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Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance (1999)

Chapter: 2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990

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Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
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CHAPTER 2
Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990

Donald J. Hernandez and Katherine Darke

All children share the same basic needs. Children in immigrant families are no different from others in the United States in their need for food, clothing, shelter, physical safety, psychological nurturing, health care, and education. They also share a dependence on adults—family members, communities, government—to assure their healthy development. Despite the similar needs of children in immigrant families, many have recently been denied equal access to publicly funded health and social benefits, or decisions regarding eligibility for such benefits have been devolved from the federal to state governments.

Although the basic needs of all children are similar, children in immigrant families may also have special needs, or special access to resources, because of their current circumstances or conditions associated specifically with immigration. Historical trends in the numbers and socioeconomic and demographic circumstances of children in immigrant families, compared to children in native-born families, reflect key conditions that influence the needs and resources of these children.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

The purpose of this chapter is to provide historical perspective on the changing experiences of children in immigrant families in the United States, compared to those in native-born families, and on differences across first-, second-, and later-generation children in 1990 regarding socioeconomic and family risk factors and resources and potential risks specific to children in immigrant families. The 1990 decennial census provides the best and most recent source of information on risk factors for children with origins in a large number of countries. Historical changes are assessed in this study using the 1910, 1960, and 1990 decennial censuses to allow an examination of risk factors following the decade of peak immigration to the United States (1901 to 1910), the subsequent era of very low immigration (1931 to 1960), and the most recent decades of increasing immigration for which census data are available (1970 to 1990).

This assessment is the first to use decennial census data with children as the unit of analysis to study long-run historical changes in the lives of children in immigrant and native-born families. The assessment draws on analytical approaches to identifying first-, second-, and later-generation children developed in recent years (Hernandez, 1993; Jensen and Chitose, 1997; Oropesa and Landale, 1995, 1997a, 1997b; Landale et al., 1997). As defined here, the first generation is children ages 0 to 17 who were born in a foreign country, the second generation is children born in the United States to at least one foreign-born parent, and later-generation children are native-born children with native-born parents. Conclusions from decennial census data concerning socioeconomic and demographic assimilation across various generations must be treated as preliminary for reasons discussed in Appendix 2A.

NUMBER AND COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN OF CHILDREN IN IMMIGRANT FAMILIES

Immigrants from various countries of origin may differ enormously in their socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, their language and culture, and their racial and ethnic composition. The number and countries of origin of children in immigrant families have changed greatly during the twentieth century.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

The number of children in immigrant families living with at least one parent dropped from 9.3 million in 1910 to 3.7 million in 1960 and then jumped to 8.2 million in 1990, nearly returning to the level of 1910. But the total population of children was rising as well. Hence, children in immigrant families as a proportion of all children plummeted from 28 percent in 1910 to only 6 percent in 1960, but the subsequent rise to 13 percent in 1990 represented only one-half the level of 1910.

Turning to country of origin, among children in immigrant families (first-or second-generation children) in 1910 who lived with at least one parent, most had origins in Europe (87 percent) or Canada (10 percent). The Northwestern European countries of Germany, Scandinavia, Ireland, and the United Kingdom accounted for the largest proportions, at 20, 11, 10, and 9 percent, respectively. Southeastern European countries of origin for many children included Italy, Poland, and Austria, at 9, 7, and 6 percent, respectively. Russia and Hungary each accounted for an additional 3 percent. Immigrants speaking Yiddish or Jewish have been a focus of recent research on ethnicity and country of origin using the 1910 census (Watkins, 1994). Adopting the same approach here, children identified as Jewish, based on their own or their parents' mother tongue, accounted for 7 percent of children in immigrant families in 1910, most in families emigrating from Russia.

At the turn of the century, perceived differences in culture and race separating Southern and Eastern European immigrants from native borns were viewed as enormous. In the massive government study of the time, the Joint U.S. Immigration Commission (popularly known as the Dillingham Commission) drew sharp distinctions between the ''old" Northern and Western European immigrants and the "new" Southern and Eastern European immigrants (U.S. Immigration Commission, 1911). Anthropologists, scientists, and policy makers of the era shared the public sentiment that the new immigrants were likely to dilute both the racial and cultural purity of native-born Americans with a mainly Northwestern European heritage. Despite these concerns, however, a comprehensive assessment using 1980 census data found that, while white ethnic groups maintain some distinctive patterns, differences on many measures have disap-

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

peared, including fertility rates and socioeconomic measures such as educational attainment. A high degree of assimilation among white ethnic groups also is reflected in high levels of intermarriage across ethnic lines (Lieberson and Waters, 1988).

By 1960 children with European or Canadian origins accounted for a substantially smaller proportion of children in immigrant families with at least one parent in the home than they did in 1910, only 71 percent, at 56 and 15 percent, respectively. The largest numbers from Europe had origins in Germany, the United Kingdom, and Italy, at 10 or 11 percent each, followed by Poland, Scandinavia, Ireland, and the former Soviet Union, at 3 percent each. By 1990 only 18 percent of children in immigrant families with at least one parent in the home had origins in Europe or Canada, with only Germany, the United Kingdom, and Canada accounting for as much as 2 or 3 percent each (Table 2A-1a).

Corresponding increases have occurred since 1910 among sending countries in Latin America and Asia. The proportion of children in immigrant families from Central or South America, Mexico, or the Caribbean jumped from only 2 percent in 1910 to 18 percent and then to 55 percent in 1960 and 1990, respectively, with most having origins in Mexico, at 2, 13, and 31 percent, respectively, during these years. Meanwhile, the proportion of children in immigrant families from Asia jumped from 1 to 7 percent between 1910 and 1960 and then to 25 percent in 1990. The most important sending countries in Asia as of 1990 were China, India, Korea, the Philippines, and Vietnam, but each accounted for only 2 to 5 percent of children in immigrant families with at least one parent (Table 2A-1a).

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, then, the countries of origin of children in immigrant families have become increasingly diverse, as reflected in the shrinking number of countries that individually account for substantial proportions of children and in the broadening global distribution of these countries, with increasing numbers from Latin America and Asia. The lone partial exception to this generalization is Mexico, which has rapidly increased as a source of children in immigrant families, accounting for one-third of all such children in 1990. Associated with these shifts in country of origin are rising proportions of children in immigrant families who are classified according to the

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

racial and ethnic stratification system of the United States as Hispanic or Asian minorities.

A final indicator of diversity in 1990 is suggested by the fact that children in immigrant families from 34 different countries each amounted to at least 50,000 (Table 2A-1a). Given that 50,000 persons is the minimum size for a city to be officially classified by the federal government as a metropolitan area, these estimates indicate that if the children in immigrant families from each of these countries of origin were concentrated in a single city the number of children in immigrant families is large enough that they could be classified as constituting 34 separate metropolitan areas representing 34 different countries of origin.

RISK FACTORS AMONG CHILDREN GENERALLY

The extent to which the risks and needs of children in immigrant and native-born families differ depends, at least in part, on the extent to which they are similar or different in certain family circumstances. These circumstances include poverty, parental educational attainments, paid work by various family members, living in a one- or a two-parent family, living with a small or a large number of siblings, and exposure to overcrowded housing conditions.

One of the best-documented relationships in epidemiology and child development is that social and economic inequality has negative consequences for health and other important outcomes for persons of low socioeconomic status—that is, persons experiencing poverty, job insecurity or unemployment, and limited educational attainment (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1981; Starfield, 1982, 1991, 1992; Hill and Duncan, 1987; Newacheck and Starfield, 1988; Montgomery et al., 1996; Wilkinson, 1996; Duncan and Brooks-Gunn, 1997). Parents of children living in poverty do not have enough money to purchase necessary goods and services, such as housing, food, clothing, and health care.

Parental educational attainments are important not only because they influence parental occupation and income as well as current parental values in socializing but also because they influence the levels of education and income that children achieve

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

when they, in turn, become adults (Blau and Duncan, 1967; Kohn, 1969; Sewell and Hauser, 1975; Featherman and Hauser, 1978; Sewell et al., 1980; Kohn and Schooler, 1983; Alwin, 1984). Thus, children whose parents have completed relatively few years of school are disadvantaged compared to children with more highly educated parents because their parents are less likely to have paid jobs that provide access to health insurance and to the income required to buy other important goods and services and because these children are less likely to complete high school or college themselves and hence are less likely to achieve economic success in adulthood.

Because paid work by parents is the primary source of family income for most children, the number of parents who work for pay and whether they work part time or full time are key determinants of whether children live in poverty, in middle-class comfort, or in luxury. Father's paid work has been the primary factor determining trends in child poverty since the Great Depression, but mother's paid employment has become increasingly important (Hernandez, 1993, 1997).

Children who live with only one parent are at risk for a variety of current and long-term negative life outcomes because children with two parents in the home have greater access, potentially, to parents as personal caregivers and as economic providers than do children living with one parent and because children in one-parent families often experience greater personal or parental stress (Featherman and Hauser, 1978; Kominski, 1987; Sewell and Hauser, 1975; Kohn, 1969; Kohn and Schooler, 1983; Blau and Duncan, 1967; Hetherington et al., 1978; Sewell et al., 1980; Alwin, 1984; Hernandez, 1997; Wallerstein et al., 1988; Wallerstein and Kelly, 1989; Cherlin et al., 1991; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994).

Many children in one-parent families live in poverty partly because their fathers' incomes may not be available in the home and partly because low socioeconomic status strongly influences both family disruption and out-of-wedlock childbearing. Poverty has major effects on child outcomes that are independent of family structure; but children living with only one parent are also at risk of negative life outcomes, beyond the effects of poverty (Elder, 1974; Conger et al., 1990; Hernandez, 1993; Conger and Elder, 1994; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994).

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

Most children live not only with one or two parents but also with one or more brothers or sisters who are potential sources of lifelong loving companionship, as well as potential competitors for the scarce time and economic resources parents can devote to their children. Although research has found that the number of siblings has little effect on a child's psychological well-being in adulthood, children in families with five or more siblings tend to complete fewer years of schooling than children from smaller families and therefore are less likely as adults to enter high-status occupations with high incomes (Featherman and Hauser, 1978; Glenn and Hoppe, 1982; Blake, 1981, 1985, 1987, 1989). In addition, overcrowded housing conditions often associated with low family income can facilitate the transmission of communicable diseases (Hernandez and Charney, 1998).

Poverty and Income Inequality

Children in immigrant families in the 1990 census experienced a somewhat greater risk of living in poverty (in 1989) than did children in native-born families (22 versus 17 percent; Table 2A-1a). Most of the difference was accounted for by the high poverty rate among the first generation (33 percent), while the second generation was only slightly more likely (19 percent) to be poor than children in native-born families (17 percent; Tables 2A-1a and 2A-2a). In the 1960 census the opposite was true, overall, because children in immigrant families were less likely to be poor (in 1959) than those in native-born families (19 versus 26 percent), although, as in the 1990 census, the risk was greater for the first generation than for the second in the 1960 census (23 versus 19 percent).

Poverty rates differed enormously in both the 1960 and the 1990 censuses among children in immigrant families with various countries of origins and among children in native-born families by race and ethnicity. For example, in the 1990 census the poverty rate for non-Hispanic white children in native-born families was only 11 percent but was three to four times greater for black, Hispanic, and American Indian children in native-born families, at 40, 31, and 38 percent, respectively (Figure 2-1, Table 2A-1a).

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×
Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

FIGURE 2-1 Percentage of children ages 0 to 17 in immigrant and native-born families in official poverty, 1990. * indicates third- and highergeneration children in native-born families.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

Similarly, among children in immigrant families from about two dozen countries spread across Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, poverty rates were about equal to, or substantially less than, the rate of 11 percent for non-Hispanic white children in native-born families in the 1990 census (Figure 2-1, Table 2A-1a). But for children in immigrant families from 12 other countries in the 1990 census, poverty rates were quite high, ranging from 26 to 51 percent depending on the country of origin. In view of the negative risks associated with poverty generally, the situation of children from these 12 countries is of particular concern.

Five of the 12 countries are the source of many officially recognized refugees (the former Soviet Union, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam); three are war-torn countries in Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua); and three are small and impoverished Central American or Caribbean countries (Honduras, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic) that are sources of unskilled labor migrants. The twelfth country is Mexico, which has sent the largest number of both legal and illegal unskilled laborers to the U.S. economy (Romo, 1996; Rumbaut, 1996). Within the racial and ethnic stratification system of the United States, most children from 11 of these 12 countries, with the former Soviet Union as the sole exception, are classified as Hispanic, Asian, or black.

Children with origins in these 12 countries accounted for 46 percent (3.9 million) of all children in immigrant families in 1990 (8.4 million), but they accounted for about 80 percent of the children in immigrant families who lived in poverty. Moreover, Mexico alone accounted for 31 percent (2.6 million) of all children in immigrant families but 50 percent of those officially classified as poor in the 1990 census.

In fact, the number of children in immigrant families, especially those from Mexico, who live in poverty is at least somewhat higher. Additional analyses commissioned by the Committee on the Health and Adjustment of Immigrant Children and Families (Mines, this volume) using the National Agricultural Workers Survey indicate that more than 67 percent of U.S.-based children in migrant farmworker families lived in poverty in each year from 1993 to 1995—that is, more than 590,000 of the 880,000

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

in total. Insofar as a substantial portion of migrant farmworker families and their children, especially those of Mexican origin who account for 69 percent of the U.S.-based children in the survey, are not enumerated in the decennial census, the total number (and percentage) of children in immigrant families, especially of Mexican origin, who were living in poverty is higher, perhaps by several hundred thousand (and several percentage points), than indicated by the decennial census data.

Poverty rates for children in immigrant families in the 1990 census were lower, sometimes much lower, for second-generation children than for the first generation for nearly all countries of origin, including most of the 12 countries with the highest poverty rates. But for children with origins in Mexico, which accounts for about two-thirds of the children in immigrant families from these 12 countries, poverty rates for the second and later generations were quite similar, at 32 and 28 percent, respectively, which is two and one-half to three times greater than for non-Hispanic white children in native-born families (Tables 2A-2a and 2A-3a).

Among children with origins in the four Central American countries (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) for which information is available for all three generations (Tables 2A-2a and 2A-3a), the decline in poverty from the second to later generations is somewhat larger than for Mexican children, and the levels for the poverty rates for the later generations is 14 to 17 percent, only somewhat greater than for non-Hispanic white children in native-born families (11 percent). This might reflect greater intergenerational assimilation of children from these four countries than from Mexico. But a plausible alternative explanation derives from the possibility that immigrants from these countries during the past two decades, especially those escaping war-torn conditions in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, may have had substantially lower socioeconomic status, on average, than did immigrants from the same countries during earlier decades. For example, among children in immigrant families with Central American origins in 1960, the proportions with fathers in the home who graduated from high school were 61 and 69 percent, respectively, for the first and second generations, compared to 51 percent for non-Hispanic white children in native-born families. Thus, the apparent improvement between the second and

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

later generations of children in 1990 from these Central American countries may reflect differences in the socioeconomic status of parents as they entered the United States rather than intergenerational socioeconomic assimilation.

Children in immigrant families with origins in the Dominican Republic and Haiti also had very high poverty rates in the 1990 census, but their rates were nearly the same for the first and the second generations (41 and 42 percent, respectively, for the Dominican Republic; 30 and 24 percent for Haiti), and available data for the Dominican Republic indicate no change for the later generation (40 percent).

The continuing high poverty rates of second- and later-generation children from these Caribbean countries and Mexico suggest that black and Hispanic children from these countries may be subject to racial and ethnic stratification that greatly limits their opportunities, even in the case of Mexican-origin children after many generations. For Mexicans the pattern has been quite consistent since at least 1960, when the poverty rates for the first, second, and later generations were 58, 48, and 53 percent, respectively—that is, about two and one-half to three times greater than the rate of 19 percent for non-Hispanic white children in native-born families. Thus, in both the 1960 and the 1990 censuses, the poverty rate for third- and later-generation children of Mexican origin was 70 to 80 percent as high as among black and American Indian children.

Although official poverty rates declined by approximately two-fifths between the 1960 and 1990 censuses for children in native-born families belonging to each of these racial and ethnic groups, Mexican-origin, black, and American Indian children all have continued to experience highly elevated risks of poverty, compared to non-Hispanic white children. This continuity of economic deprivation among children belonging to these racial and ethnic minorities raises the following question for the new Central American immigrant populations of Hispanic origin: Will they tend to assimilate socioeconomically to the level of non-Hispanic whites or to the level of Mexican-origin Hispanics?

Of course, it is possible that a substantial portion of children in native-born families with a Mexican-origin parent or grandparent also have a non-Mexican-origin parent or grandparents

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

and that such children tend not to be reported as being of Mexican origin and tend to have lower poverty rates than children with two Mexican-origin parents of four Mexican-origin grandparents. But as of 1990, only 9 percent of children in native-born families who were identified as being of Mexican origin, or as having at least one Mexican-origin parent, had a Mexican-origin parent but were not themselves identified as being of Mexican origin. Hence, the exclusion of these children from the poverty estimates above cannot affect the poverty rates of third- and later-generation Mexican-origin children by more than a percentage point or two. Additional research is required to assess the possible effect of outmarriage by Mexican-origin grandparents or great-grandparents on the identification of children as Mexican origin and on poverty. Available evidence suggests, however, that the lack of change in the pattern of very high poverty rates across generations for Mexican-origin children, compared to non-Hispanic whites, between 1960 and 1990 may reflect the continuing power of racial and ethnic stratification in determining the life chances of children of Mexican origin, as has been the case historically for minority black and American Indian children.

Alternative measures of ''relative poverty" and of income inequality are valuable for historical and international comparisons because they take into consideration changes in the real standard of living that occur through time and that exist across countries (Smith, 1776; Galbraith, 1958; Fuchs, 1965; Rainwater, 1974; Expert Committee on Family Budget Revisions, 1980; Ruggles, 1990; Hernandez, 1993; Smeeding and Torrey, 1995; Citro and Michael, 1995). These "relative" measures (taking family composition into account in a fashion similar to the official poverty measure) are defined as follows: relative poverty is an income that is less than 50 percent of the median family income during a given year; near-poor frugality is at least 50 percent but less than 75 percent of the median family income; middle-class comfort is at least 75 percent but less than 150 percent of the median family income; and luxury-level income (listed as "Very Well-Off Financially" in the tables) is 150 percent or more of the median family income level (Hernandez, 1993).

The relative and official poverty rates were quite similar in the 1960 census, but by the 1990 census relative poverty rates were

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

substantially higher. Among children in immigrant families from the 12 countries of origin with the highest official child poverty rates, the relative poverty rates were about three- to six-tenths higher than the official poverty rates (Table 2A-1a). Hence, the official poverty rates ranged from 26 to 51 percent for these countries, compared to 39 to 65 percent using the relative poverty measure. Overall, the relative poverty rate for children in immigrant families was 33 percent, compared to 24 percent for children in native-born families in the 1990 census. The patterns of relative poverty across the first, second, and later generations were similar to the patterns in official poverty but at generally higher levels. For example, the relative poverty rates for the second generation were somewhat greater than for the third and later generations, at 29 and 24 percent, respectively, but enormously larger at 47 percent for the first generation (Tables 2A-1a and 2A-2a).

At the other end of the income distribution, middle-class or luxury-level family incomes represent important resources for children. Although poverty rates for children in immigrant families exceeded those for children in native-born families by 5 and 9 percentage points, respectively, using the official and relative measures, the proportion with luxury-level incomes was nearly as high for children in immigrant families as for children in native-born families, at 19 and 22 percent, respectively (Table 2A-1a). In fact, among children from 36 of the 62 countries of origin that each accounted for at least 15,000 children in immigrant families in 1990, the proportions living in luxury were 25 percent or more—that is, at a level at least equal to or exceeding the 26 percent rate for non-Hispanic white children in native-born families. These 36 countries included 13 of 14 European countries, 10 of 14 Asian countries, three of six Middle Eastern countries, four of the eight South American countries, Egypt, South Africa, Australia, and Canada but only one Caribbean country (Cuba) and no Central American countries.

Among children in immigrant families from most of these countries, the combined proportion with middle-class or luxury-level family incomes also equaled or exceeded the proportion for non-Hispanic white children in native-born families (68 percent). Thus, children in immigrant families from more than half of the countries of origin accounting for at least 15,000 children in 1990

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

experienced family economic resources at least as great as non-Hispanic white children in native-born families.

Across the income spectrum, then, children in immigrant families were much more likely than those in native-born families to have family incomes below the relative poverty threshold in 1989 (1990 census) but only slightly less likely to have incomes at the luxury level. Hence, children in immigrant families experience substantially greater economic inequality than children in native-born families. Moreover, children in immigrant families from various countries are extremely diverse with respect to economic resources. Children in immigrant families from about a dozen countries experience levels of economic deprivation similar to those of black, Hispanic, and American Indian children in native-born families, and most of the children from these countries are Hispanic, black, or Asian. At the opposite extreme, children in immigrant families from more than two dozen countries experience economic resources similar to or greater than those of non-Hispanic white children in native-born families; these countries are in all regions of the world except Central America and, with one exception, the Caribbean.

Parents' Education

First-, second-, and later-generation children in families with fathers in the home were about equally likely in 1990 to have fathers who had graduated from college (24 to 26 percent), and the various generations in families with mothers in the home were about equally likely to have mothers who had graduated from college (16 to 18 percent; Table 2A-1d). In addition, in 1990 among children in immigrant families from about two dozen countries, 35 percent or more had a father in the home who had graduated from college—higher than the 28 percent recorded for non-Hispanic whites in native-born families. For a similar number of countries, 25 percent or more had a mother in the home who had graduated from college, notably higher than the 20 percent for non-Hispanic whites in native-born families. All of these proportions with parents graduating from college were two to three times greater than the corresponding rates for black, Hispanic, and American Indian children in native-born families.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

But children in immigrant families, overall, were also much more likely than children in native-born families to have parents with very low educational attainments, and this was especially true for the 12 countries of origin with children at greatest risk of living in poverty, with the sole exception of the former Soviet Union (Tables 2A-1a and 2A-1d). For example, among children living with their fathers, the overall proportions with fathers not graduating from high school were two to three times greater for the first and second generations than for the later generations, at 49, 36, and 15 percent, respectively, and this difference is accounted for mainly by differences in the proportions with fathers completing no more than eight years of schooling, which for the three generations were 34, 23, and 3 percent, respectively. Patterns in mothers' education were quite similar (Tables 2A-1a, 2A-1d, 2A-2a, and 2A-2d).

Generational differences in parental education followed a similar pattern in 1960, although differences in the proportions with very low educational attainments were substantially smaller than in 1990. The only measure of educational attainments available in the 1910 census is the illiteracy rate. Second and later generations of children were similar in their chances of having a parent in the home who was illiterate, at 9 to 14 percent, respectively, but the first generation was substantially more likely to have an illiterate father (22 percent) or mother (34 percent).

As with poverty, parental educational attainments vary enormously by country of origin for children in immigrant families and by race and ethnicity among children in native-born families (Tables 2A-1a and 2A-1d), both historically and today. In 1990 children in immigrant families from the 12 countries with the highest poverty rates were also, with the exception of the former Soviet Union, somewhat to enormously more likely than non-Hispanic whites in native-born families to have parents in the home who had not graduated from high school or elementary school.

Among children from these 11 countries, parental educational attainments generally increased substantially from the first to the second to the third generations. Most third-generation children from the countries for which estimates are available had parents who had completed nine or more years of schooling, but few had parents who had completed college, largely a result of the high

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

proportion of these children with origins in Mexico (Table 2A-3e). Moreover, the proportion of Mexican-origin children in native-born families with parents not graduating from high school remained in the range of 30 to 34 percent, similar to the level for black children in native-born families and for American Indian children (26 to 29 percent) and two to three times greater than for non-Hispanic white children in native-born families (12 percent) (Table 2A-3a).

The disadvantage in parental educational attainments for Mexican-origin children, compared to non-Hispanic whites, has remained large throughout the twentieth century, at a level similar to that for black and American Indian children. For example, in 1960 among Mexican-origin children living with a father, the proportion with a father who had completed no more than eight years of schooling was 76 to 79 percent for first-and second-generation children in immigrant families and for later-generation Spanish-surname children in the five southwestern states. Although some third-and later-generation Mexican-origin children lived outside the five southwestern states in 1960, and some Spanish-surname children in these five states were not of Mexican origin, the estimates for these children are, no doubt, approximately equal to the proportion for third-and later-generation Mexican-origin children throughout the United States at that time. These educational attainments are somewhat less than the corresponding proportions of 61 to 64 percent, respectively, for blacks and American Indians in 1960. But each of these minority groups was about two and one-half to three times more likely than non-Hispanic white children (26 percent) to have a father with this little education.

Similarly, at the upper end of the education distribution, the proportions with fathers in the home who had completed 12 years of schooling were only 13 to 19 percent for first- and second-generation Mexican-origin children, third- and later-generation Spanish-surname children in the five southwestern states, and blacks and American Indians. The corresponding proportion for non-Hispanic white children was more than two and one-half times greater at 51 percent.

Parental illiteracy rates are the only measure in the 1910 census reflecting parental educational accomplishments. Among

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

children with a father in the home, the illiteracy rate was 66 percent for first-generation Mexican-origin children and 37 to 39 percent for second-and later-generation Mexican-origin children as well as for black and American Indian children. The corresponding father's illiteracy rate for white children was about one-sixth as great, at only 6 percent.

Between the early and mid-twentieth century, then, the relative educational attainments of fathers in the homes of Mexican-origin, black, and American Indian children may have improved compared to non-Hispanic whites. Since then educational attainments have improved for all groups, and the absolute gaps between these minorities and non-Hispanic whites have narrowed. But the relative disadvantage has remained about the same, and children from all three racial and ethnic groups—Mexican-origin, black, and American Indian—have experienced fairly similar levels of disadvantage. Patterns of educational attainment across these groups and across the century for mothers in the home have been generally similar to those for fathers in the home.

Parents' Labor Force Participation

Throughout the twentieth century the overwhelming majority of children in both immigrant and native-born families with fathers in the home have had fathers who worked in the labor force. Among first-, second-, and later-generation children the proportions were 95 to 96 percent in 1910; 96 to 97 percent in 1960; and, as of 1990, 88 percent for the first generation and 94 to 95 percent for the second and later generations. The combined proportion for the first and second generations in 1990 was 93 percent, only slightly less than the 95 percent for the third and later generations (Tables 2A-1c, 2A-2c, and 2A-3c). Differences in labor force participation among fathers in the homes of immigrant children cannot, therefore, account for most of the poverty differences between the two in the 1960 and 1990 censuses. Even among children in immigrant families from the 12 countries of origin with very high poverty rates, the proportions with fathers in the home who were not in the labor force exceeded 11 percentage points for only five countries (Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, and the former Soviet Union) (Table 2A-1c).

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

Despite high levels of employment among fathers in the homes of children in immigrant families, overall and for most specific countries of origin, many fathers worked less than full time year-round in 1990 (Table 2A-1c). Little difference existed between children in immigrant and native-born families in 1960 in their chances of having a father in the home who worked full time year-round (72 to 73 percent), but by 1990 the difference had expanded to 10 percentage points (69 versus 79 percent). In fact, it is the lack of full-time year-round work among fathers in the home, along with the fathers' very low educational attainments and linguistic isolation from English-speaking culture, that are especially common among children from the 12 countries of origin with very high poverty rates.

Although children in immigrant families from an additional 16 countries in 1990 had very high proportions of fathers who did not work full-time year-round, children from most of these 16 countries had two advantages compared to children from the 12 very high poverty countries of origin. Most did not have high proportions with very low parental educational attainments, and most had at least one person in the household, no doubt often a parent, who spoke English exclusively or very well. Thus, very high poverty rates for children in immigrant families tended to occur among children from countries with very low parental educational attainments (eight years of schooling or less), fathers who could find full-time year-round work, and parents who did not speak English exclusively or very well. These results suggest that the combination of very limited father's educational attainments and linguistic isolation of the household are key factors that make it difficult for fathers in immigrant families to obtain full-time year-round work that pays well enough to lift the family out of poverty (Tables 2A-1a, 2A-1c, and 2A-1d).

Of course, many mothers also contribute to family income by working for pay. Among children with mothers in the home, historical trends in mothers' labor force participation have been broadly similar for those in immigrant and native-born families, rising from 6 and 12 percent, respectively, in 1910 to 27 percent in 1960, and 58 and 66 percent, respectively, in 1990. Full-time year-round employment rates for mothers have also been similar, ris-

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

ing from 9 percent for children from immigrant and native-born families in 1960 to 28 and 31 percent, respectively, in 1990.

As of 1990, of the 12 countries of origin with high proportions (50 percent or more) of children with mothers who were not in the labor force, seven had high proportions (68 to 80 percent) with fathers working full time year-round. Children in immigrant families from the remaining five countries were among the 12 with very high poverty rates, and they had comparatively high proportions with fathers not working full time year-round (38 to 68 percent), but they also had high proportions with mothers not graduating from high school (55 to 76 percent), and four had high proportions with five or more siblings in the home (14 to 35 percent) (Tables 2A-1a and 2A-1c). This pattern suggests that among mothers with very low educational attainments large family size may often be inconsistent with mother's employment outside the home, perhaps because of a trade-off between mother's work and providing care for children in the home.

One-Parent Families

The proportion of children living with only one parent was smaller for the second generation than for the first generation overall and for most countries of origin in 1990. Risk levels for both generations were similar to or less than the risk for native-born non-Hispanic white children, except for children with origins in Cambodia, Vietnam, and most Central American and Caribbean countries. For most countries of origin with available data, the third and later generations were much more likely than the second generation to live in a one-parent family in 1990, with levels at least twice as great as the 18 percent recorded for native-born non-Hispanic white children. For third- and later-generation children with origins in most countries of Central and South America and the Caribbean, these proportions sometimes reach or exceed the level of 62 percent for black children in native-born families (Tables 2A-2a and 2A-3a).

Focusing on children in immigrant families from the 12 countries of origin with very high poverty rates in the 1990 census, those from Cambodia and the six Central American and Caribbean countries (Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala,

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua) were substantially more likely to live in one-parent families (26 to 48 percent) than were non-Hispanic white children in native-born families (18 percent). Children from these countries tended to have smaller proportions with five or more siblings in the home than children from those high-poverty countries with higher proportions in two-parent families, and they tended to have higher proportions with mothers in the labor force (Tables 2A-1a and 2A-1c). Thus, children in immigrant families from the 12 countries of origin with very high poverty rates in the 1990 census tended to live in families with a large number of siblings and comparatively few working mothers or they tended to live in one-parent families but not both.

Overall, first-, second-, and later-generation children in 1960 were about equally likely to live in one-parent families. First-generation children from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean were, however, substantially more likely to live in one-parent families (16 to 17 percent versus 9 to 10 percent), although the differences disappeared for children from Mexico and Central America by the second generation. One-fourth of black children in native-born families lived in one-parent families in 1960. First-, second-, and later-generation children were about equally likely to live in one-parent families in 1910, although black children in native-born families were substantially more likely than others to live in one-parent families, at 19 percent versus 8 to 10 percent.

Families with Many Siblings

The pattern of change across generations in 1990 for the risk of living in a family with a large number of siblings was quite different from the pattern of change for one-parent family living. In 1990 the proportion of children living in families with five or more siblings dropped steadily across generations from 17 to 9 to 4 percent, respectively, between the first, second, and later generations (Tables 2A-1a and 2A-2a). For many specific countries of origin, not only did the second generations in 1990 have smaller proportions in large families than first-generation children from the same countries, the proportions usually were similar to native-born non-Hispanic white children, at 4 percent or less for the second generation. Risk levels for third- and later-generation chil-

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

dren also were similar, overall, to native-born non-Hispanic whites.

Nonetheless, among children in immigrant families from the 12 countries of origin with very high poverty rates, four of the five that did not have high proportions in one-parent families (excluding only the former Soviet Union) had high proportions with large numbers of siblings, and children in immigrant families from three countries experienced elevated risks of both living with one parent only and with a large number of siblings (Cambodia, Haiti, and Nicaragua).

In 1960 and 1910, first-, second-, and later-generation children were about equally likely to live in families with many siblings, at 17 to 21 percent in 1960 and 38 to 43 percent in 1910. In both 1910 and 1960 an extraordinary 51 percent of first-generation children with Mexican origins lived in large families, but the proportion declined sharply from 61 to 48 percent between 1910 and 1960 for the second generation and from 59 to 40 percent for the third and later generations. Meanwhile, the proportion of black children in families with five or more siblings remained about constant at 45 to 48 percent.

By 1990 the proportions of children with five or more siblings were much smaller for all groups. Among first-, second-, and later-generation Mexican-origin children, 19, 12, and 6 percent, respectively, lived in families with five or more siblings. Thus, among children in native-born families, those of Mexican origin were somewhat less likely than blacks to live in large families, at 6 versus 7 percent, respectively, and somewhat more likely than non-Hispanic whites to live in such families (4 percent) (Tables 2A-2a and 2A-3a).

Overcrowded Housing

In 1990 only 12 percent of third-generation children lived in overcrowded housing with more than one person per room compared to elevated risks of 38 percent for the second generation and 62 percent for the first generation (Tables 2A-1b and 2A-2b). Children in immigrant families from most specific countries of origin in 1990 also had elevated risks of living in overcrowded housing, although children in immigrant families from the 12

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

countries with very high poverty rates were much more likely than most to live in such conditions. For children from most of these 12 countries, declines in overcrowding are substantial across the first and second generations and, where measurable, to the third and later generations. But third and later generations continued to experience high levels of overcrowding, especially Mexican-origin children at an extraordinary 31 percent, which is similar to the 26 and 34 percent experienced, respectively, by black and American Indian children and is more than four times greater than the 7 percent experienced by white, non-Hispanic children in native-born families (Tables 2A-2b and 2A-3b).

Overall levels of overcrowding were much higher among children in 1960 than in 1990 but were about equal for first-, second-, and later-generation children at 31 to 36 percent. However, 75 percent of first- and second-generation Mexican-origin children and 69 to 70 percent of black children and third- and later-generation children of Mexican origin lived in overcrowded conditions in 1960.

POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS SPECIFIC TO CHILDREN IN IMMIGRANT FAMILIES

Children in immigrant families from countries where English is not the native language or is not widely taught may be at special risk, compared to children in native-born families, because they may not themselves speak English well or they may live with parents who do not speak English well. A lack of English fluency can limit effective communication and functioning in health care facilities, schools, and other settings that provide essential resources to children and their families.

Children who are undocumented are not eligible for most public benefits and services, and under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 children who are legal immigrants but not citizens may also be ineligible for important medical and social services (Hernandez and Charney, 1998). Equally important, native-born children in immigrant families who are eligible for such services may not receive them because immigrant parents who are not themselves eligible for services may not be aware that their children are or

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

may fear contact with the government agencies that administer services. Because legal immigrants and U.S. citizens experienced essentially the same welfare eligibility requirements prior to the welfare reform legislation of 1996, for legal immigrants not being a U.S. citizen has become a potential risk factor for immigrant children and families only recently.

The devolution of responsibilities, under welfare reform, from the federal government to the states also implies that eligibility for and access to publicly funded health, medical, and social services by children in immigrant families will depend increasingly on decisions and investments by state and local governments (Hernandez and Charney, 1998). Because children in immigrant families are concentrated in a few states, and a small number of states have comparatively high proportions of children from immigrant families, the eligibility rules in those states will be critical both to these children and to state expenditures.

English-Language Fluency

In 1990 at least 60 percent of children in immigrant families from most countries of origin spoke a language other than English at home. Among the exceptions were English-speaking countries of origin as well as Austria, Egypt, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, and Panama (Table 2A-1e). But for only 13 countries of origin did the proportion of children in immigrant families not speaking English exclusively or very well reach the substantial risk level of 30 percent or more. Eleven of these countries are among the 12 with children at highly elevated risk of living in poverty (excluding only Haiti), and the remaining two were China and Hong Kong.

Generational differences are large, however, as the proportion who speak English exclusively or very well rises from only 55 percent for the first generation to 81 percent for the second (Tables 2A-2e and 2A-3d). For children in immigrant families from the 12 countries with very high poverty rates, the range is 35 to 53 percent for the first generation but rises to 65 to 91 percent for the second generation for 10 of 12 countries (excluding Cambodia and Laos).

Lack of English fluency may not pose enormous difficulties

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

for immigrants in communities that have a large number of residents from their home country, but it does isolate immigrants from mainstream American society. The U.S. Bureau of the Census defines a linguistically isolated household as one in which no person age 14 or over speaks English either exclusively or very well. Among children in immigrant families in 1990, 26 percent lived in linguistically isolated households. But for children from each of the 12 countries of origin with children at high levels of socioeconomic risk, the proportions in linguistically isolated households were 34 to 38 percent for three countries, 41 to 46 percent for seven countries, and 60 percent for two (Laos and Cambodia). Children from only five additional countries had 30 percent or more in linguistically isolated households (China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, and Colombia) (Table 2A-1a).

No language information was collected in the 1960 census, but historical changes are best measured by comparing ''mother tongue" data for 1910 to "language spoken at home" in 1990. In 1910 the proportions of children in immigrant families for whom English was not the mother tongue for either the father or the mother were 84 to 85 percent, and for 79 percent of children in immigrant families with two parents in the home, neither parent had English as a mother tongue. In 1990 the proportions of children in immigrant families who lived with a mother or father who did not speak English at home were 76 to 78 percent. In households with both mother and father at home, the proportion was 70 percent. Although these measures of language are not identical, they are similar, wand the similarity of results for 1910 and 1990 suggests that historical differences in the proportion of children in immigrant families with parents speaking or not speaking English were about the same at the end of the century as at the beginning.

U.S. Citizenship

Of the 8.4 million children in immigrant families in the United States in 1990, 75 percent were U.S. citizens by birth, 4 percent were naturalized citizens, and 21 percent (1.7 million) were not U.S. citizens. Of the U.S. citizen children, 54 percent (3.6 million) had at least one parent in the home who was not a U.S. citizen;

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

thus, approximately two-thirds of children in immigrant families in 1990 were either themselves not U.S. citizens or lived with a noncitizen parent (Hernandez and Charney, 1998). Welfare eligibility exclusions are most important for children with family incomes below or near the official poverty level. In the 1990 census the official poverty rate for noncitizen children was 34 percent, and the rate for children who were not citizens or had at least one noncitizen parent was 28 percent.

Children in immigrant families from nine of the 12 countries of origin with high levels of poverty were especially likely to be noncitizens, at 29 percent or more. The proportion was 21 to 23 percent for the remaining high-risk countries (the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Haiti). Three additional countries had 29 percent or more of children who were noncitizens and poverty rates that were greater among native-born non-Hispanic whites (Venezuela, Romania, and Guyana). For children in immigrant families with origins in two of the 12 countries with high poverty rates, 62 or 63 percent were not U.S. citizens or had at least one parent in the home who was not a U.S. citizen; this rose to 73 to 78 percent for five of these countries and 81 to 89 percent for the remaining five countries. The figure was 50 percent or more for 18 of the other 27 countries of origin with child poverty rates at least as high as for native-born non-Hispanic whites (11 percent). Thus, eligibility rules that exclude noncitizens from public benefits and services may have important consequences for children with many different countries of origin.

State of Residence

California accounted for 35 percent of all children in immigrant families in 1990, followed by New York, Texas, Florida, Illinois, and New Jersey, at 12, 11, 7, 5, and 4 percent, respectively, for a total of 74 percent in six states (Figure 2-2). An additional six states had at least 2 percent of children in immigrant families (Arizona, Massachusetts, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Washington). Three less populous states also had comparatively high proportions (higher than the national average of 14 percent) of children in immigrant families (Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Ne-

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

FIGURE 2-2 Percentage of first- and second-generation immigrant children (ages 0 to 17) by state, 1990 (for states ).

vada; Figure 2-3). These 15 states accounted for 84 percent of all children in immigrant families.

SUMMARY

Children generally have been found to be at risk of negative health or educational outcomes if they have family incomes below the poverty threshold, parents with low educational attainments, only one parent in the home, five or more siblings in the home, or overcrowded housing conditions. Children in immigrant families in 1990 were, overall, less likely than children in native-born families to have only one parent in the home, but they were somewhat more likely to live in poverty or in families with many siblings and much more likely to have parents with very

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

FIGURE 2-3 Percentage of total state child population (ages 0 to 17) who are first- or second-generation immigrants, 1990.

low educational attainments (eight years of schooling or less) and to live in overcrowded housing.

Children from 12 countries of origin, however, experienced extremely high risks of living in poverty. Five are the source of many officially recognized refugees (the former Soviet Union, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam); three are war-torn countries in Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua); three are small impoverished Central American or Caribbean countries that are strong sources of unskilled labor migrants (Honduras, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic) for the United

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

States; and the twelfth (Mexico) is the largest source of both legal and illegal unskilled labor migrants. Children in immigrant families from 11 of these 12 countries (excepting only the former Soviet Union) experience very high risks of having parents with less than eight years of schooling, of living in overcrowded housing, and of living in either a one-parent family or a family with many siblings.

Risk levels decline for most of these factors between the first and the second generations for most countries of origin. However, data available for selected countries suggest that for third-and later-generation children with origins in Mexico and the Dominican Republic, and perhaps to a lesser extent for children with origins in Central American countries, the risks of living in poverty with parents who have not graduated from high school, in overcrowded housing conditions, and with only one parent remain quite high. Thus, racial and ethnic stratification may limit the opportunities for children from these countries to assimilate into the mainstream middle class (Lieberson and Waters, 1988; Lalonde and Topel, 1991). These risks for third-and later-generation children from Mexico and the Dominican Republic approach or exceed the high levels experienced by black and American Indian native-born children. In fact, third-and later-generation Mexican-origin children have experienced disadvantaged circumstances at or near the level of black and American Indian children throughout the twentieth century.

It should be remembered, however, that children in immigrant families from about two dozen other countries spread across Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa have poverty rates about equal to or substantially less than the rate of 11 percent for non-Hispanic white children in native-born families, and many experience levels of risk along other dimensions that are less than those for children in native-born families, including non-Hispanic white children.

Children in immigrant families may experience additional risk factors growing out of their immigrant circumstances. Lack of English fluency can limit effective communication and functioning in health care facilities, schools, and other settings that provide resources essential to children and their families. Most children in immigrant families from most countries speak a lan-

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

guage other than English at home, but the vast majority (73 percent) of children in immigrant families speak English exclusively or very well, and language assimilation occurs rapidly across generations, as reflected in the rise from 55 to 81 percent between the first and second generations.

Not being a U.S. citizen became a potentially important risk factor with the passage of federal welfare reform legislation in 1996 for noncoverage by public health and social benefits programs. One-fourth of children in immigrant families in this country are not U.S. citizens, but two-thirds of children in immigrant families are not U.S. citizens or have at least one parent in the home who is not a U.S. citizen. Thus, a large majority of children in immigrant families may be ineligible for important benefits or have parents who are ineligible and who therefore are hesitant to secure benefits on behalf of their children. Moreover, reductions in the benefits available to such families will reduce overall resources within families.

Not only are children in immigrant families from the 12 countries with the highest poverty rates especially likely to experience the socioeconomic risk factors of low parental education, living with one parent or many siblings, and overcrowding, they also often have the highest risk of not speaking English exclusively or very well, of living in a linguistically isolated household, and of not being U.S. citizens or having a parent in the home who is not a U.S. citizen.

The devolution of responsibilities under welfare reform from the federal government to the states also implies that eligibility for and access to publicly funded health and social services may vary greatly across states, making state of residence a potentially important risk factor. Eighty-four percent of children in immigrant families live in 15 states. The largest is California (with 35 percent), followed by New York, Texas, Florida, Illinois, and New Jersey (with 12 to 4 percent each), and Arizona, Massachusetts, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Washington (with 2 percent each). Three additional states have proportions with immigrant children higher than the national average of 14 percent (Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Nevada).

Overall, children in immigrant families experience moderately elevated socioeconomic and demographic risks along a va-

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

riety of dimensions; these risks tend to decline across generations (with the exception of increases in one-parent families). But there are enormous differences among children with various countries of origin. Children in immigrant families from about two dozen countries have moderate to low levels of risk that are often no greater or even smaller than levels experienced by non-Hispanic white children in native-born families.

In striking contrast, children in immigrant families fleeing the former Soviet Union, the war-torn countries of Southeast Asia and Central America, or impoverished countries in Central America and the Caribbean, and Mexico experience highly elevated risks along virtually all of the dimensions reviewed here: poverty, low parental education, families with only one parent or many siblings in the home, lack of English fluency, and not being a U.S. citizen or having a parent in the home who is not a U.S. citizen.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank the Population Studies Center at the University of Michigan for providing access to computing facilities and Public Use Microdata Samples and Integrated Public Use Microdata Samples datasets, without which this research would not have been possible. We are especially indebted to Lisa Neidert for providing invaluable technical assistance in conducting analyses for this study.

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Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
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Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

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×

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Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

APPENDIX 2A

Data Sources. Estimates in this paper were derived from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Samples files for the 1910 and 1960 censuses (Ruggles and Sobek, 1995) and the 1990 census Public Use Microdata Samples 5 percent sample.

Generation. Children ages 0 to 17 were identified as first generation if foreign born, as second generation if native born with at least one foreign-born parent, and as third generation if native born with native-born parents. In 1990 parents' birthplaces could be ascertained only for parents living in the child's home, with the result that some second-generation children were misclassified as third-generation offspring because their parents' status as foreign born was not reported in the decennial census.

Country of Origin. First-generation children were classified by their own country of birth. Second-generation children were classified by their parents' country of birth or, if the parents were foreign born in different countries, by the mother's country of birth. In 1910 the mother tongue of a child or parent(s) was also used to identify certain countries of birth, in accordance with procedures used by Jacobs and Greene (1994). In 1990 the countries of origin for third-and later-generation children were approximated by using the race or Hispanic origin of each child as a proxy for the country of birth, leading to misclassification of family country of origin for some children.

Parental Characteristics. Other than country of birth in 1910 and 1960, parental characteristics (e.g., labor force participation, educational attainments) were available only if the parent was present in the household. Hence, all estimates of father's or mother's characteristics are based on only those children who have the indicated parent in the household.

Poverty. In 1960 poverty was calculated by using the federal government's U.S. poverty definition as of 1980. Poverty years are designated according to the year of data collection, rather than the year during which income was obtained. Thus, in this paper 1990 poverty is reported by the Census Bureau as 1989 poverty from the 1990 decennial census.

Parental Labor Force Participation. Full-time year-round work

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

is defined as 48 or more weeks worked last year and 35 or more hours worked last week.

Siblings. The number of siblings in a child's home is estimated as the number of children ever born to the child's mother. Thus, estimates are available only for children living with their mothers.

Major Limitations to Inferences. Beyond the limitations to inferences cited above in the context of specific variables, it is essential to note that differences between generations may be due to intergenerational assimilation; alternatively, they may be due to changes in the characteristics of immigrants through time. For example, the 1990 poverty rate declined from 27 to 17 percent between the second and the third and later generations of Guatemalan-origin children. If parental educational attainments of Guatemalan immigrants had been constant for 30 years, this decline could be attributed to intergenerational increases in parental educational attainments. But parental educational attainments for first-and second-generation Guatemalan-origin children were much higher in 1960 than in 1990, suggesting that the decline in parental educational attainments between 1960 and 1990 may account for poverty differences between the second and later generations.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

TABLE 2A-1a Social and Economic Risk Factors for First-and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin, for First and Second Generations Combined, and for Third-and Later-Generation Children by Race and Ethnicity: 1990

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in official poverty (percent)

Children in relative poverty (percent)

Children in middle-class comfort (percent)

All First and Second Generations

8,373

22

33

31

All Third and Later Generations

52,685

17

24

39

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

40,201

11

17

42

Black, Non-Hispanic

8,031

40

51

25

Asian, Non-Hispanic

329

10

14

38

American Indian

562

38

51

24

Hispanic

3,489

31

42

31

First and Second Generations by Country of Origin:

Laos

113

51

65

16

Cambodia

64

46

62

19

Dominican Republic

179

42

55

24

USSR

62

36

42

23

Mexico

2,618

35

52

22

Thailand

69

33

42

29

Vietnam

226

31

42

29

Guatemala

101

30

46

24

Honduras

52

29

46

26

El Salvador

203

27

44

26

Nicaragua

74

27

43

28

Haiti

105

26

39

30

Jordan

19

25

35

31

Belize

16

23

31

35

Iraq

20

21

30

39

Ecuador

64

20

31

36

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children very well-off financially (percent)

Children in one-parent families (percent)

Children whose fathers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children whose mothers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children with 5 or more siblings (percent)

Children who live in linguistically isolated households (percent)

All First and Second Generations

19

17

39

42

8

26

All Third and Later Generations

22

26

15

16

4

1

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

26

18

12

12

4

0

Black, Non-Hispanic

9

62

26

29

10

0

Asian, Non-Hispanic

37

25

7

9

6

1

American Indian

7

40

28

29

10

4

Hispanic

11

42

30

35

8

9

First and Second Generations by Country of Origin:

Laos

2

15

54

73

35

60

Cambodia

4

26

57

76

18

60

Dominican Republic

5

48

49

55

5

41

USSR

26

10

20

18

5

46

Mexico

4

19

74

74

14

38

Thailand

16

13

34

56

17

42

Vietnam

13

19

39

54

11

45

Guatemala

7

28

56

61

5

43

Honduras

8

31

42

44

5

34

El Salvador

5

31

61

65

6

46

Nicaragua

8

27

34

40

8

43

Haiti

10

36

38

43

8

34

Jordan

14

7

25

31

13

10

Belize

12

29

29

29

6

4

Iraq

17

5

32

42

10

16

Ecuador

14

24

34

35

3

29

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in official poverty (percent)

Children in relative poverty (percent)

Children in middle-class comfort (percent)

Venezuela

22

20

25

37

Israel

60

19

25

31

Trinidad and Tobago

52

18

28

37

Colombia

117

17

27

37

Pakistan

39

16

23

36

Costa Rica

23

16

26

38

Panama

40

16

25

37

Brazil

31

16

24

39

Romania

26

15

22

32

Spain

27

15

21

39

Lebanon

36

15

23

34

Jamaica

132

15

25

37

Guyana

46

15

22

41

Nigeria

34

15

27

35

China

131

14

24

30

Indonesia

17

14

19

37

Iran

76

14

19

32

Cuba

211

14

22

38

Peru

61

13

25

37

Korea

231

12

19

38

Syria

15

12

21

33

Taiwan

97

11

15

33

Argentina

35

11

19

38

Yugoslavia

44

10

16

42

Hong Kong

56

10

16

33

Chile

21

10

18

37

Australia

18

10

16

32

Austria

21

9

14

41

France

41

9

13

34

Hungary

25

9

14

35

Egypt

29

9

15

36

Germany

258

8

14

40

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children very well-off financially (percent)

Children in one-parent families (percent)

Children whose fathers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children whose mothers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children with 5 or more siblings (percent)

Children who live in linguistically isolated households (percent)

Venezuela

25

12

14

15

2

19

Israel

32

5

16

19

16

12

Trinidad and Tobago

20

37

23

19

5

1

Colombia

16

23

29

30

2

31

Pakistan

27

6

8

18

6

13

Costa Rica

17

19

28

31

3

17

Panama

23

23

12

16

3

7

Brazil

25

14

20

20

3

22

Romania

30

8

25

25

18

21

Spain

27

14

23

26

3

12

Lebanon

24

6

28

29

8

11

Jamaica

21

36

27

22

4

0

Guyana

18

31

25

28

4

1

Nigeria

15

16

2

5

7

4

China

30

9

31

35

2

41

Indonesia

31

8

8

11

3

21

Iran

37

9

6

11

1

18

Cuba

27

21

28

27

2

16

Peru

19

18

18

19

3

25

Korea

26

9

6

18

0

34

Syria

29

4

22

25

4

17

Taiwan

42

10

5

8

1

36

Argentina

29

11

21

20

2

15

Yugoslavia

27

10

30

32

3

11

Hong Kong

37

8

24

29

1

35

Chile

28

15

14

17

3

18

Australia

44

9

8

11

7

1

Austria

38

8

8

8

10

2

France

41

11

9

9

5

6

Hungary

39

9

14

13

9

10

Egypt

39

6

4

8

5

10

Germany

32

11

8

11

3

2

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in official poverty (percent)

Children in relative poverty (percent)

Children in middle-class comfort (percent)

Greece

68

8

16

42

Japan

100

8

12

37

Barbados

15

8

16

47

Poland

80

7

12

45

Turkey

15

7

13

32

Italy

179

6

11

45

Portugal

77

6

11

51

United Kingdom

209

6

10

38

Canada

263

6

11

39

South Africa

15

6

10

25

Netherlands

38

5

11

39

India

175

5

9

35

Philippines

399

5

10

45

Ireland

44

4

7

41

NOTE: Countries are listed from highest to lowest official poverty rate for first and second generations combined.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children very well-off financially (percent)

Children in one parent families (percent)

Children whose fathers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children whose mothers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children with 4 or more siblings (percent)

Children who live in linguistically isolated households (percent)

Greece

25

6

39

32

1

12

Japan

41

7

4

7

1

28

Barbados

21

39

25

21

8

0

Poland

32

10

19

15

1

22

Turkey

38

8

18

18

2

11

Italy

30

6

34

29

2

7

Portugal

22

8

61

58

1

23

United Kingdom

41

10

6

9

3

0

Canada

39

9

10

10

5

1

South Africa

57

5

2

7

1

1

Netherlands

38

7

7

6

6

1

India

47

4

7

12

1

11

Philippines

32

12

8

13

3

9

Ireland

39

8

15

14

4

0

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

TABLE 2A-1b Household and Housing Risk Factors for First-and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin, for First and Second Generations Combined, and for Third-and Later-Generation Children by Race and Ethnicity: 1990

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in households with no car or truck (percent)

All First and Second Generations

8,373

11

All Third and Later Generations

52,685

8

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

40,201

3

Black, Non-Hispanic

8,031

30

Asian, Non-Hispanic

329

4

American Indian

562

14

Hispanic

3,489

17

First and Second Generations by Country of Origin:

Laos

113

17

Cambodia

64

29

Dominican Republic

179

54

USSR

62

23

Mexico

2,618

10

Thailand

69

15

Vietnam

226

13

Guatemala

101

18

Honduras

52

22

El Salvador

203

15

Nicaragua

74

13

Haiti

105

24

Jordan

19

8

Belize

16

19

Iraq

20

4

Ecuador

64

24

Venezuela

22

6

Israel

60

13

Trinidad and Tobago

52

29

Colombia

117

13

Pakistan

39

7

Costa Rica

23

14

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children with no telephone in their homes (percent)

Children living in houses built before 1950 (percent)

Children in crowded homes (percent)

All First and Second Generations

7

24

44

All Third and Later Generations

8

24

12

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

5

23

7

Black, Non-Hispanic

18

27

26

Asian, Non-Hispanic

3

18

21

American Indian

32

17

34

Hispanic

15

25

30

First and Second Generations by Country of Origin:

Laos

4

28

78

Cambodia

4

31

74

Dominican Republic

19

50

52

USSR

2

32

40

Mexico

15

23

69

Thailand

3

24

49

Vietnam

1

19

58

Guatemala

9

33

67

Honduras

9

26

56

El Salvador

8

29

75

Nicaragua

10

24

71

Haiti

10

33

53

Jordan

2

23

31

Belize

7

35

44

Iraq

1

17

34

Ecuador

8

41

43

Venezuela

4

18

30

Israel

1

28

27

Trinidad and Tobago

7

39

30

Colombia

6

27

42

Pakistan

2

17

35

Costa Rica

4

28

33

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in households with no car or truck (percent)

Panama

40

16

Brazil

31

7

Romania

26

8

Spain

27

8

Lebanon

36

4

Jamaica

132

22

Guyana

46

30

Nigeria

34

10

China

131

18

Indonesia

17

4

Iran

76

4

Cuba

211

6

Peru

61

11

Korea

231

3

Syria

15

2

Taiwan

97

3

Argentina

35

6

Yugoslavia

44

6

Hong Kong

56

9

Chile

21

6

Australia

18

5

Austria

21

5

France

41

5

Hungary

25

8

Egypt

29

4

Germany

258

3

Greece

68

4

Japan

100

3

Barbados

15

29

Poland

80

5

Turkey

15

4

Italy

179

4

Portugal

77

4

United Kingdom

209

3

Canada

263

2

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children with no telephone in their homes (percent)

Children living in houses built before 1950 (percent)

Children in crowded homes (percent)

Panama

6

25

25

Brazil

2

24

24

Romania

2

32

31

Spain

3

28

20

Lebanon

2

26

20

Jamaica

5

30

29

Guyana

4

40

36

Nigeria

3

18

50

China

1

33

39

Indonesia

1

16

29

Iran

1

12

21

Cuba

3

17

28

Peru

4

26

36

Korea

1

13

33

Syria

0

20

23

Taiwan

0

11

24

Argentina

2

20

24

Yugoslavia

1

31

16

Hong Kong

1

26

34

Chile

2

21

28

Australia

0

23

9

Austria

0

27

11

France

1

29

11

Hungary

2

26

14

Egypt

1

24

20

Germany

3

22

8

Greece

1

26

9

Japan

1

15

12

Barbados

4

41

22

Poland

1

32

10

Turkey

1

22

16

Italy

1

31

7

Portugal

2

43

14

United Kingdom

2

22

7

Canada

2

20

8

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in households with no car or truck (percent)

South Africa

15

4

Netherlands

38

2

India

175

5

Philippines

399

3

Ireland

44

4

NOTE: Countries are listed from highest to lowest official poverty rate for first and second generations combined.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children with no telephone in their homes (percent)

Children living in houses built before 1950 (percent)

Children in crowded homes (percent)

South Africa

1

20

7

Netherlands

1

23

8

India

1

13

24

Philippines

1

15

38

Ireland

1

38

8

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

TABLE 2A-1c Parents' Labor Force Participation for First-and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin, for First and Second Generations Combined, and for Third-and Later-Generation Children by Race and Ethnicity: 1990

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers not in the labor force (percent)

Children with fathers not working full-time, year-round (percent)

Children with mothers not in the labor force (percent)

All First and Second Generations

8,373

7

31

42

All Third and Later Generations

52,685

5

21

34

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

40,201

4

19

34

Black, Non-Hispanic

8,031

11

34

33

Asian, Non-Hispanic

329

4

18

29

American Indian

562

14

46

40

Hispanic

3,489

8

30

43

First and Second Generations by Country of Origin:

Laos

113

48

68

66

Cambodia

64

41

60

65

Dominican Republic

179

11

38

52

USSR

62

21

54

46

Mexico

2,618

7

38

50

Thailand

69

30

46

53

Vietnam

226

19

42

46

Guatemala

101

5

31

41

Honduras

52

8

37

41

El Salvador

203

5

32

34

Nicaragua

74

5

32

31

Haiti

105

8

36

22

Jordan

19

11

30

68

Belize

16

9

33

31

Iraq

20

10

30

61

Ecuador

64

4

30

39

Venezuela

22

8

28

47

Israel

60

7

26

54

Trinidad and Tobago

52

8

34

25

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers not in the labor force (percent)

Children with fathers not working full-time, year-round (percent)

Children with mother not in the labor force (percent)

Colombia

117

4

28

38

Pakistan

39

4

26

60

Costa Rica

23

8

31

38

Panama

40

6

27

29

Brazil

31

6

28

47

Romania

26

9

26

46

Spain

27

5

26

40

Lebanon

36

9

27

61

Jamaica

132

6

29

17

Guyana

46

6

28

26

Nigeria

34

6

38

26

China

131

5

27

31

Indonesia

17

10

29

41

Iran

76

8

28

46

Cuba

211

4

22

34

Peru

61

4

27

35

Korea

231

6

26

39

Syria

15

8

32

58

Taiwan

97

6

23

40

Argentina

35

3

21

44

Yugoslavia

44

6

26

42

Hong Kong

56

6

21

31

Chile

21

3

19

38

Australia

18

4

16

49

Austria

21

4

19

35

France

41

3

20

43

Hungary

25

5

20

41

Egypt

29

4

23

42

Germany

258

3

18

37

Greece

68

6

26

46

Japan

100

4

20

58

Barbados

15

5

23

20

Poland

80

4

21

34

Turkey

15

4

20

48

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers not in the labor force (percent)

Children with fathers not working full-time, year-round (percent)

Children with mothers not in the labor force (percent)

Italy

179

5

21

47

Portugal

77

5

27

29

United Kingdom

209

3

17

38

Canada

263

3

18

38

South Africa

15

4

17

48

Netherlands

38

2

14

39

India

175

2

19

35

Philippines

399

5

22

18

Ireland

44

4

18

42

NOTE: Countries are listed from highest to lowest official poverty rate for first and second generations combined.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

TABLE 2A-1d Parents' Education for First-and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin, for First and Second Generations Combined, and for Third-and Later-Generation Children by Race and Ethnicity: 1990

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children with mothers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children whose fathers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Children whose mothers have four or more years of college education (percent)

All First and Second Generations

8,373

25

26

24

16

All First and Second Generations

52,685

3

3

26

18

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

40,201

3

2

28

20

Black, Non-Hispanic

8,031

6

4

12

9

Asian, Non-Hispanic

329

1

1

40

31

American Indian

562

8

6

9

7

Hispanic

3,489

9

10

12

7

First and Second Generations by Country of Origin:

Laos

113

41

60

7

3

Cambodia

64

42

60

6

2

Dominican Republic

179

27

30

9

5

USSR

62

8

6

41

36

Mexico

2,618

55

52

4

2

Thailand

69

25

45

24

13

Vietnam

226

21

32

18

8

Guatemala

101

35

38

9

5

Honduras

52

23

24

13

7

El Salvador

203

37

40

6

4

Nicaragua

74

17

17

21

11

Haiti

105

14

17

14

10

Jordan

19

11

12

29

11

Belize

16

10

7

14

7

Iraq

20

13

21

25

16

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children with mothers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children whose fathers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Children whose mothers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Ecuador

64

14

13

18

9

Venezuela

22

6

5

45

28

Israel

60

5

6

41

32

Trinidad and Tobago

52

7

5

18

12

Colombia

117

11

12

22

13

Pakistan

39

3

8

65

41

Costa Rica

23

11

12

20

13

Panama

40

2

3

26

17

Brazil

31

9

10

40

29

Romania

26

9

10

38

31

Spain

27

12

12

29

19

Lebanon

36

14

12

35

21

Jamaica

132

8

5

19

15

Guyana

46

6

8

23

12

Nigeria

34

0

2

80

45

China

131

18

20

39

28

Indonesia

17

2

4

54

34

Iran

76

2

3

68

39

Cuba

211

12

9

25

16

Peru

61

5

6

29

17

Korea

231

2

7

43

28

Syria

15

10

11

41

19

Taiwan

97

3

4

73

52

Argentina

35

9

7

34

25

Yugoslavia

44

18

19

18

14

Hong Kong

56

13

14

43

30

Chile

21

5

5

33

22

Australia

18

3

1

50

33

Austria

21

2

1

45

37

France

41

4

2

49

36

Hungary

25

6

3

39

29

Egypt

29

1

2

67

44

Germany

258

2

2

35

22

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children with mothers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children whose fathers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Children whose mothers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Greece

68

23

19

21

17

Japan

100

2

2

55

32

Barbados

15

8

4

18

14

Poland

80

7

5

30

23

Turkey

15

10

9

41

32

Italy

179

19

16

19

14

Portugal

77

43

39

7

5

United Kingdom

209

1

1

43

26

Canada

263

3

2

40

26

South Africa

15

0

1

68

40

Netherlands

38

2

1

41

26

India

175

2

4

76

59

Philippines

399

3

6

39

46

Ireland

44

5

3

31

19

NOTE: Countries are listed from highest to lowest official poverty rate for first and second generations combined.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

TABLE 2A-1e Children's Language Use and Citizenship for First-and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin, for First and Second Generations Combined, and for Third-and Later-Generation Children by Race and Ethnicity: 1990

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children who do not speak English at home (percent)

All First and Second Generations

8,373

67

All Third and Later Generations

52,685

6

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

40,201

3

Black, Non-Hispanic

8,031

3

Asian, Non-Hispanic

329

8

American Indian

562

18

Hispanic

3,489

43

First and Second Generations by Country of Origin:

Laos

113

96

Cambodia

64

93

Dominican Republic

179

93

USSR

62

84

Mexico

2,618

91

Thailand

69

66

Vietnam

226

87

Guatemala

101

90

Honduras

52

79

El Salvador

203

94

Nicaragua

74

89

Haiti

105

75

Jordan

19

62

Belize

16

18

Iraq

20

69

Ecuador

64

85

Venezuela

22

70

Israel

60

65

Trinidad and Tobago

52

6

Colombia

117

84

Pakistan

39

72

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children who do not speak English exclusively or very well (percent)

Children not U.S. citizens (percent)

Children who are not U.S. citizens, or who have at least 1 parent in the home who is not a citizen (percent)

All First and Second Generations

27

21

65

All Third and Later Generations

2

N/A

N/A

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

1

N/A

N/A

Black, Non-Hispanic

1

N/A

N/A

Asian, Non-Hispanic

3

N/A

N/A

American Indian

7

N/A

N/A

Hispanic

15

N/A

N/A

First and Second Generations by Country of Origin:

Laos

61

39

89

Cambodia

59

42

85

Dominican Republic

39

23

73

USSR

45

51

62

Mexico

40

21

78

Thailand

39

48

75

Vietnam

44

34

63

Guatemala

40

31

81

Honduras

31

29

73

El Salvador

44

34

83

Nicaragua

46

51

83

Haiti

29

22

75

Jordan

11

9

38

Belize

5

16

72

Iraq

11

12

44

Ecuador

24

17

76

Venezuela

23

31

76

Israel

19

18

42

Trinidad and Tobago

1

18

71

Colombia

23

21

70

Pakistan

19

20

55

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children who do not speak English at home (percent)

Costa Rica

23

68

Panama

40

42

Brazil

31

67

Romania

26

73

Spain

27

64

Lebanon

36

71

Jamaica

132

6

Guyana

46

7

Nigeria

34

23

China

131

81

Indonesia

17

41

Iran

76

68

Cuba

211

81

Peru

61

81

Korea

231

65

Syria

15

61

Taiwan

97

80

Argentina

35

69

Yugoslavia

44

61

Hong Kong

56

79

Chile

21

74

Australia

18

13

Austria

21

26

France

41

46

Hungary

25

43

Egypt

29

56

Germany

258

18

Greece

68

70

Japan

100

54

Barbados

15

3

Poland

80

66

Turkey

15

55

Italy

179

37

Portugal

77

75

United Kingdom

209

7

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children who do not speak English exclusively or very well (percent)

Children not U.S. citizens (percent)

Children who are not U.S. citizens, or who have at least 1 parent in the home who is not a citizen (percent)

Coata Rica

18

16

68

Panama

13

12

48

Brazil

25

28

76

Romania

23

33

47

Spain

15

17

65

Lebanon

16

15

40

Jamaica

2

24

66

Guyana

2

31

62

Nigeria

7

12

82

China

36

22

46

Indonesia

18

23

50

Iran

20

28

67

Cuba

18

11

47

Peru

26

26

67

Korea

23

23

55

Syria

15

12

43

Taiwan

28

27

52

Argentina

17

24

60

Yugoslavia

10

9

44

Hong Kong

35

24

39

Chile

17

19

64

Australia

3

18

76

Austria

9

4

29

France

10

15

56

Hungary

13

9

27

Egypt

13

10

34

Germany

4

5

36

Greece

11

3

36

Japan

29

31

73

Barbados

1

17

58

Poland

15

18

54

Turkey

8

15

51

Italy

8

3

39

Portugal

16

14

63

United Kingdom

2

13

64

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children who do not speak English at home (percent)

Canada

263

11

South Africa

15

12

Netherlands

38

13

India

175

63

Philippines

399

35

Ireland

44

5

NOTE: Countries are listed from highest to lowest official poverty rate for first and second generations combined.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children who do not speak English exclusively or very well (percent)

Children not U.S. citizens (percent)

Children who are not U.S. citizens, or who have at least 1 parent in the home who is not a citizen (percent)

Canada

3

11

62

South Africa

3

30

58

Netherlands

3

5

43

India

14

22

68

Philippines

11

15

44

Ireland

1

8

48

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

TABLE 2A-2a Social and Economic Risk Factors for First-and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin for First and Second Generations Separately: 1990

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in official poverty (percent)

Children in relative poverty (percent)

Children in middle-class comfort (percent)

All First-Generation Children

2,084

33

47

24

All Second-Generation Children

6,288

19

29

33

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

40,201

11

17

42

Black, Non-Hispanic

8,031

40

51

25

Asian, Non-Hispanic

329

10

14

38

American Indian

562

38

51

24

Hispanic

3,489

31

42

31

First-and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin:

Laos - 1st Generation

49

51

64

16

Laos - 2nd Generation

64

50

65

15

Cambodia - 1st Generation

30

52

68

14

Cambodia - 2nd Generation

34

41

57

23

Dominican Republic - 1st Generation

48

41

57

21

Dominican Republic - 2nd Generation

131

42

54

25

USSR - 1st Generation

38

51

60

17

USSR - 2nd Generation

24

11

14

32

Mexico - 1st Generation

643

44

63

14

Mexico - 2nd Generation

1,975

32

49

24

Thailand - 1st Generation

36

59

73

12

Thailand - 2nd Generation

33

5

10

46

Vietnam - 1st Generation

99

42

54

23

Vietnam - 2nd Generation

33

23

32

35

Guatemala - 1st Generation

35

36

54

19

Guatemala - 2nd Generation

66

27

42

27

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children very well-off financially (percent)

Children in one-parent families (percent)

Children whose fathers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children whose mothers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children with 5 or more siblings (percent)

Children who live in linguistically isolated households (percent)

All First-Generation Children

11

23

49

54

17

41

All Second-Generation Children

21

15

36

38

9

21

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

26

18

12

12

4

0

Black, Non-Hispanic

9

62

26

29

10

0

Asian, Non-Hispanic

37

25

7

9

6

1

American Indian

7

40

28

29

10

4

Hispanic

11

42

30

35

8

9

First-and Second-Generation Children by County of Origin:

Laos - 1st Generation

1

17

60

75

29

55

Laos - 2nd Generation

2

13

50

72

39

63

Cambodia - 1st Generation

3

27

65

80

19

58

Cambodia - 2nd Generation

6

25

50

73

17

63

Dominian Republic - 1st Generation

2

51

63

65

6

49

Dominican Republic - 2nd Generation

7

47

44

52

4

38

USSR - 1st Generation

14

11

26

23

7

64

USSR - 2nd Generation

45

10

11

10

2

19

Mexico - 1st Generation

2

23

83

85

19

52

Mexico - 2nd Generation

5

18

71

71

12

33

Thailand - 1st Generation

3

16

63

76

33

67

Thailand - 2nd Generation

29

9

6

36

1

15

Vietnam - 1st Generation

7

23

51

64

15

46

Vietnam - 2nd Generation

19

15

30

47

9

44

Guatemala - 1st Generation

3

32

66

73

6

53

Guatemala - 2nd Generation

9

26

52

55

5

38

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in official poverty (percent)

Children in relative poverty (percent)

Children in middle-class comfort (percent)

Honduras - 1st Generation

17

37

59

19

Honduras - 2nd Generation

35

25

40

29

El Salvador - 1st Generation

77

32

50

21

El Salvador - 2nd Generation

126

25

41

29

Nicaragua - 1st Generation

39

36

55

20

Nicaragua - 2nd Generation

35

18

29

37

Haiti - 1st Generation

28

30

49

25

Haiti - 2nd Generation

77

24

36

32

Jordan - 1st Generation

2

47

54

26

Jordan - 2nd Generation

17

22

33

31

Belize - 1st Generation

3

23

39

30

Belize - 2nd Generation

12

23

28

36

Iraq - 1st Generation

4

34

46

34

Iraq - 2nd Generation

17

19

27

40

Ecuador - 1st Generation

12

26

40

30

Ecuador - 2nd Generation

52

19

28

38

Venezuela - 1st Generation

8

33

39

27

Venezuela - 2nd Generation

15

13

18

41

Israel - 1st Generation

13

23

30

35

Israel - 2nd Generation

46

18

24

30

Trinidad and Tobago - 1st Generation

12

30

43

27

Trinidad and Tobago - 2nd Generation

41

14

23

39

Colombia - 1st Generation

29

19

34

33

Colombia - 2nd Generation

88

16

24

39

Pakistan - 1st Generation

11

24

34

32

Pakistan - 2nd Generation

28

13

18

38

Costa Rica - 1st Generation

4

29

40

36

Costa Rica - 2nd Generation

19

14

23

38

Panama - 1st Generation

6

27

39

39

Panama - 2nd Generation

33

15

23

36

Brazil - 1st Generation

9

21

35

33

Brazil - 2nd Generation

21

13

20

42

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children very well-off financially (percent)

Children in one-parent families (percent)

Children whose fathers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children whose mothers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children with 5 or more siblings (percent)

Children who live in linguistically isolated households (percent)

Honduras - 1st Generation

2

41

49

56

8

49

Honduras - 2nd Generation

10

27

39

39

3

26

El Salvador - 1st Generation

3

36

69

75

8

48

El Salvador - 2nd Generation

7

29

57

60

5

45

Nicaragua - 1st Generation

3

30

40

46

11

54

Nicaragua - 2nd Generation

14

24

28

34

5

30

Haiti - 1st Generation

5

39

49

57

10

39

Haiti - 2nd Generation

12

35

35

38

8

32

Jordan - 1st Generation

8

16

36

40

11

23

Jordan - 2nd Generation

15

6

24

30

13

8

Belize - 1st Generation

11

34

40

42

6

10

Belize - 2nd Generation

13

27

26

26

6

3

Iraq - 1st Generation

10

6

46

59

14

14

Iraq - 2nd Generation

18

5

29

38

9

16

Ecuador - 1st Generation

7

32

43

49

4

42

Ecuador - 2nd Generation

16

22

32

32

3

26

Venezuela - 1st Generation

15

19

21

23

2

36

Venezuela - 2nd Generation

30

9

10

12

2

10

Israel - 1st Generation

23

7

15

17

12

22

Israel - 2nd Generation

35

5

17

20

18

9

Trinidad and Tobago - 1st Generation

10

46

37

33

4

2

Trinidad and Tobago - 2nd Generation

23

35

20

16

5

0

Columbia - 1st Generation

9

32

34

42

3

44

Colombia - 2nd Generation

18

21

27

27

1

27

Pakistan - 1st Generation

13

10

10

20

6

21

Pakistan - 2nd Generation

32

4

7

17

6

10

Costa Rica - 1st Generation

6

26

41

36

5

34

Costa Rica - 2nd Generation

20

17

26

30

2

14

Panama - 1st Generation

9

34

15

22

3

19

Panama - 2nd Generation

26

21

11

14

2

5

Brazil - 1st Generation

16

19

24

23

2

45

Brazil - 2nd Generation

29

12

18

19

4

11

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in official poverty (percent)

Children in relative poverty (percent)

Children in middle-class comfort (percent)

Romania - 1st Generation

11

18

27

33

Romania - 2nd Generation

15

13

18

31

Spain - 1st Generation

6

37

47

28

Spain - 2nd Generation

22

9

15

42

Lebanon - 1st Generation

8

25

39

22

Lebanon - 2nd Generation

28

12

18

37

Jamaica - 1st Generation

40

18

30

36

Jamaica - 2nd Generation

92

14

23

37

Guyana - 1st Generation

18

18

28

38

Guyana - 2nd Generation

28

13

19

43

Nigeria - 1st Generation

5

28

37

29

Nigeria - 2nd Generation

29

13

25

36

China - 1st Generation

34

25

42

28

China - 2nd Generation

97

10

18

30

Indonesia - 1st Generation

4

45

50

22

Indonesia - 2nd Generation

13

4

9

43

Iran - 1st Generation

24

27

34

29

Iran - 2nd Generation

52

8

12

33

Cuba - 1st Generation

27

27

40

30

Cuba - 2nd Generation

184

13

19

39

Peru - 1st Generation

18

22

39

27

Peru - 2nd Generation

43

10

19

41

Korea - 1st Generation

67

20

29

33

Korea - 2nd Generation

163

9

15

40

Syria - 1st Generation

2

28

41

41

Syria - 2nd Generation

13

9

18

31

Taiwan - 1st Generation

32

19

26

35

Taiwan - 2nd Generation

65

7

10

31

Argentina - 1st Generation

10

18

32

30

Argentina - 2nd Generation

26

9

14

41

Yugoslavia - 1st Generation

5

12

19

44

Yugoslavia - 2nd Generation

39

10

15

42

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children very well-off financially (percent)

Children in one-parent families (percent)

Children whose fathers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children whose mothers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children with 5 or more siblings (percent)

Children who live in linguistically isolated households (percent)

Romania - 1st Generation

21

9

32

32

19

34

Romania - 2nd Generation

36

7

21

21

17

13

Spain - 1st Generation

12

19

43

43

3

29

Spain - 2nd Generation

31

12

20

23

3

8

Lebanon - 1st Generation

18

11

47

47

8

21

Lebanon - 2nd Generation

26

5

23

24

8

9

Jamaica - 1st Generation

13

44

37

31

5

0

Jamaica - 2nd Generation

25

33

24

18

4

0

Guyana - 1st Generation

10

36

38

40

5

2

Guyana - 2nd Generation

23

28

17

21

4

1

Nigeria - 1st Generation

7

22

4

8

16

7

Nigeria - 2nd Generation

16

15

2

5

6

4

China - 1st Generation

9

10

45

53

3

59

China - 2nd Generation

37

9

26

28

1

35

Indonesia - 1st Generation

12

15

20

29

3

48

Indonesia - 2nd Generation

38

6

5

6

3

11

Iran - 1st Generation

24

14

13

19

1

34

Iran - 2nd Generation

43

6

3

7

1

10

Cuba - 1st Generation

9

25

60

60

2

39

Cuba - 2nd Generation

29

21

24

22

2

13

Peru - 1st Generation

12

21

19

23

3

42

Peru - 2nd Generation

22

16

18

18

2

19

Korea - 1st Generation

19

11

12

18

0

48

Korea - 2nd Generation

29

9

4

18

0

28

Syria - 1st Generation

4

5

32

39

4

40

Syria - 2nd Generation

34

4

20

22

4

12

Taiwan - 1st Generation

24

17

9

13

1

47

Taiwan - 2nd Generation

51

6

3

6

1

31

Argentina - 1st Generation

18

13

32

32

1

32

Argentina - 2nd Generation

33

10

17

15

3

9

Yugoslavia - 1st Generation

19

11

31

35

3

27

Yugoslavia - 2nd Generation

28

10

30

31

3

9

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in official poverty (percent)

Children in relative poverty (percent)

Children in middle-class comfort (percent)

Hong Kong - 1st Generation

17

26

35

31

Hong Kong - 2nd Generation

39

3

8

35

Chile - 1st Generation

5

19

28

33

Chile - 2nd Generation

17

8

15

38

Australia - 1st Generation

3

13

17

27

Australia - 2nd Generation

14

10

16

33

Austria - 1st Generation

1

33

42

30

Austria - 2nd Generation

20

7

12

42

France - 1st Generation

7

11

14

30

France - 2nd Generation

34

8

13

35

Hungary - 1st Generation

3

17

20

33

Hungary - 2nd Generation

22

8

13

35

Egypt - 1st Generation

5

20

29

42

Egypt - 2nd Generation

25

7

12

35

Germany - 1st Generation

16

25

32

31

Germany - 2nd Generation

243

7

12

41

Greece - 1st Generation

3

16

24

44

Greece - 2nd Generation

65

8

15

42

Japan - 1st Generation

32

11

13

26

Japan - 2nd Generation

68

6

11

41

Barbados - 1st Generation

3

6

25

36

Barbados - 2nd Generation

11

8

14

51

Poland - 1st Generation

18

14

22

42

Poland - 2nd Generation

62

5

9

45

Turkey - 1st Generation

3

11

23

20

Turkey - 2nd Generation

12

6

11

35

Italy - 1st Generation

8

14

20

36

Italy - 2nd Generation

171

6

11

45

Portugal - 1st Generation

14

11

17

50

Portugal - 2nd Generation

64

5

10

51

United Kingdom - 1st Generation

31

10

13

31

United Kingdom - 2nd Generation

178

5

9

39

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children very well-off financially (percent)

Children in one-parent families (percent)

Children whose fathers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children whose mothers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children with 5 or more siblings (percent)

Children who live in linguistically isolated households (percent)

Hong Kong - 1st Generation

14

15

49

57

3

54

Hong Kong - 2nd Generation

47

5

14

17

1

26

Chile - 1st Generation

17

18

21

28

0

37

Chile - 2nd Generation

31

14

13

14

4

12

Australia - 1st Generation

45

11

9

14

2

3

Australia - 2nd Generation

43

9

8

10

9

1

Austria - 1st Generation

13

18

23

26

16

24

Austria - 2nd Generation

40

7

7

7

10

0

France - 1st Generation

48

11

10

14

1

24

France - 2nd Generation

39

11

9

9

5

3

Hungary - 1st Generation

26

8

18

21

13

37

Hungary - 2nd Generation

41

9

14

12

8

6

Egypt - 1st Generation

19

12

5

10

4

27

Egypt - 2nd Generation

43

5

4

8

5

7

Germany - 1st Generation

25

22

10

18

4

11

Germany - 2nd Generation

33

11

8

10

3

1

Greece - 1st Generation

17

10

45

51

0

33

Greece - 2nd Generation

26

6

39

31

1

11

Japan - 1st Generation

52

3

3

4

1

63

Japan - 2nd Generation

36

9

5

8

1

12

Barbados - 1st Generation

13

54

33

35

7

0

Barbados - 2nd Generation

24

35

24

17

8

0

Poland - 1st Generation

23

15

18

15

1

44

Poland - 2nd Generation

35

8

19

15

1

16

Turkey - 1st Generation

36

4

18

23

0

16

Turkey - 2nd Generation

38

9

18

17

2

9

Italy - 1st Generation

25

10

45

48

4

23

Italy - 2nd Generation

30

6

34

28

2

6

Portugal - 1st Generation

14

12

82

83

2

37

Portugal - 2nd Generation

24

7

56

53

1

20

United Kingdom - 1st Generation

45

16

8

15

1

2

United Kingdom - 2nd Generation

41

9

6

8

3

0

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in official poverty (percent)

Children in relative poverty (percent)

Children in middle-class comfort (percent)

Canada - 1st Generation

33

9

14

31

Canada - 2nd Generation

230

6

11

40

South Africa - 1st Generation

5

7

11

23

South Africa - 2nd Generation

10

6

9

27

Netherlands - 1st Generation

2

14

19

24

Netherlands - 2nd Generation

36

5

11

40

India - 1st Generation

45

10

17

39

India - 2nd Generation

130

3

6

33

Philippines - 1st Generation

83

9

15

48

Philippines - 2nd Generation

316

4

8

44

Ireland - 1st Generation

4

12

14

38

Ireland - 2nd Generation

40

4

7

42

NOTE: Countries are listed from highest to lowest official poverty rate for first and second generations combined.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children very well-off financially (percent)

Children in one-parent families (percent)

Children whose fathers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children whose mothers have less than a high school education (percent)

Children with 5 or more siblings (percent)

Children who live in linguistically isolated households (percent)

Canada - 1st Generation

47

12

11

13

2

5

Canada - 2nd Generation

38

8

11

10

5

1

South Africa - 1st Generation

58

7

1

6

1

2

South Africa - 2nd Generation

56

5

2

8

1

0

Netherlands - 1st Generation

42

18

5

7

3

3

Netherlands - 2nd Generation

38

7

7

6

6

1

India - 1st Generation

27

13

5

23

1

18

India - 2nd Generation

53

5

95

8

1

9

Philippines - 1st Generation

20

12

88

15

6

16

Philippines - 2nd Generation

35

7

93

13

2

7

Ireland - 1st Generation

26

24

76

23

7

3

Ireland - 2nd Generation

41

14

86

13

4

0

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

TABLE 2A-2b Household and Housing Risk Factors for First- and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin for First and Second Generations Separately: 1990

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in households with no car or truck (percent)

All First-Generation Children

2,084

17

All Second-Generation Children

6,288

9

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

40,201

3

Black, Non-Hispanic

8,031

30

Asian, Non-Hispanic

329

4

American Indian

562

14

Hispanic

3,489

17

First-and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin:

Laos - 1st Generation

49

18

Laos - 2nd Generation

64

17

Cambodia - 1st Generation

30

32

Cambodia - 2nd Generation

34

27

Dominican Republic - 1st Generation

48

60

Dominican Republic - 2nd Generation

131

51

USSR - 1st Generation

38

32

USSR - 2nd Generation

24

8

Mexico - 1st Generation

643

15

Mexico - 2nd Generation

1,975

8

Thailand - 1st Generation

36

27

Thailand - 2nd Generation

33

2

Vietnam - 1st Generation

99

18

Vietnam - 2nd Generation

33

10

Guatemala - 1st Generation

35

20

Guatemala - 2nd Generation

66

17

Honduras - 1st Generation

17

26

Honduras - 2nd Generation

35

21

El Salvador - 1st Generation

77

16

El Salvador - 2nd Generation

126

15

Nicaragua - 1st Generation

39

17

Nicaragua - 2nd Generation

35

8

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children with no telephone in their homes (percent)

Children living in houses built before 1950 (percent)

Children in crowded homes (percent)

All First-Generation Children

10

26

62

All Second-Generation Children

6

24

38

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

5

23

7

Black, Non-Hispanic

18

27

26

Asian, Non-Hispanic

3

18

21

American Indian

32

17

34

Hispanic

15

25

30

First- and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin:

Laos - 1st Generation

4

29

78

Laos - 2nd Generation

4

27

79

Cambodia - 1st Generation

5

31

76

Cambodia - 2nd Generation

4

30

73

Dominican Republic - 1st Generation

22

49

63

Dominican Republic - 2nd Generation

18

51

48

USSR - 1st Generation

3

35

54

USSR - 2nd Generation

0

28

17

Mexico - 1st Generation

21

24

83

Mexico - 2nd Generation

13

23

64

Thailand - 1st Generation

4

34

79

Thailand - 2nd Generation

1

14

16

Vietnam - 1st Generation

2

21

67

Vietnam - 2nd Generation

1

17

50

Guatemala - 1st Generation

10

32

79

Guatemala - 2nd Generation

8

34

61

Honduras - 1st Generation

12

27

71

Honduras - 2nd Generation

8

25

49

El Salvador - 1st Generation

8

28

82

El Salvador - 2nd Generation

7

30

71

Nicaragua - 1st Generation

13

25

84

Nicaragua - 2nd Generation

6

22

57

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in households with no car or truck (percent)

Haiti - 1st Generation

28

30

Haiti - 2nd Generation

77

21

Jordan - 1st Generation

2

15

Jordan - 2nd Generation

17

7

Belize - 1st Generation

3

33

Belize - 2nd Generation

12

16

Iraq - 1st Generation

4

10

Iraq - 2nd Generation

17

3

Ecuador - 1st Generation

12

34

Ecuador - 2nd Generation

52

22

Venezuela - 1st Generation

8

11

Venezuela - 2nd Generation

15

4

Israel - 1st Generation

13

11

Israel - 2nd Generation

46

13

Trinidad and Tobago - 1st Generation

12

40

Trinidad and Tobago - 2nd Generation

41

25

Colombia - 1st Generation

29

17

Colombia - 2nd Generation

88

11

Pakistan - 1st Generation

11

10

Pakistan - 2nd Generation

28

6

Costa Rica - 1st Generation

4

18

Costa Rica - 2nd Generation

19

13

Panama - 1st Generation

6

25

Panama - 2nd Generation

33

15

Brazil - 1st Generation

9

10

Brazil - 2nd Generation

21

6

Romania - 1st Generation

11

10

Romania - 2nd Generation

15

7

Spain - 1st Generation

6

10

Spain - 2nd Generation

22

7

Lebanon - 1st Generation

8

9

Lebanon - 2nd Generation

28

3

Jamaica - 1st Generation

40

29

Jamaica - 2nd Generation

92

19

Guyana - 1st Generation

18

42

Guyana - 2nd Generation

28

23

Nigeria - 1st Generation

5

19

Nigeria - 2nd Generation

29

9

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children with no telephone in their homes (percent)

Children living in houses built before 1950 (percent)

Children in crowded homes (percent)

Haiti - 1st Generation

13

34

68

Haiti - 2nd Generation

9

33

47

Jordan - 1st Generation

9

15

46

Jordan - 2nd Generation

1

24

29

Belize - 1st Generation

7

35

59

Belize - 2nd Generation

6

35

40

Iraq - 1st Generation

3

31

47

Iraq - 2nd Generation

1

14

31

Ecuador - 1st Generation

11

46

60

Ecuador - 2nd Generation

7

40

39

Venezuela - 1st Generation

4

21

50

Venezuela - 2nd Generation

5

16

20

Israel - 1st Generation

2

25

32

Israel - 2nd Generation

1

29

26

Trinidad and Tobago - 1st Generation

9

45

43

Trinidad and Tobago - 2nd Generation

6

37

26

Colombia - 1st Generation

9

29

59

Colombia - 2nd Generation

5

26

36

Pakistan - 1st Generation

2

20

49

Pakistan - 2nd Generation

2

16

29

Costa Rica - 1st Generation

11

22

52

Costa Rica - 2nd Generation

3

30

28

Panama - 1st Generation

3

28

46

Panama - 2nd Generation

7

25

22

Brazil - 1st Generation

2

24

38

Brazil - 2nd Generation

3

25

18

Romania - 1st Generation

5

37

41

Romania - 2nd Generation

0

29

23

Spain - 1st Generation

4

31

31

Spain - 2nd Generation

3

27

17

Lebanon - 1st Generation

1

32

34

Lebanon - 2nd Generation

2

24

16

Jamaica - 1st Generation

5

33

39

Jamaica - 2nd Generation

5

28

25

Guyana - 1st Generation

3

46

49

Guyana - 2nd Generation

5

36

28

Nigeria - 1st Generation

4

18

62

Nigeria - 2nd Generation

3

18

48

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in households with no car or truck (percent)

China - 1st Generation

34

36

China - 2nd Generation

97

12

Indonesia - 1st Generation

4

11

Indonesia - 2nd Generation

13

2

Iran - 1st Generation

24

8

Iran - 2nd Generation

52

3

Cuba - 1st Generation

27

12

Cuba - 2nd Generation

184

6

Peru - 1st Generation

18

13

Peru - 2nd Generation

43

10

Korea - 1st Generation

67

5

Korea - 2nd Generation

163

2

Syria - 1st Generation

2

6

Syria - 2nd Generation

13

2

Taiwan - 1st Generation

32

4

Taiwan - 2nd Generation

65

2

Argentina - 1st Generation

10

6

Argentina - 2nd Generation

26

6

Yugoslavia - 1st Generation

5

13

Yugoslavia - 2nd Generation

39

5

Hong Kong - 1st Generation

17

19

Hong Kong - 2nd Generation

39

5

Chile - 1st Generation

5

8

Chile - 2nd Generation

17

5

Australia - 1st Generation

3

6

Australia - 2nd Generation

14

5

Austria - 1st Generation

1

20

Austria - 2nd Generation

20

4

France - 1st Generation

7

5

France - 2nd Generation

34

5

Hungary - 1st Generation

3

16

Hungary - 2nd Generation

22

7

Egypt - 1st Generation

5

7

Egypt - 2nd Generation

25

3

Germany - 1st Generation

16

5

Germany - 2nd Generation

243

3

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children with no telephone in their homes (percent)

Children living in houses built before 1950 (percent)

Children in crowded homes (percent)

China - 1st Generation

2

41

59

China - 2nd Generation

1

30

32

Indonesia - 1st Generation

2

11

53

Indonesia - 2nd Generation

1

17

21

Iran - 1st Generation

1

13

38

Iran - 2nd Generation

1

12

14

Cuba - 1st Generation

4

18

48

Cuba - 2nd Generation

3

17

25

Peru - 1st Generation

4

26

53

Peru - 2nd Generation

4

27

29

Korea - 1st Generation

1

15

49

Korea - 2nd Generation

1

12

27

Syria - 1st Generation

0

25

42

Syria - 2nd Generation

0

19

19

Taiwan - 1st Generation

0

13

34

Taiwan - 2nd Generation

0

10

19

Argentina - 1st Generation

3

15

35

Argentina - 2nd Generation

2

22

20

Yugoslavia - 1st Generation

4

39

38

Yugoslavia - 2nd Generation

1

30

14

Hong Kong - 1st Generation

1

33

57

Hong Kong - 2nd Generation

0

23

24

Chile - 1st Generation

3

27

37

Chile - 2nd Generation

1

19

26

Australia - 1st Generation

1

17

9

Australia - 2nd Generation

0

24

9

Austria - 1st Generation

0

29

35

Austria - 2nd Generation

0

27

10

France - 1st Generation

2

21

11

France - 2nd Generation

1

30

11

Hungary - 1st Generation

2

27

33

Hungary - 2nd Generation

2

25

12

Egypt - 1st Generation

2

24

35

Egypt - 2nd Generation

1

24

17

Germany - 1st Generation

3

19

17

Germany - 2nd Generation

3

22

7

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children in households with no car or truck (percent)

Greece - 1st Generation

3

7

Greece - 2nd Generation

65

3

Japan - 1st Generation

32

2

Japan - 2nd Generation

68

3

Barbados - 1st Generation

3

38

Barbados - 2nd Generation

11

26

Poland - 1st Generation

18

9

Poland - 2nd Generation

62

4

Turkey - 1st Generation

3

6

Turkey - 2nd Generation

12

4

Italy - 1st Generation

8

13

Italy - 2nd Generation

171

3

Portugal - 1st Generation

14

9

Portugal - 2nd Generation

64

3

United Kingdom - 1st Generation

31

5

United Kingdom - 2nd Generation

178

3

Canada - 1st Generation

33

3

Canada - 2nd Generation

230

2

South Africa - 1st Generation

5

2

South Africa - 2nd Generation

10

5

Netherlands - 1st Generation

2

7

Netherlands - 2nd Generation

36

1

India - 1st Generation

45

11

India - 2nd Generation

130

3

Philippines - 1st Generation

83

5

Philippines - 2nd Generation

316

2

Ireland - 1st Generation

4

7

Ireland - 2nd Generation

40

4

NOTE: Countries are listed from highest to lowest official poverty rate for first and second generations combined.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children with no telephone in their homes (percent)

Children living in houses built before 1950 (percent)

Children in crowded homes (percent)

Greece - 1st Generation

2

36

15

Greece - 2nd Generation

1

26

9

Japan - 1st Generation

0

13

14

Japan - 2nd Generation

2

16

12

Barbados - 1st Generation

3

65

39

Barbados - 2nd Generation

4

34

16

Poland - 1st Generation

1

38

19

Poland - 2nd Generation

1

30

8

Turkey - 1st Generation

1

25

20

Turkey - 2nd Generation

2

22

16

Italy - 1st Generation

3

35

18

Italy - 2nd Generation

1

31

6

Portugal - 1st Generation

2

53

23

Portugal - 2nd Generation

1

41

12

United Kingdom - 1st Generation

1

17

11

United Kingdom - 2nd Generation

2

23

7

Canada - 1st Generation

1

13

12

Canada - 2nd Generation

2

21

7

South Africa - 1st Generation

0

14

10

South Africa - 2nd Generation

1

23

6

Netherlands - 1st Generation

1

11

9

Netherlands - 2nd Generation

1

23

8

India - 1st Generation

1

20

42

India - 2nd Generation

0

11

18

Philippines - 1st Generation

1

20

58

Philippines - 2nd Generation

1

14

33

Ireland - 1st Generation

3

29

15

Ireland - 2nd Generation

1

39

7

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

TABLE 2A-2c Parents' Labor Force Participation for First- and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin for First and Second Generations Separately: 1990

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers not in the labor force (percent)

Children with fathers not working full-time, year-round (percent)

Children with mothers not in the labor force (percent)

All First-Generation Children

2,084

12

41

45

All Second-Generation Children

6,288

6

28

41

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

40,201

4

19

34

Black, Non-Hispanic

8,031

11

34

33

Asian, Non-Hispanic

329

4

18

29

American Indian

562

14

46

40

Hispanic

3,489

8

30

43

First- and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin:

Laos - 1st Generation

49

51

68

64

Laos - 2nd Generation

64

46

68

67

Cambodia - 1st Generation

30

51

69

70

Cambodia - 2nd Generation

34

34

53

62

Dominican Republic - 1st Generation

48

12

40

45

Dominican Republic - 2nd Generation

131

10

38

54

USSR - 1st Generation

38

31

75

53

USSR - 2nd Generation

24

5

21

34

Mexico - 1st Generation

643

7

43

50

Mexico - 2nd Generation

1,975

7

37

50

Thailand - 1st Generation

36

58

73

74

Thailand - 2nd Generation

33

4

21

32

Vietnam - 1st Generation

99

30

57

52

Vietnam - 2nd Generation

33

11

33

42

Guatemala - 1st Generation

35

6

32

36

Guatemala - 2nd Generation

66

5

31

44

Honduras - 1st Generation

17

10

42

38

Honduras - 2nd Generation

35

8

35

43

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers not in the labor force (percent)

Children with fathers not working full-time, year-round (percent)

Children with mothers not in the labor force (percent)

El Salvador - 1st Generation

77

3

35

30

El Salvador - 2nd Generation

126

5

31

36

Nicaragua - 1st Generation

39

6

38

25

Nicaragua - 2nd Generation

35

4

26

37

Haiti - 1st Generation

28

10

43

21

Haiti - 2nd Generation

77

7

33

22

Jordan - 1st Generation

2

26

60

65

Jordan - 2nd Generation

17

9

27

68

Belize - 1st Generation

3

11

44

29

Belize - 2nd Generation

12

8

30

32

Iraq - 1st Generation

4

21

43

59

Iraq - 2nd Generation

17

8

28

61

Ecuador - 1st Generation

12

6

40

31

Ecuador - 2nd Generation

52

4

28

41

Venezuela - 1st Generation

8

14

38

54

Venezuela - 2nd Generation

15

5

24

44

Israel - 1st Generation

13

13

34

55

Israel - 2nd Generation

46

5

24

54

Trinidad and Tobago - 1st Generation

12

13

49

24

Trinidad and Tobago - 2nd Generation

41

6

30

25

Colombia - 1st Generation

29

5

35

34

Colombia - 2nd Generation

88

4

26

40

Pakistan - 1st Generation

11

9

35

63

Pakistan - 2nd Generation

28

3

23

59

Costa Rica - 1st Generation

4

15

43

47

Costa Rica - 2nd Generation

19

7

29

36

Panama - 1st Generation

6

8

32

34

Panama - 2nd Generation

33

6

26

28

Brazil - 1st Generation

9

8

36

46

Brazil - 2nd Generation

21

5

25

48

Romania - 1st Generation

11

12

33

45

Romania - 2nd Generation

15

6

22

47

Spain - 1st Generation

6

7

48

42

Spain - 2nd Generation

22

4

21

40

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers not in the labor force (percent)

Children with fathers not working full-time, year-round (percent)

Children with mothers not in the labor force (percent)

Lebanon - 1st Generation

8

12

40

63

Lebanon - 2nd Generation

28

8

24

60

Jamaica - 1st Generation

40

5

32

12

Jamaica - 2nd Generation

92

6

28

19

Guyana - 1st Generation

18

4

30

24

Guyana - 2nd Generation

28

6

27

27

Nigeria - 1st Generation

5

7

51

30

Nigeria - 2nd Generation

29

6

36

25

China - 1st Generation

34

9

41

27

China - 2nd Generation

97

4

22

32

Indonesia - 1st Generation

4

34

63

59

Indonesia - 2nd Generation

13

4

20

35

Iran - 1st Generation

24

17

45

50

Iran - 2nd Generation

52

5

21

44

Cuba - 1st Generation

27

7

37

37

Cuba - 2nd Generation

184

4

20

34

Peru - 1st Generation

18

4

34

31

Peru - 2nd Generation

43

4

25

36

Korea - 1st Generation

67

9

38

37

Korea - 2nd Generation

163

5

22

39

Syria - 1st Generation

2

13

51

62

Syria - 2nd Generation

13

7

29

57

Taiwan - 1st Generation

32

13

36

43

Taiwan - 2nd Generation

65

4

18

39

Argentina - 1st Generation

10

6

28

41

Argentina - 2nd Generation

26

2

19

45

Yugoslavia - 1st Generation

5

4

32

42

Yugoslavia - 2nd Generation

39

6

26

42

Hong Kong - 1st Generation

17

13

41

33

Hong Kong - 2nd Generation

39

3

13

30

Chile - 1st Generation

5

4

28

42

Chile - 2nd Generation

17

3

16

36

Australia - 1st Generation

3

7

17

74

Australia - 2nd Generation

14

3

16

43

Austria - 1st Generation

1

11

32

64

Austria - 2nd Generation

20

4

18

33

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers not in the labor force (percent)

Children with fathers not working full-time, year-round (percent)

Children with mothers not in the labor force (percent)

France - 1st Generation

7

4

18

57

France - 2nd Generation

34

3

20

40

Hungary - 1st Generation

3

5

26

46

Hungary - 2nd Generation

22

5

19

40

Egypt - 1st Generation

5

7

32

42

Egypt - 2nd Generation

25

3

22

43

Germany - 1st Generation

16

6

22

52

Germany - 2nd Generation

243

3

18

36

Greece - 1st Generation

3

7

35

51

Greece - 2nd Generation

65

6

26

46

Japan - 1st Generation

32

5

22

90

Japan - 2nd Generation

68

3

19

43

Barbados - 1st Generation

3

1

28

14

Barbados - 2nd Generation

11

6

22

22

Poland - 1st Generation

18

4

26

31

Poland - 2nd Generation

62

4

19

35

Turkey - 1st Generation

3

11

23

52

Turkey - 2nd Generation

12

2

20

47

Italy - 1st Generation

8

6

30

55

Italy - 2nd Generation

171

5

21

47

Portugal - 1st Generation

14

5

37

31

Portugal - 2nd Generation

64

6

25

28

United Kingdom - 1st Generation

31

3

15

51

United Kingdom - 2nd Generation

178

3

17

36

Canada - 1st Generation

33

4

19

46

Canada - 2nd Generation

230

3

18

37

South Africa - 1st Generation

5

6

19

50

South Africa - 2nd Generation

10

2

15

46

Netherlands - 1st Generation

2

3

16

48

Netherlands - 2nd Generation

36

2

14

39

India - 1st Generation

45

4

27

31

India - 2nd Generation

130

2

16

37

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers not in the labor force (percent)

Children with fathers not working full-time, year-round (percent)

Children with mothers not in the labor force (percent)

Philippines - 1st Generation

83

7

29

18

Philippines - 2nd Generation

316

5

20

18

Ireland - 1st Generation

4

5

29

56

Ireland - 2nd Generation

40

4

17

41

NOTE: Countries are listed from highest to lowest official poverty rate for first and second generations combined.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

TABLE 2A-2d Parents' Education for First-and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin for First and Second Generations Separately: 1990

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children with mothers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children whose fathers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Children whose mothers have four or more years of college education (percent)

All First-Generation Children

2,084

34

38

23

14

All Second-Generation Children

6,288

23

22

25

17

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

40,201

3

2

28

20

Black, Non-Hispanic

8,031

6

4

12

9

Asian, Non-Hispanic

329

I

1

40

31

American Indian

562

8

6

9

7

Hispanic

3,489

9

10

12

7

First- and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin:

Laos - 1st Generation

49

48

66

8

6

Laos - 2nd Generation

64

36

56

7

2

Cambodia - 1st Generation

30

51

68

3

2

Cambodia - 2nd Generation

34

35

53

9

2

Dominican Republic - 1st Generation

48

42

43

8

4

Dominican Republic - 2nd Generation

131

22

25

10

6

USSR - 1st Generation

38

11

8

36

32

USSR - 2nd Generation

24

4

3

49

41

Mexico - 1st Generation

643

67

69

3

2

Mexico - 2nd Generation

1,975

51

48

4

3

Thailand - 1st Generation

36

50

68

8

4

Thailand - 2nd Generation

33

2

21

39

21

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children with mothers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children whose fathers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Children whose mothers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Vietnam - 1st Generation

99

32

44

11

5

Vietnam - 2nd Generation

33

14

23

22

9

Guatemala - 1st Generation

35

45

52

7

3

Guatemala - 2nd Generation

66

30

32

10

6

Honduras - 1st Generation

17

33

36

13

6

Honduras - 2nd Generation

35

19

19

13

8

El Salvador - 1st Generation

77

47

51

5

3

El Salvador - 2nd Generation

126

33

35

7

4

Nicaragua - 1st Generation

39

22

23

23

11

Nicaragua - 2nd Generation

35

11

12

19

11

Haiti - 1st Generation

28

19

23

7

4

Haiti - 2nd Generation

77

13

15

17

12

Jordan - 1st Generation

2

14

17

31

11

Jordan - 2nd Generation

17

11

11

29

11

Belize - 1st Generation

3

20

14

7

7

Belize - 2nd Generation

12

8

5

16

7

Iraq - 1st Generation

4

21

41

23

9

Iraq - 2nd Gene ration

17

12

17

25

17

Ecuador - 1st Generation

12

22

20

16

9

Ecuador - 2nd Generation

52

12

12

18

9

Venezuela - 1st Generation

8

11

11

45

25

Venezuela - 2nd Generation

15

4

3

45

30

Israel - 1st Generation

13

5

6

50

34

Israel - 2nd Generation

46

5

6

38

32

Trinidad and Tobago - 1st Generation

12

15

12

13

6

Trinidad and Tobago - 2nd Generation

41

5

4

19

13

Colombia - 1st Generation

29

15

19

20

12

Colombia - 2nd Generation

88

10

9

22

13

Pakistan - 1st Generation

11

2

12

57

38

Pakistan - 2nd Generation

28

3

7

68

41

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children with mothers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children whose fathers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Children whose mothers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Costa Rica - 1st Generation

4

16

21

18

10

Costa Rica - 2nd Generation

19

10

10

20

13

Panama - 1st Generation

6

2

8

24

10

Panama - 2nd Generation

33

2

3

26

18

Brazil - 1st Generation

9

11

13

44

31

Brazil - 2nd Generation

21

9

9

38

28

Romania - 1st Generation

11

13

18

34

28

Romania - 2nd Generation

15

7

5

42

34

Spain - 1st Generation

6

30

28

28

15

Spain - 2nd Generation

22

8

8

30

19

Lebanon - 1st Generation

8

28

23

18

11

Lebanon - 2nd Generation

28

10

9

40

24

Jamaica - 1st Generation

40

12

8

14

9

Jamaica - 2nd Generation

92

7

4

21

18

Guyana - 1st Generation

18

12

13

14

4

Guyana - 2nd Generation

28

3

5

27

16

Nigeria - 1st Generation

5

0

4

77

41

Nigeria - 2nd Generation

29

0

1

80

46

China - 1st Generation

34

30

35

28

17

China - 2nd Generation

97

13

15

43

32

Indonesia - 1st Generation

4

9

16

56

27

Indonesia - 2nd Generation

13

1

1

53

36

Iran - 1st Generation

24

4

7

60

29

Iran - 2nd Generation

52

1

1

71

43

Cuba - 1st Generation

27

30

29

11

9

Cuba - 2nd Generation

184

10

7

26

17

Peru - 1st Generation

18

6

8

26

14

Peru - 2nd Generation

43

5

5

30

19

Korea - 1st Generation

67

5

8

46

31

Korea - 2nd Generation

163

1

7

42

27

Syria - 1st Generation

2

16

21

27

14

Syria - 2nd Generation

13

9

9

44

20

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children with mothers who have 8 or hewer years of education (percent)

Children whose fathers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Children whose mothers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Taiwan - 1st Generation

32

7

7

62

35

Taiwan - 2nd Generation

65

1

3

77

60

Argentina - 1st Generation

10

14

15

31

26

Argentina - 2nd Generation

26

7

4

35

24

Yugoslavia - 1st Generation

5

14

20

28

17

Yugoslavia - 2nd Generation

39

19

19

17

14

Hong Kong - 1st Generation

17

28

31

15

7

Hong Kong - 2nd Generation

39

7

8

53

39

Chile - 1st Generation

5

9

10

28

17

Chile - 2nd Generation

17

4

4

35

23

Australia - 1st Generation

3

1

2

63

32

Australia - 2nd Generation

14

3

0

48

33

Austria - 1st Generation

1

12

3

47

38

Austria - 2nd Generation

20

1

1

45

37

France - 1st Generation

7

7

8

65

45

France - 2nd Generation

34

3

1

45

34

Hungary - 1st Generation

3

5

6

51

32

Hungary - 2nd Generation

22

6

2

38

29

Egypt - 1st Generation

5

2

5

75

59

Egypt - 2nd Generation

25

1

2

66

41

Germany - 1st Generation

16

2

5

47

27

Germany - 2nd Generation

243

2

1

34

22

Greece - 1st Generation

3

24

26

24

12

Greece - 2nd Generation

65

23

18

21

17

Japan - 1st Generation

32

2

2

78

45

Japan - 2nd Generation

68

2

2

44

26

Barbados - 1st Generation

3

10

13

19

12

Barbados - 2nd Generation

11

8

2

18

14

Poland - 1st Generation

18

7

6

32

27

Poland - 2nd Generation

62

6

5

30

22

Turkey - 1st Generation

3

13

17

46

34

Turkey - 2nd Generation

12

9

7

40

32

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children with fathers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent)

Children with mothers who have 8 or fewer fewer years of education (percent)

Children whose fathers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Children whose mothers have four or more years of college education (percent)

Italy - 1st Generation

8

33

34

24

16

Italy - 2nd Generation

171

19

15

19

14

Portugal - 1st Generation

14

68

65

3

3

Portugal - 2nd Generation

64

38

34

8

5

United Kingdom - 1st Generation

31

1

3

56

27

United Kingdom - 2nd Generation

178

1

1

41

26

Canada - 1st Generation

33

4

3

58

31

Canada - 2nd Generation

230

3

2

38

26

South Africa - 1st Generation

5

1

1

63

35

South Africa - 2nd Generation

10

0

1

70

42

Netherlands - 1st Generation

2

0

3

60

34

Netherlands - 2nd Generation

36

2

1

40

26

India - 1st Generation

45

4

9

62

46

India - 2nd Generation

130

1

2

80

63

Philippines - 1st Generation

83

7

9

46

52

Philippines - 2nd Generation

316

3

6

37

45

Ireland - 1st Generation

4

12

7

36

13

Ireland - 2nd Generation

40

4

2

31

20

NOTE: Countries are listed from highest to lowest official poverty rate for first and second generations combined.

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

TABLE 2A-2e Language Use and Citizenship for First-and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin for First and Second Generations Separately: 1990

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children who do not speak English at home (percent)

All First-Generation Children

2,084

87

All Second-Generation Children

6,288

58

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

40,201

1

Black, Non-Hispanic

8,031

1

Asian, Non-Hispanic

329

3

American Indian

562

7

Hispanic

3,489

15

First- and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin:

Laos - 1st Generation

49

97

Laos - 2nd Generation

64

95

Cambodia - 1st Generation

30

97

Cambodia - 2nd Generation

34

87

Dominican Republic - 1st Generation

48

97

Dominican Republic - 2nd Generation

131

91

USSR - 1st Generation

38

96

USSR - 2nd Generation

24

57

Mexico - 1st Generation

643

97

Mexico - 2nd Generation

1,975

88

Thailand - 1st Generation

36

95

Thailand - 2nd Generation

33

32

Vietnam - 1st Generation

99

97

Vietnam - 2nd Generation

33

76

Guatemala - 1st Generation

35

98

Guatemala - 2nd Generation

66

83

Honduras - 1st Generation

17

93

Honduras - 2nd Generation

35

69

El Salvador - 1st Generation

77

98

El Salvador - 2nd Generation

126

90

Nicaragua - 1st Generation

39

97

Nicaragua - 2nd Generation

35

75

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children who do not speak English exclusively or very well (percent)

Children who are not U.S. citizens (percent)

Children who are not U.S. citizens, or who have at least 1 parent in the home who is not a citizen (percent)

All First-Generation Children

45

84

87

All Second-Generation Children

19

N/A

59

Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity:

White, Non-Hispanic

N/A

 

N/A

Black, Non-Hispanic

N/A

 

N/A

Asian, Non-Hispanic

N/A

 

N/A

American Indian

N/A

 

N/A

Hispanic

N/A

 

N/A

First- and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin:

Laos - 1st Generation

57

89

91

Laos - 2nd Generation

65

N/A

88

Cambodia - 1st Generation

62

89

92

Cambodia - 2nd Generation

54

N/A

80

Dominican Republic - 1st Generation

55

85

89

Dominican Republic - 2nd Generation

31

N/A

68

USSR - 1st Generation

61

83

84

USSR - 2nd Generation

12

N/A

29

Mexico - 1st Generation

59

86

89

Mexico - 2nd Generation

32

N/A

74

Thailand - 1st Generation

65

93

94

Thailand - 2nd Generation

9

N/A

56

Vietnam - 1st Generation

52

78

81

Vietnam - 2nd Generation

34

N/A

51

Guatemala - 1st Generation

56

89

91

Guatemala - 2nd Generation

26

N/A

76

Honduras - 1st Generation

48

88

92

Honduras - 2nd Generation

18

N/A

64

El Salvador - 1st Generation

53

89

91

El Salvador - 2nd Generation

35

N/A

79

Nicaragua - 1st Generation

58

96

97

Nicaragua - 2nd Generation

22

N/A

69

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Number of children (thousands)

Children who do not speak English at home (percent)

Haiti - 1st Generation

28

91

Haiti - 2nd Generation

77

67

Jordan - 1st Generation

2

98

Jordan - 2nd Generation

17

55

Belize - 1st Generation

3

28

Belize - 2nd Generation

12

14

Iraq - 1st Generation

4

90

Iraq - 2nd Generation

17

62

Ecuador - 1st Generation

12

98

Ecuador - 2nd Generation

52

80

Venezuela - 1st Generation

8

95

Venezuela - 2nd Generation

15

49

Israel - 1st Generation

13

91

Israel - 2nd Generation

46

54

Trinidad and Tobago - 1st Generation

12

7

Trinidad and Tobago - 2nd Generation

41

5

Colombia - 1st Generation

29

96

Colombia - 2nd Generation

88

78

Pakistan - 1st Generation

11

94

Pakistan - 2nd Generation

28

60

Costa Rica - 1st Generation

4

94

Costa Rica - 2nd Generation

19

61

Panama - 1st Generation

6

86

Panama - 2nd Generation

33

32

Brazil - 1st Generation

9

93

Brazil - 2nd Generation

21

50

Romania - 1st Generation

11

91

Romania - 2nd Generation

15

54

Spain - 1st Generation

6

91

Spain - 2nd Generation

22

56

Lebanon - 1st Generation

8

92

Lebanon - 2nd Generation

28

62

Jamaica - 1st Generation

40

7

Jamaica - 2nd Generation

92

6

Guyana - 1st Generation

18

8

Guyana - 2nd Generation

28

7

Suggested Citation:"2 Socioeconomic and Demographic Risk Factors and Resources Among Children in Immigrant and Native-Born Families: 1910, 1960, and 1990." National Research Council. 1999. Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9592.
×

 

Children who do not speak English exclusively or very well (percent)

Children who are not U.S. citizens (percent)

Children who are not U.S. citizens, or who have at least 1 parent in the home who is not a citizen (percent)

Haiti - 1st Generation

47

84

90

Haiti - 2nd Generation

21

N/A

71

Jordan - 1st Generation

28

72

79

Jordan - 2nd Generation

8

N/A

33

Belize - 1st Generation

10

72

80

Belize - 2nd Generation

3

N/A

70

Iraq - 1st Generation

13

72

78

Iraq - 2nd Generation

10

N/A

37

Ecuador - 1st Generation

38

87

90

Ecuador - 2nd Generation

20

N/A

73

Venezuela - 1st Generation

36

90

92

Venezuela - 2nd Generation

12

N/A

68

Israel - 1st Generation

28

74

75

Israel - 2nd Generation

15

N/A

31

Trinidad and Tobago - 1st Generation

4

84

86

Trinidad and Tobago - 2nd Generation

1

N/A

68

Colombia - 1st Generation

38

87

90

Colombia - 2nd Generation

17

N/A

64

Pakistan - 1st Generation

29

74

80

Pakistan - 2nd Generation

14

N/A

46

Costa Rica - 1st Generation

38

88

91

Costa Rica - 2nd Generation

13

N/A

63

Panama - 1st Generation

31

77

79

Panama - 2nd Generation

9

N/A

43

Brazil - 1st Generation

47

91

96

Brazil - 2nd Generation

11

N/A

68

Romania - 1st Generation

33

77

79

Romania - 2nd Generation

14

N/A

25

Spain - 1st Generation

26

83

85

Spain - 2nd Generation

12

N/A

60

Lebanon - 1st Generation

26

69

71

Lebanon - 2nd Generation

12

N/A

32

Jamaica - 1st Generation

2

81

85

Jamaica - 2nd Generation

2

N/A

59

Guyana - 1st Generation

2

80

81

Guyana - 2nd Generation

2

N/A

51

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