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7 CHAPTER TWO NEW AIRPORT TERMINAL FACILITIES--WHERE ACTIVATION FITS IN Survey participants agreed that it is best for activation to be awarded on a BidDesignBuild basis and scopes of work incorporated into the initial planning of a project and essen- that require more end-user input and design are awarded at tial for airport operations, maintenance, and management the end of the design stage on a DesignBidBuild basis. staff to remain engaged throughout the delivery of the new facility. This generally happens on smaller projects with Although the BidDesignBuild approach appears to short durations--airport operational and maintenance staff reduce financial risk (capital project team has "fixed price" are often responsible for the delivery of the entire project early), it makes changes more difficult to manage and sac- and remain fully engaged from initial planning through rifices control over what is delivered. The challenge is that design and construction to opening. On larger projects with designbuild contracts do not typically include complete longer durations, airport operations, maintenance, and man- designs; therefore, issues are left open for interpretation. agement is generally fully involved with the initial require- Additionally, large complex projects often have long dura- ments capture, planning, and programming, but often less tions during which functional criteria, technology, business involved during the final design and construction processes. processes, and staff change. The result is that new facilities The reason for this is that large projects are often delivered are often received by staff that had little or no involvement using a dedicated capital projects team. The capital projects in establishing the functional requirements, had little involve- team is responsible for managing the delivery of the new ment during the design and construction, and may have facility (planning, design, construction, and workstream) adopted new technologies and business processes since the and an activation team is often established to lead the acti- functional criteria were assembled. vation workstream (see Figure 1). One way these problems can be mitigated is by keeping the New facilities have been created for millennia and the airport operations team involved throughout the delivery of process used to plan, design, construct, commission, and the project. This can be achieved by completing designs occupy new facilities is well-established. Generally, the before bidding, assigning airport operations staff to the proj- owners or occupiers of the new facility are involved with ect delivery team, establishing a robust activation program, the initial planning process and work with the planners and/or delaying procurement decisions until the last respon- and designers to establish the functional criteria for the sible moment. new facility. Once the functional criteria are established, one of several delivery processes is used to complete the This airport activation process has evolved to help orga- design and construct the facility. These delivery mecha- nizations successfully open new airport facilities. Although nisms include: opening airport terminal facilities is similar to opening other large complex facilities [i.e., hospitals (see http://assets1. · BidDesignBuild: A fixed price is established before csc.com/health_services/downloads/Facility_Activation_ the design is complete. This process is more appropriate Planning.pdf), pharmaceutical plants, factories, etc.] it is where functional criteria are well-defined and unlikely unique because politicians and politics are often involved, to change during the construction process. it is very public, there are many stakeholders, and it is often · DesignBidBuild: A fixed price is established when very time constrained. the design is complete. This process is more appropriate where functional criteria are not well-established and The Airport Activation Workstream typically occurs con- are likely to change during the construction process. currently with the Planning, Design, Construction Work- Various scopes of work are bid and then built when the stream and incorporates the tasks that the airport operator must designs are completed. complete to successfully open and operate the new airport terminal facility (see Figure 2). Frequently, large airport projects incorporate combi- nations of these two processes. Scopes of work that can Ideally, the Airport Activation Workstream is organized be accurately defined and contracted for at the end of the before or concurrently with the planning phase of the Plan- programming stage or early during the design stage are ning Design Construction Commissioning Workstream
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8 FIGURE 1 Planning, design, construction, and commissioning workstream (Source: Arup 2009). FIGURE 2 Airport terminal facility activation workstream (Source: Arup 2009). and is finished following handover/static completion of they reflect operational requirements and advises the the new airport terminal facility. Chapter six discusses ter- AEC team of any issues. minal activation policies, processes, and procedures (see · During construction, the airport terminal facility activa- Figure 3). tion team regularly visits the site to observe construction and become familiar with the new facility. Although the Design Construction Commissioning Work- · The activation team witnesses testing and commission- stream and the Airport Terminal Facility Activation Work- ing of the new facility and works with the AEC team to stream are independent, they are closely related. finalize the training program. · As construction approaches completion, the activa- · During the organizing, planning, programming, and tion team commences trials of the new airport termi- design stages, it is important that the AEC team cap- nal facilities and the AEC team commences handover ture requirements from the activation team and of the facility. that the capital projects delivery schedule is coor- · Once handover is complete, the AEC team has gener- dinated with the airport terminal facility activation ally achieved static completion of the new facility; all schedule. Progress against schedule is monitored systems work but the facility is not yet operational. throughout the project and the schedule updated as · Concurrent with or following handover, the airport ter- required. minal facility activation team completes readiness and · Concurrent with the preparation of plans of operation, transition and achieves operational readiness. preparing for trials, developing recruiting and train- · AOD follows successful facility completion and achieve- ing programs, etc., the airport terminal facility activa- ment of operational readiness. tion team reviews designs, proposals (bids), contractor submissions, and equipment submissions to confirm that These activities are discussed in more detail in chapter six. FIGURE 3 Relationships between workstreams (Source: Arup 2009).