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6 its environment and is in need of the tight coordination of a Note that Steps 18 focus primarily on the planning process, myriad of intricate operations (as is typically the case of air- whereas Steps 9 and 10 shift the emphasis from strategic lines with their needs for complicated scheduling), does such planning to strategic management. strategic programming make sense" (3, p. 112). The more creative strategic thinking described by Mintzberg might be There are some lessons to be learned in the revisions the used only infrequently, when there is a need for more trans- author made to the book in 1995. For example, Steps 7, 9, formative organizational or institutional change. and 10 were added, reflecting the need to not just produce a plan but to effectively implement it, and also to reassess the Another valuable perspective on strategic planning, that planning process as a prelude to another round of planning. appeared in the mid-1990s, was the concept of the "balanced The emphasis is on strategic management, not just strategic scorecard," as developed by Kaplan and Norton in response planning. In addition, the author places more emphasis on the to their belief that strategic planning and management as recognition that strategic planning is different than strategic practiced in the private sector gave too much weight to thought and action (a point strongly made by Mintzberg and financial matters (4). To remedy this, they developed the noted previously). In summary, the 1995 edition makes a balanced scorecard idea, an approach that provides a frame- more explicit linkage between leadership, strategic planning, work for helping an organization achieve its long-term strate- and management. gic goals by viewing the organization from four key per- spectives: (1) the customer, (2) internal business processes, Bryson is clearly a strong believer in the benefits of strate- (3) learning and growth, and (4) financial performance. gic planning, including the promotion of strategic thought and action, improved decision making, and enhanced orga- The balanced scorecard system involves the development, nizational responsiveness and performance (5, p. 7). utilization, and analysis of performance metrics that are devel- oped for each of these perspectives. However, he also recognizes that strategic planning has limitations and should not be considered a panacea for all organizational problems or situations. For example, strategic STRATEGIC PLANNING IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR planning is most likely not an appropriate response to extreme adverse circumstances; if the organization does not have the One of the "bibles" of strategic planning in the public (and necessary people, skills, or management commitment to pro- nonprofit) sector has been John Bryson's Strategic Planning duce a good plan; or if the likelihood of plan implementation for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strength- is low. ening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement (5). This book was first published in 1988, and then substantially revised Bryson believes that strategic planning is here to stay in 1995. because it effectively deals with substantive issues and con- cerns as well as the reality of political decision making. Bryson defines strategic planning as "a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and In 1993, the U.S. Congress passed the Government Per- guide what an organization is, what it does, and why it does formance and Results Act (GPRA). This act requires that it" (5, pp. 45). He offers a generic strategic planning model federal agencies take a number of steps to operate in a more that has been successfully used by many public and nonprofit businesslike manner and that they become more accountable agencies. This model consists of 10 steps that he refers to as to taxpayers. These steps require agencies to the Strategy Change Cycle (5, p. 23): Define their missions and desired outcomes, use strate- 1. Initiate and agree on a strategic planning process gic planning, involve their stakeholders, assess their (including who should be involved, and their roles and environments, and align their activities, core processes, responsibilities). and resources in support of mission-related outcomes; 2. Identify organizational mandates (e.g., enabling Measure their performance to ensure that goals are being legislation). met; and 3. Clarify organizational mission and values (this step Use the performance data to improve organizational should include an analysis of key "stakeholders"). processes, identify performance gaps, and set improve- 4. Assess the organization's external and internal envi- ment goals. ronments to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportu- nities, and threats (SWOT analysis). Under the GPRA, agencies were instructed to develop mul- 5. Identify the strategic issues facing the organization. tiyear strategic plans, annual performance plans, and annual 6. Formulate strategies to manage these issues. performance reports. As a result, in 1996, the FTA published 7. Review and adopt the strategic plan or plans. its first strategic plan, covering the period from 1997 to 2001. 8. Establish an effective organizational vision. 9. Develop an effective implementation process. An executive guide for implementing the GPRA, pub- 10. Reassess strategies and the strategic planning process. lished by the Government Accounting Office, pointed out that