National Academies Press: OpenBook

Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program (2000)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
×

Review of NASA’s Biomedical Research Program

Committee on Space Biology and Medicine

Space Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
×

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 96013 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor.

Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Copies of this report are available from:

Space Studies Board

National Research Council

2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20418

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
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COMMITTEE ON SPACE BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE

MARY JANE OSBORN,

University of Connecticut Health Center,

Chair

NORMA M. ALLEWELL,

Harvard University

JAY C. BUCKEY, JR.,

Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center

LYNETTE JONES,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ROBERT A. MARCUS,

VA Palo Alto Health Care System

LAWRENCE A. PALINKAS,

University of California at San Diego

KENNA D. PEUSNER,

George Washington University Medical Center

STEVEN E. PFEIFFER,

University of Connecticut Medical School

DANNY A. RILEY,

Medical College of Wisconsin

RICHARD SETLOW,

Brookhaven National Laboratory

GERALD SONNENFELD,

Morehouse School of Medicine

T. PETER STEIN,

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

JUDITH L. SWAIN,

Stanford University School of Medicine

Staff

SANDRA J. GRAHAM, Study Director

ANNE K. SIMMONS, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
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SPACE STUDIES BOARD

CLAUDE R. CANIZARES,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

Chair

MARK R. ABBOTT,

Oregon State University

FRAN BAGENAL,

University of Colorado

DANIEL N. BAKER,

University of Colorado

ROBERT E. CLELAND,

University of Washington

MARILYN L. FOGEL,

Carnegie Institution of Washington

BILL GREEN,

former member, U.S. House of Representatives

JOHN H. HOPPS, JR.,

Morehouse College

CHRIS J. JOHANNSEN,

Purdue University

ANDREW H. KNOLL,*

Harvard University

RICHARD G. KRON,

University of Chicago

JONATHAN I. LUNINE,

University of Arizona

ROBERTA BALSTAD MILLER,

Columbia University

GARY J. OLSEN,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

MARY JANE OSBORN,

University of Connecticut Health Center

GEORGE A. PAULIKAS,

The Aerospace Corporation (retired)

JOYCE E. PENNER,

University of Michigan

THOMAS A. PRINCE,

California Institute of Technology

PEDRO L. RUSTAN, JR.,

U.S. Air Force (retired)

GEORGE L. SISCOE,

Boston University

EUGENE B. SKOLNIKOFF,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MITCHELL SOGIN,

Marine Biological Laboratory

NORMAN E. THAGARD,

Florida State University

ALAN M. TITLE,

Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center

RAYMOND VISKANTA,

Purdue University

PETER W. VOORHEES,

Northwestern University

JOHN A. WOOD,

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, Director

*  

Former member.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
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COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS

PETER M. BANKS,

Veridian ERIM International, Inc.,

Co-chair

W. CARL LINEBERGER,

University of Colorado,

Co-chair

WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR.,

Lockheed Martin Corporation

SHIRLEY CHIANG,

University of California at Davis

MARSHALL H. COHEN,

California Institute of Technology

RONALD G. DOUGLAS,

Texas A&M University

SAMUEL H. FULLER,

Analog Devices, Inc.

JERRY P. GOLLUB,

Haverford College

MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD,

University of California at Santa Barbara

MARTHA P. HAYNES,

Cornell University

WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR.,

Carnegie Institution of Washington

CAROL M. JANTZEN,

Westinghouse Savannah River Company

PAUL G. KAMINSKI,

Technovation, Inc.

KENNETH H. KELLER,

University of Minnesota

JOHN R. KREICK,

Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company (retired)

MARSHA I. LESTER,

University of Pennsylvania

DUSA M. McDUFF,

State University of New York at Stony Brook

JANET L. NORWOOD,

Former Commissioner, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL,

Stanford University

NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS,

Brookhaven National Laboratory

ROBERT J. SPINRAD,

Xerox PARC (retired)

MYRON F. UMAN, Acting Executive Director

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
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Preface

In 1998, the Committee on Space Biology and Medicine (CSBM) completed a comprehensive report, A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1998), that reviewed the status of space life sciences research in all of the disciplines funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) life sciences program and laid out a detailed strategy for research during the International Space Station era. In that report, numerous biomedical research questions related to astronaut health and safety were identified as critical to NASA’s long-duration flight program. Shortly after the report’s publication, NASA requested that CSBM assess the agency’s entire current program in biomedical research, both intramural and extramural, in light of the recommendations of the Strategy report.

After a series of discussions with NASA’s Life Sciences Division, the committee began reviewing NASA’s entire biomedical research program in December 1998 in order to assess the degree to which the program seemed likely to meet research needs over the next 10 years. The research priorities given in the 1998 Strategy report were to be used as a point of departure when considering future needs and priorities. Specifically, the committee agreed to examine the relationship between intramural and extramural biomedical research activities sponsored by the agency and to review the content and program organization of both. The roles of the NASA Specialized Centers of Research and Training and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, in the biomedical program, were also to be examined. The review was to cover all NASA biomedical research activities, including those currently conducted in conjunction with operational medical and aerospace medicine programs.

Some of the specific points the committee considered in developing its recommendations were the following:

  • The balance of discipline areas emphasized in the current program;

  • The degree to which studies of fundamental cellular and physiological mechanisms are addressed in each discipline program;

  • The balance between ground and flight investigations;

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
×
  • NASA plans for the development and validation of physiological and psychological countermeasures;

  • Plans for epidemiology and monitoring;

  • Plans for validation of animal models; and

  • The extent to which programs are supporting new, advanced technologies and methodologies.

The committee made use of a variety of sources in gathering information for this study. Documents available to the committee included FY 1998 and FY 1999 life sciences budget information, the 1998 and 1999 Life Sciences Task Book, the first annual report of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and 1998 and 1999 program budget information, the Countermeasure Evaluation and Validation Project Plan, the International Space Station Medical Operations Requirements Document and relevant sections of the Astronaut Medical Evaluation Requirements Document, and NASA Research Announcements for 1998 and 1999. In addition, the Proceedings of the First Biennial Biomedical Investigators’ Workshop, held in January 1999, provided valuable current information. In addition to receiving briefings from NASA and NSBRI spokespersons, the committee as a whole held one meeting at Johnson Space Center, and a subgroup visited Ames Research Center to learn about the activities at that site relevant to biomedical research. These visits provided a vast amount of useful information, and the committee wishes to express its considerable appreciation of the hard work that went into the centers’ preparation for the visits and the thoroughness and candor of the briefings and discussions.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The committee wishes to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:

James Bagian, Environmental Protection Agency,

Norman Bell, Medical University of South Carolina,

Robert A. Greenes, Harvard Medical School,

Robert Langer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

Robert Nerem, Georgia Institute of Technology,

Gary Paige, University of Rochester, and

Edward Schultz, University of Wisconsin Medical School.

Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
×
   

 Programmatic Balance,

 

22

   

 Balance of Subdiscipline Areas,

 

22

   

 Balance of Ground and Flight Investigations,

 

22

   

 Emphasis Given to Fundamental Mechanisms,

 

22

   

 Utilization and Validation of Animal Models,

 

22

   

 Development and Validation of Countermeasures,

 

23

   

 Epidemiology and Monitoring,

 

23

   

 Support of Advanced Technologies,

 

24

   

 Summary,

 

25

   

 Bibliography,

 

25

4

 

MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY

 

26

   

 Introduction,

 

26

   

 NASA’s Current Research Program in Muscle Physiology,

 

27

   

 Programmatic Balance,

 

28

   

 Balance of Subdiscipline Areas,

 

28

   

 Balance of Ground and Flight Investigations,

 

28

   

 Emphasis Given to Fundamental Mechanisms,

 

28

   

 Utilization and Validation of Ground and Animal Models,

 

29

   

 Development and Validation of Countermeasures,

 

29

   

 Epidemiology and Monitoring,

 

30

   

 Plans for Monitoring Crew Health and Fitness on the International Space Station,

 

30

   

 Support of Advanced Technologies,

 

31

   

 Summary,

 

31

   

 References,

 

32

5

 

CARDIOVASCULAR AND PULMONARY SYSTEMS

 

33

   

 Introduction,

 

33

   

 NASA’s Current Research Program in Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Systems,

 

34

   

 Programmatic Balance,

 

35

   

 Balance of Subdiscipline Areas,

 

35

   

 Balance of Ground and Flight Investigations,

 

35

   

 Emphasis Given to Fundamental Mechanisms,

 

36

   

 Utilization and Validation of Animal Models,

 

36

   

 Development and Validation of Countermeasures,

 

36

   

 Epidemiology and Monitoring,

 

37

   

 Orthostatic Intolerance,

 

38

   

 Cardiac Atrophy,

 

38

   

 Arrhythmias,

 

38

   

 Pulmonary,

 

38

   

 Support of Advanced Technologies,

 

39

   

 Summary,

 

39

   

 Bibliography,

 

39

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
×

6

 

ENDOCRINOLOGY AND NUTRITION

 

40

   

 Introduction,

 

40

   

 NASA’s Current Research Program in Endocrinology and Nutrition,

 

40

   

 Programmatic Balance,

 

42

   

 Balance of Subdiscipline Areas,

 

42

   

 Balance of Ground and Flight Investigations,

 

43

   

 Emphasis Given to Fundamental Mechanisms,

 

43

   

 Utilization and Validation of Ground and Animal Models,

 

43

   

 Development and Validation of Countermeasures,

 

44

   

 Epidemiology and Monitoring,

 

45

   

 Support of Advanced Technologies,

 

45

   

 Summary,

 

45

   

 References,

 

45

7

 

IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY

 

46

   

 Introduction,

 

46

   

 NASA’s Current Research Program in Immunology and Microbiology,

 

47

   

 Programmatic Balance,

 

48

   

 Balance of Subdiscipline Areas,

 

48

   

 Balance of Ground and Flight Studies,

 

48

   

 Emphasis Given to Fundamental Mechanisms,

 

48

   

 Utilization and Validation of Animal Models,

 

49

   

 Development and Validation of Countermeasures,

 

49

   

 Epidemiology and Monitoring,

 

49

   

 Support of Advanced Technologies,

 

50

   

 Summary,

 

50

   

 References,

 

50

8

 

RADIATION BIOLOGY

 

51

   

 Introduction,

 

51

   

 NASA’s Current Research Program in Radiation Biology,

 

52

   

 Programmatic Balance,

 

54

   

 Balance of Subdiscipline Areas,

 

54

   

 Balance of Ground and Flight Investigations,

 

55

   

 Emphasis Given to Fundamental Mechanisms,

 

55

   

 Utilization and Validation of Animal Models,

 

55

   

 Development and Validation of Countermeasures,

 

56

   

 Epidemiology and Monitoring,

 

56

   

 Support of Advanced Technologies,

 

56

   

 Summary,

 

57

   

 References,

 

57

9

 

BEHAVIOR AND PERFORMANCE

 

58

   

 Introduction,

 

58

   

 NASA’s Current Research Program in Behavior and Performance,

 

59

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9950.
×
   

 Programmatic Balance,

 

62

   

 Balance of Subdiscipline Areas,

 

62

   

 Balance of Ground and Flight Investigations,

 

62

   

 Emphasis Given to Fundamental Mechanisms,

 

63

   

 Utilization and Validation of Animal Models,

 

63

   

 Development and Validation of Countermeasures,

 

64

   

 Epidemiology and Monitoring,

 

66

   

 Support of Advanced Technologies,

 

66

   

 Summary,

 

67

   

 References,

 

67

10

 

SETTING PRIORITIES IN RESEARCH

 

68

   

 Loss of Weight-bearing Bone and Muscle,

 

68

   

 Vestibular Function, the Vestibulo-ocular Reflex, and Sensorimotor Integration,

 

69

   

 Orthostatic Intolerance Upon Return to Earth Gravity,

 

69

   

 Radiation Hazards,

 

70

   

 Physiological Effects of Stress,

 

70

   

 Psychological and Social Issues,

 

70

   

 References,

 

71

11

 

PROGRAMMATIC AND POLICY ISSUES

 

72

   

 International Space Station: Utilization and Facilities,

 

72

   

 Countermeasure Testing and Validation,

 

73

   

 Controlled Trials in Space,

 

74

   

 Use of Historical Data,

 

75

   

 Empirical Observation,

 

75

   

 Operational and Research Use of Biomedical Data,

 

76

   

 The Role of Medical Operations in Human Research and Countermeasure Validation,

 

76

   

 Effects of Spaceflight on Drug Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics,

 

77

   

 Availability of Stored Clinical Samples,

 

77

   

 Data Archive,

 

77

   

 Science Policy Issues,

 

78

   

 Support of Operational Research,

 

78

   

 International Cooperation,

 

78

   

 Integration of Research Activities,

 

79

   

 References,

 

80

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

   

A A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century, Executive Summary

 

83

   

B Letter of Request from NASA

 

100

   

C Glossary

 

103

   

D Acronyms

 

107

   

E Biographies of Committee Members

 

110

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The 1998 Committee on Space Biology and Medicine (CSBM) report A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century assessed the known and potential effects of spaceflight on biological systems in general and on human physiology, behavior, and performance in particular, and recommended directions for research sponsored over the next decade by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The present follow-up report reviews specifically the overall content of the biomedical research programs supported by NASA in order to assess the extent to which current programs are consistent with recommendations of the Strategy report for biomedical research activities. In general, NASA programs concerned with fundamental gravitational biology are not considered here. The committee also notes that this report does not include an evaluation of NASA's response to the Strategy report, which had only recently been released at the initiation of this study.

Review of NASA's Biomedical Research Program summarizes the committee's findings from its review of (1) NASA's biomedical research and (2) programmatic issues described in the Strategy report that are relevant to NASA's ability to implement research recommendations.

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