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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
×

Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates

Second Revised Edition, 2003

Committee on Animal Nutrition

Ad Hoc Committee on Nonhuman Primate Nutrition

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the Department of Health and Human Services, the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, The Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation, Association of Primate Veterinarians, Harlan Teklad, Purina Mills, Inc., and Zupreem.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Nutrient requirements of nonhuman primates.—2nd rev. ed.

p. cm.—(Nutrient requirements of animals)

Rev. ed. of: Nutrient requirements of nonhuman primates / Panel on Nonhuman Primate Nutrition, Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, National Research Council. 1978.

Includes bibliographical references (p. ).

ISBN 0-309-06989-0 (pbk.)

1. Primates—Feeding and feeds. 2. Primates—Nutrition—Requirements. 3. Primates as laboratory animals. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Animal Nutrition. II. National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on Nonhuman Primate Nutrition. Nutrient requirements of nonhuman primates. III. Series.

SF407.P7 N88 2002

636.98—dc21 2002013021

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
×

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The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
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This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
×

AD HOC COMMITTEE ON NONHUMAN PRIMATE NUTRITION

DUANE E. ULLREY, Chair,

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

MARY E. ALLEN,

National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.

LYNNE M. AUSMAN,

Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts

NANCY L. CONKLIN-BRITTAIN,

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

MARK S. EDWARDS,

Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego, California

JOSEPH M. ERWIN,

Diagnon Corporation/Bioqual, Inc., Rockville, Maryland School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore

MICHAEL F. HOLICK,

Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts

DANIEL T. HOPKINS,

Purina Mills, Inc., retired, St. Charles, Missouri

SHERRY M. LEWIS,

National Center for Toxicological Research, The Bionetics Corporation, Jefferson, Arkansas

BO L. G. LONNERDAL,

University of California-Davis, Davis, California

LAWRENCE L. RUDEL,

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina

COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION

GARY L. CROMWELL, Chair,

University of Kentucky

MARY E. ALLEN,

National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C.

MICHAEL L. GALYEAN,

West Texas A&M University

RONALD W. HARDY,

University of Idaho

BRIAN W. McBRIDE,

University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

KEITH RINEHART,

Perdue Farms, Inc., Salisbury, Maryland

L. LEE SOUTHERN,

Louisiana State University

JERRY W. SPEARS,

North Carolina State University

DONALD R. TOPLIFF,

Oklahoma State University

WILLIAM P. WEISS,

The Ohio State University

Staff

CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Program Director

NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Editor

STEPHANIE PADGHAM, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
×

BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES

HARLEY W. MOON, Chair,

Iowa State University

CORNELIA B. FLORA,

Iowa State University

ROBERT B. FRIDLEY,

University of California

BARBARA GLENN,

Federation of Animal Science Societies

LINDA GOLODNER,

National Consumers League

W.R. (REG) GOMES,

University of California

PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN,

Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts

GEORGE R. HALLBERG,

The Cadmus Group, Inc.

CALESTOUS JUMA,

Harvard University

GILBERT A. LEVEILLE,

McNeil Consumer Healthcare, Denville, New Jersey

WHITNEY MACMILLAN,

Cargill, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota

TERRY MEDLEY,

DuPont Biosolutions Enterprise

WILLIAM L. OGREN,

U.S. Department of Agriculture

ALICE PELL,

Cornell University

NANCY J. RACHMAN,

Novigen Sciences, Inc.

G. EDWARD SCHUH,

University of Minnesota

BRIAN STASKAWICZ,

University of California, Berkeley

JOHN W. SUTTIE,

University of Wisconsin

JAMES TUMLINSON,

USDA, ARS

JAMES J. ZUICHES,

Washington State University

Staff

CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Director

STEPHANIE PADGHAM, Administrative Assistant

SHIRLEY B. THATCHER, Administrative Assistant*

*  

through March 2000

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
×

Preface

This report is one of a series issued under the direction of the National Research Council’s Committee on Animal Nutrition (CAN) of The National Academies Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources. It was prepared by the CAN Ad Hoc Committee on Nonhuman Primate Nutrition and is a revision of the 1978 edition of Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates. Throughout the study process, input from others has been sought by posing specific questions in widely distributed letters, by hosting workshops and information-gathering sessions, and by inviting sponsors and the general public to attend meetings of the Committee. Information published before 1978 has been reevaluated, that in newer publications has been examined, and both have been used to update this report. Greater emphasis than before has been placed on descriptions of natural dietary habits, gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, and the special nutrient and dietary husbandry needs of species that traditionally have been difficult to maintain in captivity.

The order Primates is diverse and includes prosimians, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. More than 250 species and more than 600 subspecies are recognized, and new species are described nearly every year. Recently, Colin Groves has proposed a revised taxonomic system that includes over 300 primate species (Groves, C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press). The challenge of describing the nutritional needs of primates, which range in size from tiny mouse lemurs and pygmy marmosets to the markedly larger gorillas and orangutans, is daunting, particularly because studies of feeding ecology, gastrointestinal anatomy, and nutrient requirements have been completed for only a few of them. Consequently, data have been sought on one or more model species in eight categories (the suborder Strepsirrhini; the families Hominidae and Pongidae, Hylobatidae, Cercopithecidae, Cebidae, Callitrichidae, and Tarsiidae; and the subfamily Colobinae) in the hope that such data would be representative of the Order. Little information was found on Tarsiidae and Hylobatidae.

Over 500,000 primates live in biomedical research laboratories and conservation institutions throughout the world. Records of the regional primate research centers provided by Leo Whitehair of the National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources indicate that 16,820 nonhuman primates of 28 species were present in seven U.S. centers at the end of 1998. In 1999, an eighth U.S. center housing 3,638 animals, including about 3,200 baboons, was added. Records of the International Species Information System (at the Minnesota Zoological Garden, Apple Valley, MN; www.worldzoo.org) indicate that over 9,500 nonhuman primates of 145 species were in U.S. and Canadian zoos at the end of 2000. Additional nonhuman primates can be found in U.S. and Canadian government, university, and commercial laboratories.

Many primate species serve as surrogates in studies of human physiology and disease, and their nutritional status is known to influence susceptibility and tissue responses to infective agents. The validity of such research is open to question if the experimental subjects have not been appropriately nourished. Likewise, the health and reproduction of primates in zoos can be compromised to an extent that renders the maintenance or multiplication of endangered species impossible.

In preparing this report, the Committee was limited in the amount of reliable and specific information available on nutrient requirements, deficiencies, and toxicities in primates. The authors of this publication had as their primary objective the development of guidelines that would ensure that nutrient deficiencies or toxicities and inappropriate dietary husbandry would not limit success in primate research colonies or zoos. We hope that this objective has been fulfilled, in light of the limits of the information available to us, and that researchers will continue to fill the obvious information gaps so that future editions will be more complete.

DUANE E. ULLREY, Chair

Ad Hoc Committee on Nonhuman Primate Nutrition

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
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Acknowledgments

The Committee wishes to thank the numerous people who provided input by letter or at public forums. In addition, we thank those who took time to meet with the Committee throughout the study process. The financial support provided by the National Center for Research Resources of the National Institutes of Health, the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, The Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation, the Association of Primate Veterinarians, Harlan Teklad, Purina Mills, Inc., and ZuPreem, is gratefully acknowledged.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: David J. Baer, US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland; Ellen Dierenfeld, The Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York; Joseph W. Kemnitz, Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Madison, Wisconsin; Joe Knapka, National Institutes of Health (retired); Terry L. Maple, Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia; and Wilson G. Pond, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by R. Lee Baldwin, University of California, Davis. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Finally, the Committee wishes to thank Charlotte Kirk Baer, program director, Committee on Animal Nutrition, for her encouragement and cheerful guidance of this project to completion. Her exceptional organizational skills contributed in a major way to the success of the Committee. Appreciation also is extended to Stephanie Padgham, project assistant, for her regular communications and helpful provision of supplementary materials.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
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This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
×
   

Estimating Basal Metabolic Rate,

 

43

   

Effects of Age and Body Composition on Basal Metabolic Rate,

 

43

   

Energy Requirements for Maintenance,

 

43

   

Energy Requirements for Growth,

 

48

   

Energy Requirements for Pregnancy and Lactation,

 

53

   

References,

 

54

3

 

CARBOHYDRATES AND FIBER

 

58

   

Carbohydrate Classification, Characteristics, Digestion, and Metabolism,

 

58

   

Monosaccharides,

 

58

   

Disaccharides,

 

59

   

Oligosaccharides,

 

59

   

Polysaccharides,

 

59

   

Starch and Starch-Like Polysaccharides,

 

59

   

Non-Starch Polysaccharides,

 

59

   

Analytical Procedures for Carbohydrate and Fiber,

 

61

   

Crude Fiber,

 

61

   

Total Dietary Fiber,

 

61

   

Neutral-Detergent Fiber and Related Fractions,

 

62

   

Carbohydrates in Wild Food Plants,

 

64

   

Significance of Fiber,

 

66

   

Proposed Fiber Intakes by Nonhuman Primates,

 

68

   

Fiber Recommendations for Other Species,

 

68

   

Fiber in Wild Food Plants as Guides for Captive-Diet Fiber Concentrations,

 

68

   

Fiber Digestion by Nonhuman Primates as a Guide for Captive-Diet Fiber Concentrations,

 

70

   

Proposed NDF and ADF Concentrations in Captive Nonhuman Primate Diets,

 

70

   

References,

 

70

4

 

PROTEIN

 

75

   

Protein Sources,

 

75

   

Assessment of Protein Requirements,

 

75

   

Methods,

 

75

   

Digestibility,

 

76

   

Requirements,

 

77

   

Protein Quality,

 

77

   

Proteins Limiting in Sulfur Amino Acids,

 

77

   

Proteins Limiting in Lysine,

 

78

   

Amino Acid Requirements,

 

78

   

Lysine and Methionine,

 

78

   

Phenylalanine,

 

79

   

Tryptophan,

 

79

   

Taurine,

 

79

   

Efficiency of Protein Use,

 

79

   

Protein Deficiency,

 

80

   

Protein for Pregnancy and Lactation,

 

80

   

Protein-Calorie Malnutrition in Young Primates,

 

80

   

Protein Excess,

 

83

   

Non-Amino-Acid Effects of Protein Sources,

 

83

   

References,

 

84

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
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5

 

FATS AND FATTY ACIDS

 

87

   

Fat Absorption,

 

88

   

Milk Fats,

 

89

   

Essential n-3 Fatty Acids,

 

89

   

Essential n-6 Fatty Acids,

 

90

   

Detrimental Fatty Acids,

 

91

   

Cholesterol,

 

91

   

Primates as Cardiovascular Disease Models,

 

92

   

References,

 

92

6

 

MINERALS

 

94

   

Macrominerals,

 

95

   

Calcium and Phosphorus,

 

95

   

Magnesium,

 

97

   

Potassium,

 

98

   

Sodium,

 

98

   

Chloride,

 

98

   

Sulfur,

 

98

   

Trace Minerals,

 

98

   

Iron,

 

98

   

Copper,

 

100

   

Manganese,

 

101

   

Zinc,

 

102

   

Iodine,

 

104

   

Selenium,

 

104

   

Cobalt,

 

106

   

Chromium,

 

106

   

Fluorine,

 

107

   

References,

 

107

7

 

VITAMINS

 

113

   

Fat-Soluble Vitamins,

 

113

   

Vitamin A and Carotenoids,

 

113

   

Measures of Biologic Activity,

 

113

   

Absorption and Circulation of Carotenoids,

 

114

   

Vitamin A and Carotenoids in Feedstuffs,

 

114

   

Absorption, Circulation, and Storage of Vitamin A,

 

114

   

Vitamin A Deficiency,

 

115

   

Vitamin A Requirements,

 

115

   

Hypervitaminosis A,

 

115

   

Vitamin D,

 

116

   

Photobiology, Metabolism, and Function of Vitamin D,

 

116

   

Measures of Vitamin D Activity,

 

117

   

Vitamin D Deficiency,

 

117

   

Discrimination Between Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 ,

 

118

   

Metabolic Resistance to Vitamin D3 in Callitrichids,

 

118

   

Animals Not Exposed to Natural Sunlight or Unable to Make Vitamin D in Their Skin,

 

120

   

Vitamin D Requirements,

 

120

   

Hypervitaminosis D,

 

121

   

Vitamin E,

 

122

   

Chemistry and Measures of Activity,

 

122

   

Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion,

 

123

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
×
   

Biologic Functions,

 

124

   

Vitamin E Deficiency,

 

124

   

Vitamin E Requirements,

 

125

   

Vitamin K,

 

126

   

Water-Soluble Vitamins,

 

128

   

Thiamin,

 

128

   

Riboflavin,

 

129

   

Pantothenic Acid,

 

130

   

Niacin,

 

131

   

Vitamin B6,

 

132

   

Biotin,

 

133

   

Folacin,

 

134

   

Vitamin B12,

 

135

   

Vitamin C,

 

137

   

Choline,

 

140

   

Carnitine,

 

141

   

Inositol,

 

141

   

References,

 

142

8

 

WATER

 

150

   

Water Content of the Body,

 

150

   

Effects of Activity Restriction,

 

152

   

Effects of Cold,

 

152

   

Effects of Heat and Water Deprivation,

 

152

   

Water Sources,

 

153

   

Liquid Water Intake,

 

153

   

Preformed-Water Intake,

 

154

   

Metabolic Water,

 

154

   

Water Loss,

 

154

   

Water Quality,

 

155

   

Water Requirements,

 

156

   

References,

 

157

9

 

PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC AND LIFE-STAGE CONSIDERATIONS

 

159

   

Body Weight,

 

159

   

Nutrition from Birth to Weaning,

 

159

   

Growth,

 

159

   

Mother-Reared Infants,

 

161

   

Artificially Reared Infants,

 

161

   

Milk Volume and Composition,

 

161

   

Volume,

 

161

   

Composition of Mother’s Milk,

 

164

   

Nutrient Intakes for Milk Replacers,

 

164

   

Formulas Used for Artificially Rearing Infant Nonhuman Primates,

 

165

   

Long-Term Consequences of Different Modes of Infant Feeding,

 

166

   

Weaning Foods and Strategies,

 

167

   

Nutrition and Aging,

 

167

   

Dietary Restriction,

 

167

   

Bone,

 

170

   

Immunology,

 

170

   

Wound Healing,

 

170

   

Atherosclerosis,

 

171

   

Body Composition,

 

171

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
×

Tables and Figures

TABLES

1-1

 

Prosimian feeding ecology,

 

6

1-2

 

Callithrix feeding ecology,

 

9

1-3

 

Cebid feeding ecology,

 

10

1-4

 

Colobine feeding ecology,

 

12

1-5

 

Non-colobine cercopithecine feeding ecology,

 

14

1-6

 

Ape feeding ecology,

 

17

1-7

 

Form of foregut in genera of subfamily Colobinae,

 

24

1-8

 

Examples of food consumed by primates in zoos and in the wild,

 

27

2-1

 

Estimated daily metabolizable energy (ME) requirements (as multiples of BMR) for adult captive animals,

 

45

2-2

 

Biologic and metabolic parameters of species fed dry diets,

 

49

2-3

 

Biologic and metabolic parameters for the young of various species fed liquid or dry diets,

 

51

3-1

 

Common dietary carbohydrates and their digestion,

 

61

3-2

 

Fiber concentrations in wild-primate diets (% of dry matter) in studies in which over 70% of items were analyzed,

 

65

3-3

 

Fiber concentrations in wild-primate diets (% of dry matter) in studies in which under 70% of items were analyzed,

 

67

3-4

 

Fiber levels (% of dietary dry matter) fed to primates in captivity,

 

69

3-5

 

Proposed fiber concentrations in total dietary dry matter of extruded diets for primate species grouped by relative ability to utilize plant cell wall,

 

70

4-1

 

Estimated protein requirements for primates using high-quality reference proteins,

 

76

4-2

 

Potency of common proteins measured by bioassay in primates,

 

78

5-1

 

Common names, scientific names, and short-form designations of fatty acids,

 

88

7-1

 

Survey of data used to estimate vitamin E requirements,

 

127

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
×

7-2

 

Estimates of thiamin requirement,

 

130

7-3

 

Estimates of riboflavin requirement,

 

131

7-4

 

Estimates of vitamin B6 requirement,

 

133

7-5

 

Estimates of folacin requirement,

 

136

7-6

 

Estimates of ascorbic acid requirement,

 

139

9-1

 

Body weight of captive adult primates,

 

160

9-2

 

Body weight of captive primates at various stages of development,

 

162

9-3

 

Primate species identified as potentially at increased risk of obesity in captive environments,

 

164

9-4

 

Proximate composition of milk from several primate species,

 

165

9-5

 

Composition of nonhuman-primate milk, human milk, and human-infant formula,

 

166

9-6

 

Physical characteristics of control (ad libitum-fed) and diet-restricted (30 percent restriction) Macaca mulatta after 4.5 years,

 

171

9-7

 

Body fat (%) determined with three methods in Western lowland gorillas,

 

172

10-1

 

Plant species used in feeding captive primates,

 

187

11-1

 

Estimated nutrient requirements of primate model species fed purified or semipurified diets,

 

192

11-2

 

Estimated adequate nutrient concentrations in diets containing conventional feed ingredients intended for post-weaning nonhuman primates, accounting for potential differences in nutrient bioavailabilities and adverse nutrient interactions, but not accounting for potential losses in feed processing and storage,

 

193

12-1

 

Composition of important feeds: Energy values, proximate analyses, plant cell wall constituents, data expressed as-fed and dry (100% dry matter),

 

197

12-2

 

Composition of important feeds: Minerals, data expressed as-fed and dry (100% dry matter),

 

213

12-3

 

Composition of important feeds: Vitamins, data expressed as-fed and dry (100% dry matter),

 

228

12-4

 

Composition of important feeds: Amino acids, data expressed as-fed and dry (100% dry matter),

 

242

12-5

 

Mineral concentrations in macromineral sources,

 

256

12-6

 

Characteristics and energy values of various sources of fats and oils (data on as-fed basis),

 

258

A-1

 

Taxonomic relationships, genera, and partial list of species in Order Primates, based on Napier and Napier (1985), Oates et al. (1989), and Nowak (1999),

 

266

A-2

 

Weight equivalents,

 

268

A-3

 

Weight-unit conversion factors,

 

268

Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
×

FIGURES

1-1

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Tarsier,

 

22

1-2

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Squirrel Monkey,

 

22

1-3

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Night Monkey,

 

22

1-4

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Woolly Monkey,

 

22

1-5

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Vervet Monkey,

 

23

1-6

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Macaque,

 

23

1-7

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Baboon,

 

23

1-8

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Bush Baby,

 

23

1-9

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Northern Douc Langur,

 

25

1-10

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Colobus Monkey,

 

25

1-11

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Chimpanzee,

 

25

1-12

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Orangutan,

 

25

1-13

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Howler Monkey,

 

26

1-14

 

Gastrointestinal Tract of Adult Human,

 

26

3-1

 

Plant Cell Components in the Analytical Fractions of the Sequential Detergent System of Robertson and Van Soest,

 

63

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates: Second Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9826.
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Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates

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This new release presents the wealth of information gleaned about nonhuman primates nutrition since the previous edition was published in 1978. With expanded coverage of natural dietary habits, gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, and the nutrient needs of species that have been difficult to maintain in captivity, it explores the impact on nutrition of physiological and life-stage considerations: infancy, weaning, immune function, obesity, aging, and more. The committee also discusses issues of environmental enrichment such as opportunities for foraging.

Based on the world's scientific literature and input from authoritative sources, the book provides best estimates of nutrient requirements. The volume covers requirements for energy: carbohydrates, including the role of dietary fiber; proteins and amino acids; fats and fatty acids; minerals, fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins; and water. The book also analyzes the composition of important foods and feed ingredients and offers guidelines on feed processing and diet formulation.

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