National Academies Press: OpenBook

The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs (2000)

Chapter: Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2000. The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9819.
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E Acronyms and Abbreviations


ADEOS

Advanced Earth Observing Satellite

AIRS

Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

ALI

Advanced Land Imager

ALT

Altimeter

AMSR

Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer

AMSR-E

Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (EOS version)

AMSU

Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit

AO

Announcement of Opportunity

APL

Applied Physics Laboratory

ASTER

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer

ATMS

Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder

AVHRR

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer


CERES

Clouds and the Earth's Radiation Energy System

CMIS

Conical Microwave Imager/Sounder

CPU

Central Processing Unit

CrIS

Cross-track Infrared Sounder

CZCS

Coastal Zone Color Scanner


DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DCS

Data Collection System

DFA

Dual-Frequency Radar Altimeter

DMSP

Defense Meteorological Satellite Program

DOD

U.S. Department of Defense


EDR

Environmental Data Record

ENSO

El Niño-Southern Oscillation

EO-1

Earth Orbiter-1

EOS

Earth Observing System

EOSDIS

Earth Observing System Data and Information System

EOSAT

Earth Observation Satellite Company

ERBS

Earth Radiation Budget Sensor/Satellite

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2000. The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9819.
×

ESA

European Space Agency

ESE

Earth Science Enterprise

ETM+

Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus

EUMETSAT

European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites


FOO

Flight of Opportunity

FUSE

Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer


GEM

Graphite Epoxy Motor

GLAS

Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

GLI

Global Imager

GOES

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GPS

Global Positioning System

GPSOS

Global Positioning System Occultation Sensor

GSFC

Goddard Space Flight Center

GTO

Geo-Transfer Orbit


HAPS

Hydrazine Auxiliary Propulsion System

HIRDLS

High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder

HSB

Humidity Sounder for Brazil


ICBM

Intercontinental Ballistic Missile

ICESat

Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite

IDIQ

Indefinite Delivery, Indefinite Quantity

IELV

Intermediate-size Expendable Launch Vehicle

ILAS

Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer

IPO

Integrated Program Office


JGOFS

Joint Global Ocean Flux Study

JMR

Jason Microwave Imager

JPL

Jet Propulsion Laboratory


Landsat

Land Remote Sensing Satellite

LEO

Low Earth Orbit

LIS

Lightning Imaging Sensor

LMLV-3

Lockheed Martin Launch Vehicle-3


Medlite

Medium-Light Expendable Launch Vehicle

MELV

Medium Expendable Launch Vehicle

MEPS

Medium-Energy Particle Spectrometer

METOP

Meteorological Operational Polar Orbiter

MIDEX

Mid-size Explorer

MISR

Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer

MLS

Microwave Limb Sounder

MLELV

Medium-Light Expendable Launch Vehicle (MedLite)

MODIS

Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

MOPITT

Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere

MTF

Modulation Transfer Function

MTPE

Mission to Planet Earth


NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NMP

New Millennium Program

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NPOESS

National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System

NSCAT

NASA Scatterometer

NWS

National Weather Service


ODUS

Ozone Dynamics Ultraviolet Spectrometer

OMPS

Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2000. The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9819.
×

OSC

Orbital Sciences Corporation


PI

Principal Investigator

POES

Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite

POLDER

Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance

PR

Precipitation Radar


QuikSCAT

Quick Scatterometer


R&A

Research and Analysis

RPA-D

Retarding Potential Analyzer-Driftmeter (or drift plasma sensor)

RPU

Repeater Processing Unit

RSDO

Rapid Spacecraft Development Office


SAGE

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment

SARSAT

Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking

SBRC

Santa Barbara Research Center

SeaWiFS

Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor

SELV

Small Expendable Launch Vehicle

SES

Space Environmental Suite/Sensor

SMEX

Small Explorer

SOLSTICE/SAVE

Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment/Solar Atmospheric Variability Explorer

SPARCLE

Space Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment

SPOT

Systeme Pour l'Observation de la Terre

SPU

Signal Processing Unit

SST

Sea Surface Temperature

SSTI

Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative

STEP

Space Test Experiment Program

SWIR

Short-Wave Infrared


TDI

Time-Delay Integration

TES

Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer

TIR

Thermal Infrared

TMI

TRMM Microwave Imager

TOMS

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

TOMS-EP

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Earth Probe

TRMM

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

TSI

Total Solar Irradiance

TSIS/M

Total Solar Irradiance Sensor/Monitor


VIIRS

Visible/Infrared Imaging/Radiometer Suite

VIRS

Visible Infrared Scanner

VNIR

Visible and Near Infrared

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2000. The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9819.
×
Page 90
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2000. The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9819.
×
Page 91
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2000. The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9819.
×
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Remote observations of Earth from space serve an extraordinarily broad range of purposes, resulting in extraordinary demands on those at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and elsewhere who must decide how to execute them. In research, Earth observations promise large volumes of data to a variety of disciplines with differing needs for measurement type, simultaneity, continuity, and long-term instrument stability. Operational needs, such as weather forecasting, add a distinct set of requirements for continual and highly reliable monitoring of global conditions.

The Role of Small Satelites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Porgrams confronts these diverse requirements and assesses how they might be met by small satellites. In the past, the preferred architecture for most NASA and NOAA missions was a single large spacecraft platform containing a sophisticated suite of instruments. But the recognition in other areas of space research that cost-effectiveness, flexibility, and robustness may be enhanced by using small spacecraft has raised questions about this philosophy of Earth observation. For example, NASA has already abandoned its original plan for a follow-on series of major platforms in its Earth Observing System.

This study finds that small spacecraft can play an important role in Earth observation programs, providing to this field some of the expected benefits that are normally associated with such programs, such as rapid development and lower individual mission cost. It also identifies some of the programmatic and technical challenges associated with a mission composed of small spacecraft, as well as reasons why more traditional, larger platforms might still be preferred. The reasonable conclusion is that a systems-level examination is required to determine the optimum architecture for a given scientific and/or operational objective. The implied new challenge is for NASA and NOAA to find intra- and interagency planning mechanisms that can achieve the most appropriate and cost-effective balance among their various requirements.

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