of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison. George Grant MacCurdy, Curator of Archaeology, Peabody Museum, Yale Uni- versity; Director, American School of Prehistoric Research in Europe, New Haven. Paul S. Martin, Curator of North American Archaeology, Field Museum, Chicago-: John C. Merriam, President, Carnegie Institution of Washington. W. K. Moorehead, Director, Museum of Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts. A. J. Moorshead, President, Madison Coal Corporation; representative of the Illi- nois Central Railway! Chicago.
20 In Quest of Glacial Man: Bentley A. W. Newton, Chief Engineer, Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railway, Chicago. Alan I. Parish, Executive Committee, Associated General Contractors of America, Paris, Illinois. F`. W. Renwick, President, Chicago Gravel Company, Chicago. A. S. Romer, Department of Geology, University of Chicago. Fred W. Sargent, President, Chicago and Northwestern Railway, Chicago. H. A. Scandrett, President, Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway, Chicago. J. R. Sensibar, President, Construction Materials Company, Chicago. Frank G. Sheets, Chief Engineer, State Highway Department, Springfield, Illinois. M. W. Stirling, Chief, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. W. B. Storey, President, Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, Chicago. Lieut.-Col. C. W. Weeks. District Engineer, U. S. Army, Chicago.