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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academy of Sciences. 2000. Review of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study Draft Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9738.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academy of Sciences. 2000. Review of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study Draft Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9738.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academy of Sciences. 2000. Review of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study Draft Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9738.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academy of Sciences. 2000. Review of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study Draft Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9738.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academy of Sciences. 2000. Review of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study Draft Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9738.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academy of Sciences. 2000. Review of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study Draft Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9738.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academy of Sciences. 2000. Review of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study Draft Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9738.
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10 REFERENCES Anderson, D.M., Bates, D.J., Marsh, T.L. (1993). Estimation of ~ 945 to ~ 957 food consumption. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Richiand, WA. Associated Press. (1999~. Study disputes Hanford poisoned people. In The Salt Lake Tribune pp. Al2: Salt Lake City, UT. Astakhova, L.N., Anspaugh, L.R., Beebe, G., Bouville, A., Drozbovitch, V., Garber, V., Gavrilin, Y., Khrouch, V., Kuvshinnikov, A., Kuzmenkov, Y., Minenko, V., Moschik, K., Nalivko, A., Robbins, I., Shemiakina, E., Shinkarev, S., Tochitskaya, S. and Waclawiw, M. (1998~. Chernobyl- related thyroid cancer in children of Belarus: a case-control study. Radiat. Res., 150, 349-356. Beck, D.M., Darwin, R.F., Erickson, A.R., Eckert, R.~. (19924. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase ]:. Pacific Northwest National :Laboratory: RichIand, WA. Budowsky, J., Piro, I.D., Zegarelli, E.V., Kutscher, A.H., Barnett, A. (1956~. Radiation exposure to the head and abdomen during oral roentgenography. I. Am. Dental Ass. 52, 555- 559. Carroll, R.J., Ruppert, D., Stefanski, L.A. (1995~. Measurement Error in Nonlinear Models. Chapman, Hall: London. Cary, A. (1999~. Telephone interview. 156

References 157 CDC. ~ ~ 999a). Congressional Briefing Document on Hanford Thyroid Disease Study, "Summary of the Study and the Primary Findings". CDC. (1999b). Summary of the Preliminary Results "The Hanford Thyroid Disease Study Draft Final Report". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Atlanta, GA. Davis, S. (1999a). Quoted in CDC Press Release, "Draft Report: Results Tom the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study". Davis, S. (1999b). Telephone interview. Davis, S., Kopecky, K. (1998~. Executive Summary, HTDS Draft Final Report. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center: Seattle, WA. Davis, S., Kopecky, As., Hamilton, T.E. (1999~. Letter to the editor. In Seattle Post-InteRigencer: Seattle, WA. Day, N.E., Byar, D., Green, S. (1980~. Overadjustment in case- contro} studies. Am. I. Epidemiol., ~ 12, 696-706. Deonigi, D.E., Anderson, D.M., Wilfert, G.~. (1994~. Commercial milk distribution profiles and production locations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Richiand, WA. Dunning, D.E., Schwarz, G. (198 ~ ). Variability of human thyroid characteristics and estimates of dose from ingested 1311. Health Phys., 40, 661-675. Dwyer, T.~., Gardner, J., Halvorsen, K., Krall, E.A., Cohen, A., Valadian. (19894. Memory of food intake in the distant past. Am. J. Epidlemiol., ~ 30, ~ 033- ~ 046. Fanis, W.T., Napier, B.A., Eslinger, P.W., Ikenberry, T.A., Shipler, D.B., Simpson, I.C. (1994~. Atmospheric pathway dosimetry report, 1944-1992. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: RichIand, WA. FarTis, W.T., Napier, B.A., Tkenberry, T.A., Shipler, D.B. (1996~. Radiation doses from Hanford site releases to the atmosphere and the Columbia River. Health Phys., 7l, 588- 601. FHCRC. (1999a). Hanford Thyroid Disease Draft Final Report. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center: Seattle, WA.

158 Review of the HTDS Draft Final Report FHCRC. (1999b). Summary Final Report of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle,WA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA). Goble, Rib. (1968~. Comparison of a calibration of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction mode} suite to the validation data sets and to the mode} with its initial parameter choice. Center for Technology Environment and Development, Clark University: Worcester, MA. Goodman, M.T., Kolonel, L., Wilkens, L. (1992~. The association of body size, reproductive factors and thyroid cancer. Br. ]. Cancer, 66, ~ ~ 80- ~ ~ 84. Hamilton, P. and others (1989~. A follow-up study of persons who had iodine-131 and other diagnostic procedures during childhood and adolescence. Rockville, MD: FDA Technical Report. Hanford Health Effects Subcommittee. Meeting transcripts (excerpts). (1998~. Salt Lake City, UT. Heeb, C.M. (1993~. Todine-131 Releases from the Hanford Site, 1944 through 1947. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: RichIand, WA. Heeb, C.M. (1994~. Radionuclide Releases to the Atmosphere from Hanford Operations, 1944-1972. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: RichIand, WA. Hermann, B., Hermann, F.~. (1996~. lodine-131 Release to the Atmosphere from Hanford Separations Plants for the Period May 1948 through December 1960. (A report prepared on behalf of plaintiffs in Hanford litigation.) 10 March, 1996. Hoffinan, F.O., Amaral, E., Mohrbacher, D.A., Deming, E.~. (1988~. The comparison of generic mode! predictions with Chernobyl fallout data on the transfer of radioiodine over the air-pasture-cow milk pathway. ]. Environ. Radioactivity, 8, 53-71. Hoffinan, F.O., Nair, S.K., Wichner, R. (1999~. Review of HEDR Source Term for the Atmospheric Releases of JL-131.

References 159 SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., Center for Risk Analysis: Oak Ridge, TN. Hoffman, F.O., Thiessen, K.M., Frank, M.L., Blaylock, B.G. (1992~. A quantification of the interception and initial retention of radioactive contaminants deposited on grass by simulated rain. Atmos. Environ., 26A, 3313-3321. Holm, L. (1991~. Cancer risks after diagnotic doses of 13~{ with special reference to thyroid cancer. Cancer Detection and Prevention, ~ 5 :27-30. HTDS Newsletter. (1999~. Questions and Answers about the HTDS Results. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center: Seattle, WA ICRP. (1990~. Age-dependent doses to members ofthe public from intake of radionuclides: Part 1. Pergamon Press: New York. Jacob, P., Goulko, G., Heidenreich, W.F. (1998~. Thyroid cancer risk to children calculated. Nature, 392, 31-32. Kerber, R.A., Till, I., Simon, S., Lyon, I., Thomas, D., Preston- Martin, S., Rallison, M., Lloyd, R., Stevens, W. (1993~. A cohort study of thyroid disease in relation to fallout from nuclear weapons testing. ]. Am. Med. Assoc., 270, 2076- 2082. Kolonel, L.N. (1985~. Cancer incidence among Filipinos in Hawaii and the Philippines. Monogr. Nat. Cancer Inst., 69, 93-98. Krimsky, S., Plough, A. (1988~. Er~viror~mental Hazards. Auburn House Publishing: Dover, MA. Lee,W., Chiacchierini, R., ShIeien, B., Telles, N. (1982~. Thyroid tumors following I-131 or localized X irradiation to the thyroid and pituitary glands in rats. Radiat. Res., 92, 307- 319. McTiernan, A., Weiss, N., Dating, I. (1987~. Incidence of thyroid cancer in women in relation to known or suspected risk factors for breast cancer. Cancer Res., 47, 292-295. Nagataki, S., Shibata, Y., Inoue, S., Yokoyama, N., Tzumi, M., Shimaoka, K. (1994~. Thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 272, 364- 370.

160 Review of the HTDS Draft Final Report Napier, B.A., Simpson, I.C., Eslinger, P.W., Ramsdell, I.V., Thiede, M.E., Walters, W.H. (1994~. Validation of HEDR Models. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: RichIand, WA. NAS/IOM. (1999). Exposure of the American People to Iodir~e-131 from Nevada Nuclear-bomb Tests: Review of the National Cancer Institute Report and Public Health Implications. National Academy Press: Washington, DC. National Research Council. (1989~. Improving Risk Communication. National Academy Press: Washington, DC. NationalResearch Council. (1998~. Letter from Chairman Jack Schull to James Smith, 27 July 1999. Board on Radiation Effects Research, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council: Washington, DC. National Research Council. (1999~. [ester from Chairman Jack Schull to James Smith, 25 January 1999. Board on Radiation Effects Research, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council: Washington, DC. NCI. (1997~. Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. Volume I. National Cancer Institute, US National Institutes of Health: Bethesda, MD. NCRP. (1985~. Induction of Thyroid Cancer by ionizing Radiation, Report No. SO. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements: Bethesda, MD. Nolan, W.E. (1953~. Radiation hazards to the patient from oral roentgenography. ~l. Am. Dental Ass., 47, 681-684. Preston-Martin, S., fin, F., Duda, M., Mack, W. (1993~. A case- contro} study of thyroid cancer in women under age 55 in Shanghai (People's Republic of China). Cancer Caus. Cont., 4, 431-440. Price. D.W. (1994~. Dairy Cow Feeding Regimes for Representative Doses: HEDR Project. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Richiand, WA.

References 161 Ramsdell Ir., I.V., Simonen, C.A., Burk, K.W. (1994~. Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Richland, WA. Ron, E., Lubin, I., Schneider, A. (1992~. Thyroid cancer incidence (letters. Nature, 360, ~ ~ 3. Ron, E., Lubin, T., Shore, R., Mabuchi, K., Modan, B., Pottern, L., Schneider, A., Tucker, M., Boice, I. (1995~. Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: a pooled analysis of seven studies. Radiat. Res., 141, 259-277. Ron, E., Modan, B., Preston, D., Alfandary, E., Stovall, M., Boice, I. (1989~. Thyroid neoplasia following low-dose radiation in childhood. Radiat. Res., 120, 516-531. Salvini, S., Hunter, As., Sampson, L., Stampfer, M.~., Colditz, Rosner, Willett. (1989~. Food-based validation of a dietary questionnaire: the effects of week-to-week variation in food consumption. Int. ]. Epidlemiol., I S. 858-867. Sever, L.E., Hessol, N.A., Gilbert, E.S., McIntyre, I.M. (1988~. The prevalence at birth of congenital malformations in communities near the Hanford site. Am. ]. Epidemiol., 127, 243-254. Shipler, D.B., Napier, B.A., Farns, W.T., Freshley, M.D. (1996). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project -- an overview. Health Phys., 7l, 532-544. Shore, R. and others, (1993~. Thyroid cancer among persons given x-ray treatment in infancy for an enlarged thymus gland. American Journal of Epidemiology, ~ 37: 1068- 1080. Simon, S.~., Lloyd, R., Till, I., Hawthorne, H., Gren, D., Rallison, M., Stevens, W. (1990~. Development of a method to estimate thyroid dose from fallout radiolodine in a cohort study. Health Phys., 59, 669-691. Snyder, S.F., Fa~ris, W.T., Napier, T.A., {kenberry, T.A., Gilbert, R.O. (1994~. Parameters used in the environmental pathways and radiological dose modules (DESCARTES, CIDER, and CRD codes) of the Hanford Environmental

162 Review of the HTDS Draft Final Report Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: RichIand, WA. Steele, K.D. (1999~. Telephone interview. Swanson, S., Friedman, S.M., Bridgen, P., Covello, V., SIovic, P., Cohn, I. (June 1991~. Risk Communication Manual for Electric Utilities. Electric Power Research Institute: Palo Alto, CA. Thompson, D., Mabuchi, K., Ron, E., Soda, M., Tokunaga, M., Ochikubo, S., Sugimoto, S., Ikeda, T., Terasaki, M., Suzuki, S., Preston, D. (1994~. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part Il: Solid tumors, 1958-1987. Radiat. Res., 137, S17-S67. Wald, M.~. (1999~. No radiation effect found at Northwest nuclear site. In New York Times p. A20: New York NY. Warren, I.H. (1961~. Control of T-131 Releases to the Atmosphere. Hanford Atomic Products Operations: RichIand, WA. Willett, W. (19904. Nutritional Epidemiology. Oxford University Press: New York. Wong, F.~., Ron, E., Gieriowski, T., Schneider, A. (1996~. Benign thyroid tumors: general risk factors and their effects on radiation risk estimation. Am. ]. Epidemiol., 144, 728-733.

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In 1986, officials of the US Department of Energy revealed that the Hanford Atomic Products Operations in Richland, Washington, had been releasing radioactive material, in particular iodine-131, into the environment over a period of years. This information, which confirmed the suspicions of some people in the Pacific Northwest about what they called the Hanford Reservation or just Hanford, created quite a stir. Both the US Congress and citizens of the Northwest became keenly interested in knowing whether these radiation releases had caused human health effects. They were particularly concerned about whether Hanford releases of iodine-131 had led to an increase in thyroid disease among the population of the area.

In 1988, Congress ordered a study of the human health effects of exposure to the iodine-131 released from Hanford. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the study was carried out by the Seattle-based Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center over the last decade. The study examined estimate of exposure of the thyroid and rates of thyroid disease because iodine-131 concentrates in the thyroid and that organ would be the best indicator of radiation damage in the population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) asked the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC) to give an independent appraisal of the study methodology, results, and interpretation and of the communication of the study results to the public.

Review of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study Draft Final Report constitutes the response of the NRC subcommittee to that request. To respond to the charge, the NRC subcommittee felt that it needed to go beyond the specific questions addressed to it by CDC and develop a broad understanding and critique of the HTDS and the Draft Final Report. As part of those activities, the subcommittee solicited comments from outside experts and members of the public primarily in a public meeting held in Spokane, Washington, in June 1999, where 14 scientists and members of the public made formal presentations to the subcommittee about various aspects of the Draft Final Report. Other members of the public also spoke during four open-comment sessions at the meeting. In addition, efforts were made to evaluate all information materials prepared for the public and additional CDC communication plans. Information was gathered through interviews with journalists, members of concerned citizen groups in the Hanford region, members of the CDC scientific and media staff in Atlanta, and the HTDS investigators.

In this summary, the main points follow the structure of our report and are presented under several headings: epidemiologic and clinical methods and data collection, dosimetry, statistical analyses, statistical power and interpretation of the study, and communication of the study results to the public. We then provide a brief synopsis of our response to the questions raised by CDC.

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