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Marine Mammals and Low-Frequency Sound Progress Since ~ 994 Committee to Review Results of ATOC's Marine Mammal Research Program Ocean Studies Board . . Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS · 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW · Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report was supported by grants from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the Office of Naval Research. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. Library of Congress Catalog Number 00-101832 International Standard Book Number 0-309-06886-X Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
:~x :; ~ ~ ~~ ~~ :~ :: ::: ~. ::::::::: : ::: National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
COMMITTEE TO REVIEW RESULTS OF ATOC'S MARINE MAMMAL RESEARCH PROGRAM ARTHUR N. POPPER (Chair), University of Maryland, College Park HARRY A. DEFERRARI, University of Miami, Florida WILLIAM F. DOLPHIN, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts PEGGY L. EDDS-WALTON, Parmly Hearing Institute, Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois GORDON M. GREVE, Consultant, Durango, Colorado DENNIS MCFADDEN, University of Texas, Austin PETER B. RHINES, University of Washington, Seattle SAM H. RIDGWAY, Navy Marine Mammal Program, San Diego, California ROBERT M. SEYFARTH, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia SHARON L. SMITH, University of Miami, Florida PETER L. TYACK, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts OSB Liaison to Committee DAVID BRADLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College Staff EDWARD R. URBAN, ,IR., Study Director JENNIFER WRIGHT, Senior Project Assistant (until April 1999) LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant (April 1999) jODI BACHIM, Project Assistant (starting May 1999)
OCEAN STUDIES BOARD KENNETH BRINK (Chair), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts ALICE ALLDREDGE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID BRADLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College DANIEL BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison OTIS BROWN, University of Miami, Florida CORT COOPER, Chevron Chemical Company LLC CARL FRIEHE, University of California, Irvine RAY HILBORN, University of Washington, Seattle EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland, Solomons JOHN KNAUSS, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett ROBERT A. KNOX, University of California, San Diego RAY KRONE, University of California, Davis CINDY LEE, State University of New York, Stony Brook ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Manoa NANCY MARCUS, Florida State University, Tallahassee NEIL OPDYKE, University of Florida, Gainesville MICHAEL K. ORBACH, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina WALTER SCHMIDT, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee GEORGE SOMERO, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California KARL K. TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, ,IR., Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer ALEXANDRA ISERN, Program Officer SUSAN ROBERTS, Program Officer ROBIN MORRIS, Administrative Associate SHARI MAGUIRE, Research Assistant ANN CARLISLE, Senior Project Assistant LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant JODI BACHIM, Project Assistant MEGAN KELLY, Project Assistant v
COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER (Chair), University of Virginia, Charlottesville RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (Retired), S. Charleston, West Virginia LYNN GOLDMAN, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut THOMAS ,1. GRAFF, Environmental Defense Fund, Oakland, California EUGENIA KALNAY, University of Maryland, College Park DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. BRAD MOONEY, J. Brad Mooney Associates, Ltd., Arlington, Virginia HUGH C. MORRIS, E1 Dorado Gold Corporation, Vancouver, British Columbia H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens MILTON RUSSELL, Joint Institute for Energy and Environment and University of Tennessee (Emeritus), Knoxville ROBERT ,1. SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado ANDREW R. SOLOW, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole Massachusetts E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY H. SYMMES, Associate Executive Director ,IEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer DAVID FEARY, Scientific Reports Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst al ,!
r Acknowledgments In accordance with NRC report review policies, this report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. This independent review provided candid and critical comments that assisted the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and ensured that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The Committee and staff wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of the report: David Farmer (Institute of Ocean Sciences, Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans), Jonathan Gordon (Oxford University and International Fund for Animal Welfare), Robert Hofman (U.S. Marine Mammal Commission), Glenis Long (Purdue University), James Lynch (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), Donald Malins (Pacific North- west Research Institute), Andrew Solow (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institu- tion), and Bernd Wursig (Texas A&M University). While these people provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC. . . vim
r Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION The ATOC Concept, 13 Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Vertebrates, 15 Origin of Study, 17 EVALUATION OF THE MARINE MAMMAL RESEARCH PROGRAM Description of MMRP Results, 21 California ATOC Source, 23 Hawaii ATOC Source, 31 Comparison of the Recommendations of NRC (1996) and MMRP Responses, 34 Maintenance of the Shore Station and Playback Experiments, 36 Need for Prompt Data Analysis, 38 Ensonified Species Other than Marine Mammals, 39 Significance of the MMRP to Research Uses of Sound, 39 3. ASSESSMENT OF CONTINUING RESEARCH NEEDS Behavior of Marine Mammals in the Wild, 43 Structure and Function of Marine Mammal Auditory Systems, 49 Effects of Low-Frequency Sounds on the Food Chain, 60 Potential Nonauditory Acoustic Effects on Marine Animal Health, 62 Long-Term Acoustic Monitoring of Critical Habitats, 63 Ax 9 21 41
x 4. REGULATORY ISSUES Acoustic Harassment, 65 Definition of Level A Acoustic Harassment, 67 Definition of Level B Acoustic Harassment, 68 Scientific Research Permits, 70 Incidental Harassment Authorization, 70 Cumulative Impacts, 71 c FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Results of the MMRP, 73 Future Research and Observations, 76 Priority Studies, 77 Response to Stranded Marine Mammals, 80 Multiagency Research Support, 82 Multidisciplinary Research Teams and Peer Review, 83 Population-Level Audiograms, 85 National Captive Marine Mammal Research Facility, 86 Regulatory Reform, 87 Comprehensive Monitoring and Regulation of Sound in the Ocean, 88 References Appendixes A Committee Biographies B Summary from NRC (1994) C Relevant U.S. Legislation and Regulations for Marine Mammals D OS HA Regulations Glossary of Acronyms F Species Mentioned in This Report CONTENTS 65 73 91 101 103 107 141 143 145
Marine Mammals and ·ow-Frequency Sound