AbouZahr, C., and E. Royston 1991 Maternal Mortality: A Global Factbook. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Ainsworth, M., and I. Semali 1998The impact of adult deaths on the nutritional status of children. Ch. 9 in Coping with AIDS: The Economic Impact of Adult Mortality on the African Household. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Arrowsmith, S., E.C. Hamlin, and L.L. Wall 1996Obstructed labor injury complex: Obstetric fistula formation and the multifaceted morbidity of maternal birth trauma in the developing world. Obstetric and Gynecological Survey51(9):568-574.
Basu, A.M. 1998The Household Impact of Adult Mortality and Morbidity. Unpublished paper presented at the Workshop on the Consequences of Pregnancy, Maternal Morbidity, and Mortality for Women, Their Families, and Society, Committee on Population, October 19-20, 1998. Available from Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University.
Black, R.E. 1998Therapeutic and preventive effects of zinc on serious childhood infectious diseases in developing countries. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68:476S-479S.
Bullock, L.F., and J. McFarlane 1989The birthweight/battering connection. American Journal of Nursing89:1153-1155.
Campbell, J.C. 1998Abuse during pregnancy: Progress, policy and potential. American Journal of Public Health88(2):185-187.
Cates, W., Jr. 1995Sexually transmitted diseases. Pp. 57-84 in Reproductive Health Care for Women and Babies,Benjamin Sachs, Richard Beard, Emile Papiernik, and Cristine Russell, eds. New York: Oxford University Press.
Chen, L.C., M. Rahman, S. D'Souza, J. Chakraborty, A.M. Sardar, and M.D. Yunus 1983Mortality impact of an MCH-FP program in Matlab, Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning14(8/9):199-209.
Christian, P., A.L. Thorne-Lyman, K.P. West, Jr., M.E. Bentley, S.K. Khatry, E.K. Pradhan, S.C. LeClerq, and S.R. Shrestha 1998aWorking after the sun goes down: Exploring how night blindness impairs women's work activities in rural Nepal. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52:519-524.
Christian, P., K.P. West, Jr., S.K. Khatry, J. Katz, S.R. Shrestha, E.K. Pradhan, S.C. LeClerq, and R.P. Pokhrel 1998bNight blindness of pregnancy in rural Nepal—nutritional and health risks. International Journal of Epidemiology27:231-237.
Cobra, C., Muhilal, K. Rusmil, D. Rustama, Djatnika, S.S. Suwardi, D. Permaesih, K. Muherdiyantiningsih, S. Martuti, and R.D. Semba 1997Infant survival is improved by oral iodine supplementation. Journal of Nutrition127:574-578.
Cottingham, J., and E. Royston 1991Obstetric Fistulae: A Review of Available Information. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Dreyfuss, M.L. 1998Anemia and Iron Deficiency During Pregnancy: Etiologies and Effects on Birth Outcomes in Nepal. Doctoral dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
D'Souza, S. 1994Death in the Family and Poverty. Unpublished paper presented at seminar on poverty, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, Florence, 1994. Available from International Population Concerns, Brussels, Belgium.
D'Souza, S., P. Mutijima Nkaka, F. Katangulia, A. Mukiza Gichondo, and F. Nsabimana 1998Socio-Demographic Survey 1996.Final Report. Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, National Population Office and United Nations Population Fund, Kigali, Rwanda.
Egypt Ministry of Health 1994National Maternal Mortality Study: Egypt, 1992-1993. Preliminary Report of Findings and Conclusions. Cairo: Child Survival Project.
Ellsberg, M.C., R. Pena, A. Herrera, J. Liljestrand, and A. Winkvist 1999Wife abuse among women of childbearing age in Nicaragua. American Journal of Public Health89(2):241-244.
Gazmararian, J.A., M.M. Adams, L.E. Saltzman, C.H. Johnson, F.C. Bruce, J.S. Marks, and S.C. Zahniser 1995The relationship between pregnancy intendedness and physical violence in mothers of newborns. Obstetrics and Gynecology85(6):1031-1038.
Gazmararian, J.A., S. Lazorick, A.M. Spitz, T.J. Ballard, L.E. Saltzman, and J.S. Marks 1996Prevalence of violence against pregnant women: A review of the literature . Journal of the American Medical Association275:1915-1920.
Gielen, A.C., P.J. O'Campo, R.R. Faden, N.E. Kass, and X. Xue 1994Interpersonal conflict and physical violence during the childbearing year. Social Science and Medicine39:781-787.
Gray, R.H., M.J. Wawer, D. Serwadda, N. Sewankambo, C. Li, F. Wabwire-Mangen, L. Paxton, N. Kiwanuka, G. Kigozi, J. Konde-Lule, T.C. Quinn, C.A. Gaydos, and D. McNairn 1998Population-based study of fertility in women with HIV-1 infection in Uganda. Lancet351:98-103.
Harrison, K.A., U.G. Lister, C.E. Rossiter, and H. Chong 1985Child-bearing, health and social priorities: A survey of 22,774 consecutive hospital births in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology92:86-99.
Katz, J., S.K. Khatry, K.P. West, Jr., J.H. Humphrey, S.C. LeClerq, E.K. Pradhan, R.P. Pokhrel, and A. Sommer 1995Night blindness is prevalent during pregnancy and lactation in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition125:2122-2127.
Llewellyn-Jones, D. 1965Severe anemia in pregnancy. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology5:191-197.
Merialdi, M., L.E. Caulfield, N. Zavaleta, A. Figueroa, and J.A. DiPietro 1999Adding zinc to prenatal iron and folate tablets improves fetal neurobehavioral development. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology180:483-490.
Murphy, J.F., J. O'Riordan, R.G. Newcombe, E.C. Coles, and J.F. Peason 1986Relation of hemoglobin levels in first and second trimesters to outcome of pregnancy. Lancet 1(8488):992-994.
National Research Council 1989Contraception and Reproduction: Health Consequences for Women and Children in the Developing World.Working Group on the Health Consequences of Contraceptive Use and Controlled Fertility, Committee on Population, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Parker, B., J. McFarlane, and K. Soeken 1994Abuse during pregnancy: Effects on maternal complications and birth weight in adult and teenage women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 84:323-328.
Preziosi, P., A. Prual, P. Galan, H. Daouda, H. Boureima, and S. Hercberg 1997Effect of iron supplementation on the iron status of pregnant women: Consequences for newborns. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition66:1178-1182.
Schei, B., S.O. Samuelsen, and L.S. Bakketeig 1991Does spousal physical abuse affect the outcome of pregnancy? Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine19:26-31.
Strong, M.A. 1998The Effects of Adult Mortality on Infant and Child Mortality. Unpublished paper presented at the Workshop on the Consequences of Pregnancy, Maternal Morbidity and Mortality for Women, Their Families, and Society, Committee on Population, October 19-20, 1998. Available from U.S. Agency for International Development, Nairobi, Kenya.
United Nations 1999World Population Prospects, The 1998 Revision, Vol. I, Comprehensive Tables. New York: United Nations.
West, K.P., Jr., J. Katz, S.K. Khatry, S.C. LeClerq, E.K. Pradhan, S.R. Shrestha, P.B. Connor, S.M. Dali, P.Christian, R.P. Pokhrel, A. Sommer, and the NNIPS-2 Study Group 1999Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. British Medical Journal 318:570-575.
World Bank 1993World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
1997Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic. New York: Oxford University Press.
World Health Organization 1992International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision.Vol. 1. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
1993Making Maternity Care More Accessible.Press Release No. 59. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
1994Mother-Baby Package: Implementing safe motherhood in countries.Publication number WHO/FHE/MSM/94.11. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
1997Maternal Health Around the World. Wall chart available from Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
1999Violence Against Women Information Pack: A Priority Health Issue. Available electronically: http://www.who.int/frhwhd/VAW/infopack/English/VAW.infopack.htm#[March 2, 1999].
World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund 1996Revised 1990 Estimates of Maternal Mortality: A New Approach by WHO and UNICEF. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Yip, R. 1994Iron deficiency: Contemporary scientific issues and international programmatic approaches. Journal of Nutrition124:1479S-1490S.
Zhou, L.M., W.W. Yang, J.Z. Hua, C.Q. Deng, X. Tao, and R.J. Stoltzfus 1998Relation of hemoglobin measured at different times in pregnancy to preterm birth and low birth weight in Shanghai, China. American Journal of Epidemiology148:998-1006.