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FIGURE 1 Images of typical medical-image-based models used in planning for surgery of the head and neck. Source: Courtesy of Medical Modeling Inc.

or sizing of off-the-shelf implant components, which can be “customized” to fit the bone model.

In the late 1980s came the introduction of the first commercial additive manufacturing process called stereolithography (SL or sterolithography apparatus [SLA]). Stereolithography offered immediate access to creating models of almost unlimited complexity from a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) file in a translucent resin material. Immediately those surgeons who had previously been using subtractively manufactured models created from computedtomography (CT) scans started experimenting with this new additive fabrication technology. SLA allowed not only the creation of the external anatomy but also a



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