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APPENDIX E 88 Survey Results ACRP SYNTHESIS PROJECT 11-03/TOPIC S08-01 Following is a summary of information collected during interviews of those who led or participated in airport terminal facility activations at 14 airports. Participants were e-mailed the Survey Instrument included in Appendix A to prepare for a telephone interview. In some instances participants completed Survey Instrument and returned it for review during telephone interview. In other instances, Survey Instrument was completed during or following telephone interview. Since many of the participants were only involved in some portions of the airport terminal facility activation, they did not recall or have access to all of the information solicited in the Survey Instrument but they were all happy to share valuable airport terminal facility activation knowledge, experiences, and practices. Following is an inventory of the information collected. Each Survey Instrument question is followed by the responses received from participants. In some cases the responses have been edited to standardize on US dollars, sq ft, etc. Additionally, it should be noted that in some cases $ figures were converted from foreign currencies and that none of the cost figures been escalated to reflect inflation. Also, where possible calendar dates have been converted to durations to facilitate comparisons. Finally, due to requests to maintain confidentiality, airport names and other identifying information has been removed from the responses. Airport Terminal Facility Activation Techniques Airport Terminal Activation is defined as the process used to transition a new or reconditioned airport terminal from a state of contractual completion to full operations. It includes: Confirmation/Verification that facility is fit for its intended use within the terms of the contract and in association with the ultimate occupiers or users. Review of new/reconditioned facilities to confirm that they are fit for purpose. Identification of any issues and determination of whether they should be addressed before or after opening. Development of Operating Plans for new/reconditioned facilities. Recruiting, familiarization, and training of staff and stakeholders. Trials to confirm new facilities, operational plans, staff, etc., function as planned. Relocating staff, tenants, and equipment.
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Please review above definition and provide suggested edits or indicate that you agree with it. Respondent No. 1 Respondent No. 2 Respondent No. 3 Agrees Agrees Agrees Does not agree Does not agree Does not agree If No, explain If No, explain If No, explain Respondent No. 4 Respondent No. 5 Respondent No. 6 Agrees Agrees Agrees Does not agree Does not agree Does not agree If No, explain If No, explain Recommendations Need to emphasize that trial must be Also include the Fire Marshall and realistic and stress people, processes and Building Inspection/Code Enforcement systems. Also, program should include Certificate of Occupancy; suggest soft development of "what-if" scenarios and opening, Airline Terminal Systems contingencies for everything. It is as, if integration, BHS In-Line EDS TSA not more important to train staff in certification, OSHA Moving Conveyance contingencies than normal operations. Certification. Include completion of Tenant Improvements, such as Concessions, Airline Operations Spaces, Airline Proprietary Systems, which are all required for full operation. Also; completion of punch lists, turnover of contract close-out documentation (manuals, as-builts, etc). Respondent No. 7 Respondent No. 8 Respondent No. 9 Agrees Agrees Agrees Does not agree Does not agree Does not agree If No, explain If No, explain I agree with the above definition. Would it Item 1 is usually in the scope of work of be beneficial to call out AOA security sweep the `Project Manager' following up the specifically? airport construction from the beginning (usually the PM reports to the Airport Operator). Respondent No. 10 Respondent No. 11 Respondent No. 12 Agrees Agrees Agrees Does not agree Does not agree Does not agree If No, explain If No, explain If No, explain Respondent No. 13 Respondent No. 14 Agrees Agrees Does not agree Does not agree If No, explain If No, explain 89
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90 Project Information Budget Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Respondent No 7 Planned $140 Million $4.2 Billion $4.1 Billion $5.8 Billion $3.4 Billion $386 million before events of 9/11/01 occurred. Actual $6 Billion $140 Million $4.1 Billion $5.8 Billion $436 million Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Planned $593 Million $1.1 Billion $4 Billion $1.8 Billion $431 Million $348 Million $155 Million Actual $623 Million $1.1 Billion N/A $1.8 Billion $425 million $577 Million $161 Million Schedule Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Respondent No 7 Design Planned 1 year 2 years N/A 7 years Actual 3 years 1 year 2.5 years N/A 4 years Construction Planned 27 months 5 years Airport--6 years 5 years Terminal--3 years Actual 7 years 27 months 5.5 years Airport--6 years 3 years** Terminal--3 years Commissioning Planned Throughout 18 months 3 months Summer 2000 6 months Construction Actual 1 year 18 months 3 months Summer 2000 6 months Activation Planned 01/08 2 years July 2005 5 years Summer 2000 2010 Actual 2008 1 Month 2.5 years 9 Gates July 2005 5 years Summer 2000 September 2005 19 Gates Oct 2005 Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Design Planned 79 Million End 1999 6/2001 Actual 91 Million End 1999 10/2004 102,511,000*** Construction Planned Completion 780 Million 09/2000 4/2001 1 Sept.2008 (handover): 1 July 2009 Actual Completion 836 Million 09/2000 6/2005 453,538,000 3 Sept. 2008 (handover); 9 July 2009
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Commissioning Planned Part of D&B 12 Million 02/2001 Summer 2008 Part of D&B Contract Contract Actual 12 Million 02/2001 Summer 2008 * Activation Planned 20 Nov. 2009 Included in 03/2001 9/17/08 20 Nov. 2008 Commissioning Actual 10 Nov. 2009 03/2001 9/17/08 N/A**** 13 Nov. 2008 *Design and construction were extended due to new post 9-11 requirements. **Two key factors allowed our project to move forward rapidly: (1) Executive Director's ability to secure airline commitments early (on the first try); and (2) Environmental Permits secured and "grandfathered" in under a previous DRI. I will describe these in more detail when we discuss the survey over the phone on Tuesday afternoon. ***Total soft costs associated with project including design and PM/CM. ****A full-time consultant was engaged for 22 months supported by a part-time scheduler. Approximately 3,500 hours of consultant time. The other costs of activation are the hours spent by airport staff to plan and prepare for opening day. Number of Passengers Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Respondent No 7 Capacity Pre- 60 Million 32 Million 60 Million* 29 Million 41,040,995 3 Million Expansion (actual calendar year 2000) Percent 90% 60% 40% 80% 77.6% 100% O&D (%) Percent 10% 40% 60% 20% 22.4% 0 Transfer (%) Capacity 90 Million 45 Million 60 Million 48 Million 34,632,474 12 Million Post- (actual calendar Expansion year 2001) Percent 90% 60% 40% 70% 76.6% 100% O&D (%) Percent 10% 40% 60% 30% 23.4% 0 Transfer (%) Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Capacity Pre- 5 million 8 Million 15 Million N/A N/A* 1.7 million Expansion Percent 99% 100% 30% 90% 100% O&D (%) Percent 1% 0 70% 10% 0 Transfer (%) Capacity 7.5 Million 8 Million 30 Million 16 Million 2.7 Million Post- Expansion Percent 99% 100% 30% 85% 90% 100% O&D (%) Percent 1% 0 70% 15% 105 0 Transfer (%) *Project was a replacement of existing facilities. 91
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92 Project Size (sq. ft.) Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Respondent No 7 Size 27,986,167 350,000 including: 3.5 Million 2 Million 5 Million Terminal 2.5 Million 800,000 100,000 Public building on 1200 130,000 Back of House hectare airport 120,000 APM Station island Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Size 1.1 Million 1.2 Million 1,185,000 1,500,000 850,000 900,000 200,000 Size of New Concession Space (sq. ft.) Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Respondent No 7 Size (sq. ft.) 200,000 169,000 34,000 # of 150 11 67 Unknown 37 4 Concessionaires # of 7 49 All 37 4 (31,000 sq. ft.) Concessionaires Additional 6 will operational at open when APM opening starts Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Size (sq. ft.) 194,000 86,000 # of 2 54 30 42 29 2 Concessionaires # of 2 Master 53 50% 36 25 ~9 2 Master Concessionaires Concessionaires Concessionaires operational at with various with various opening offerings offerings Number of Check-in Desks/Kiosks/Screening Positions Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Respondent No 7 Domestic 15 in hold rooms 80 99--All dual- N/A 168 110 function (Dom/Int) International N/A 142 -- 288--T1 168 7 56--T2 Kiosks 232 N/A--concourse 94 20 None 0--(35 added in 62 expansion 2005) Common N/A--concourse 94 20 None See above. 36 Use Kiosks expansion Screening N/A--concourse 5 locations with 3 locations with 30 Departures 13 12 (4 per Positions expansion total of 43 lanes ~12 positions 15 Transfer Concourse) each
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Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Domestic N/A ~60 N/A 144 Domestic 79 Positions 0 and International Common Use International 53 0 190 (including -- 16 Positions 20+ (CUTE) 28 express check-in) Kiosks N/A 60 with and 18 24 0 without baggage Common 8 0 N/A 18 8 0 Use Kiosks Screening 7 45 10 8+ 4 Positions Number of Gates Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Respondent No 7 Gates 47; 15 28 49 24 28 5A has 19, 5B has 14, 5C will have 14 Common 15 100% 9 but all set up for 49 24 12 Use Gates common use Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Gates 22 40 26 (including 5 44 26 14 6 A380 Gates) Common 22 N/A 44 5 CUTE 0 Use Gates Number of Airlines International Number of Immigration Positions Transborder Number of Customs Positions Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Respondent No 7 Airlines British Airways 5 at opening - 18 9 85 25 19 planning for 7 Immigration N/A 30 60 Departures--90 92 8 Positions inclusive of 16 e-gates Arrivals--120 Customs N/A 16 N/A N/A 20 0 Positions Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Airlines 53 11 Passenger 1 ~93 9 At least 2 22 2 Cargo Domestic operated at gates, 5 International for check-in counter 93
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94 positions Immigration 20 52+12 eGates 11 Arrs. / 14 N/A 10 Positions 14 Deps. Customs N/A N/A 2 with three 4 N/A Positions positions each Did project involve transition from Dedicated to Common Use facilities? Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Respondent No 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No If "No", Airport was already Some check-in Already had Partial "common explain common use. counters and gates common use but it use" was in place are also provided was expanded at the old terminal. with proprietary airline equipment The new terminal was intended to transition into more expanded use of CUTE and CUSS environments. Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No If "No", Terminal 3 is a explain dedicated terminal for Emirates so no provision for Common Use Terminals What were training implications? Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Respondent No 7 New Jet Bridges Staff and Staff + Airlines Lots of new and Yes, we provided with different stakeholders were needed different training and controls systems not familiar with training processes, certification of all from rest of airport. facility and Major carrier procedures, employees on the Lots of burn in uses processes and (American) systems, use of common (particularly with procedures used train equipment meant use systems prior ground power units) required for trainer that lots of training to opening. identified during common use. approach was required. trials 3 weeks prior to opening. Foreign flag carrier staff were all trained by Authority
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Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 No implications No training Personnel The only carriers International apart from implications for unfamiliar with new that use common airlines using new familiarization to Check-in facilities facilities and use positions at CUTE system for the new concept as same system equipment. the new terminal counter check in. and proactive used by Emirates are the two Gate consultation with previously. international podiums on the airlines General carriers and the CUTE. Airlines familiarization and charters. needed to be orientation training Dedicated trained. New BHS issues. New gate signatory carriers system, system required insisted on international and extensive training remaining at one domestic by airline staff. dedicated airline staff had to positions in the be trained on use new facility, thus of training system. New necessities were biometric access very limited. control system implemented for access doors and BHS. How were they addressed? Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Activation Team identified issues that Formal training syllabuses and courses were then remedied by contractor/vendor. were put together to familiarize staff with new building, new procedures, and new ways of working. Tailored courses were developed for: Air Carriers -- ~ 2 day course (1 for terminal familiarization and 1 for use of CUTE) with addition ½ day for staff who would operate jet bridges. Airport Operations Staff--1 day for familiarization plus additional training ranging from 1 to several days depending upon roles and responsibilities. First Responders--1 day for familiarization Government/Support Agencies--1 day for familiarization and use of new screening equipment. More than 100 courses tailored to the needs of each organization were offered 7 days a week often for 2 shifts for ~3 ½ months prior to AOD. 88% to 89% of staff was trained prior to AOD. 95
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96 Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Authority managed and tracked progress Training started 9 months out and of training became more intensive 3 months out. Worked with vendors to develop standard Train the trainer approach was used. agendas and curriculums Everyone working at airport participated in familiarization training with additional Gap analysis performed on regular basis training tailored to specific jobs/roles. to confirm all staff trained Training progress for all was managed, Soft trials (no public) for training monitored, and reported on from central training center. Respondent No 7 Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Extensive training and familiarization Extensive transfer program included a full Common use equipment vendors programme for all stakeholder staff train-the-trainer program followed by full provided training to project staff in a managed by the ORAT team. testing period of all functions including "train-the-trainer" position. Specific trials were executed in advance ATC, ground handling, airport operations of opening focusing on the systems and etc. process training. Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Organized training program with airlines and implemented operational readiness trials. Activation Information Did you have a formal Activation Team/Program? Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Respondent No 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No If "No", explain Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No If "No", explain
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Was there a Charter or Mission Statement for the Team/Program? If so, what was it? Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Yes Yes Yes No No No Ensure the Activation Team works Yes, for Stage 2. through, not in place of, the existing organizational structure The Activation Team coordinates-- existing organizations must continue to carry out their assigned responsibilities Costs for this service will be isolated and separately accounted for Provide direct support to Authority, Airport Users, Airport Service Providers Act to resolve disputes, anticipate problems The Activation Team can include Authority staff, Program Manager staff, outside consultant, airport user group (e.g. airline), or airport service provider (e.g. TSA) Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Yes Yes Yes No No No "Provide excellent customer service on Intension was to meet or exceed Strive to ensure all facilities and systems opening day that is seamless with no expectations of stakeholders. This were tested and ready for operation by surprises." remains Charter/Mission for future the established deadline. All problems projects and we have done a much better were to be elevated for resolution job of managing expectations and immediately. achieving this goal. Respondent No 7 Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Yes Yes Yes No No No While there was no "formal" charter or Achieve a safe and timely opening as The mission of the Midfield Transition mission statement, there were "Guiding perceived by the passengers, media and Team is to ensure that all people, Principles," which the Transition Team the airport community and be prepared to processes, technologies, and tools are formulated in the early months as the cope with any contingencies. aligned and prepared for operating at the Activation process got underway. new Midfield Terminal. 97
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98 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes--"No surprises on opening day." Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Yes Yes No No Beyond commissioning, activation is the Achieve a safe and timely opening as process of moving from the construction perceived by the passengers, media and phase to full operation of a facility. The the airport community and be prepared to process requires the engagement and cope with any contingencies. participation of the airport operations, business and facilities management and staff (all the members of the organization that are accountable for the execution and continuation of facility management programs to new or expanded works). Activation is ultimately the responsibility of the owner-operator of the facility and is carried out by the existing organization. This includes complete familiarity with all elements of the construction project deliverables and electronic systems that will be added or introduced into a facility. Activation includes: Implementing comprehensive orientation and technical familiarity training with the project. This effort extends to all users of the facility including airlines, tenants, government agencies and POS Completing staffing requirements and job training for new positions and enhancing skills of existing staff to operate and maintain new or upgraded equipment and systems Concluding business arrangements with tenants particularly defining and implementing those contractual responsibilities delegated between the tenant and POS Revising and conducting simulations on operations/emergency plans Preparing and conducting trials and simulations, which include actual loading of systems and equipment as would be experienced in full operations.
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Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Yes Yes Yes No No No Trials identified some changes required Major changes value was approximately because of operational requirements, $10 Million. These were made in early construction work ongoing until opening stages of construction. and beyond to support changes and rectifications. Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Yes Yes No No Substantial changes due to formation of TSA and requirement for in-line bag screening. Was activation program successful? What metrics were used to measure success? What were the benefits/challenges? Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Yes Yes Yes No No No Metrics Opening on time as planned with no No bad press. On time performance, which ranged between 95% Used to surprises, good press, happy public, Airline operations normal and on time and 98% during first week of operations Measure happy airlines. from day one Media and public reaction, which were both very Success We have identified areas for Satisfied passengers. positive improvement for future facilities Need for changes post-AOD--No significant changes activations. Concession sales at predicted levels were required Facilities operate as envisioned--updates to terminal operation plan were minimal IATA ASQ survey of customer service/satisfaction indicated significant improvements; Steve to provide details Air carriers acknowledge greater efficiency but this has not been quantified Reduced energy costs More airlines want to come to airport Benefits/ Trials pushed construction & Remedying defects particularly the Keeping air carriers in line and actively participating Challenges commissioning but failed to achieve issues with Jet Bridges and Ground in activation--Day of Ops always takes precedence. complete readiness. This was largely Power Units. Bankruptcy of anchor carrier due to the independence of the Minor changes were also required to: various work streams. Costs and lack of flexibility in program 117
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118 Lack of coordination and transparency Apron Lighting between work streams Light Level Sensor Locations Lack of commitment from Challenges included coordination operations--they all have day jobs multiple contracting entities to and did not have time to support complete on time. Each concession Activation program. and airline had their own contractors Many elevators and escalators were fitting out their respective spaces. not functioning at opening and airline staff (and others) did not know other ways to get to work. Nobody wanted to admit they were late and there was no objective/consistent metric for measuring readiness of each stakeholder. What Went Airport Authority staff were all familiar Airport Maintenance personnel were Overall Program--other airports are now embracing Well with the facility. Unfortunately, Airline trained and familiar with the facility. similar approaches and Ground Handlers did not force all Training staff to participate in familiarization and training programs resulting in an Activation period allowed completion Trials insufficient number of staff being of access control and closed circuit Transition familiar with and trained on new television (security) system AOD facilities and systems. Common Use Health & Safety were successful . All key concessions and airline tenants were in normal operations on Kiosks & Web Check-in Relocation of GSE and migration to new terminal went as planned. opening day. Processes and Flows--Original plan still work
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Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Yes Yes Yes No No No Metrics Used The Press, Focus Groups and Surveys Initial opening of CLK had lots of issues Established a path and goal with a set to Measure were used to measure the success of the so Activation could have been more common deadline for everyone to work Success opening. There were no negative press successful. We still follow similar model towards. Resulted in systems being fully accounts--everything was positive. and have successfully opened several tested, problems resolved and necessary additions and expansions (Terminal 2). training taking place. Ultimately resulted We now keep all stakeholders involved in in the confidence in setting a soft opening process and keep AOD soft as long as and grand opening with ribbon cutting possible. Operations department has a ceremony. comprehensive set of KPIs to measure performance of airport. These along with IATA surveys are analyzed before and after each activation. We dovetail with these during construction and agree with project owners and users on a set project specific KPI's, which measure impact of construction on existing facilities, business partners and public (or hopefully lack of impact). Our aim is for our construction works to remain invisible. Benefits/ Getting Construction Team to listen to Getting Operations and Construction to Keeping track of all the moving parts and Challenges Activation needs and provide accurate work to the same plan. the magnitude of the project. Managing information about progress of construction Managing media expectations. It is change orders and having a formal Getting activation requirements important that media and all stakeholders process for approving them was helpful incorporated into overall project schedule. understand the complexity and challenge as this appeared to get out of control of activating new facilities. It is a mistake towards the end. Construction was not on board--focus was completing construction not to let them think it is easy. successfully opening facilities. Keeping stakeholders engaged Lack of alignment between Construction throughout the process. This is critical to and Activation. mitigating surprises at AOD. Familiarization and training were compromised since construction and commissioning of systems were late. Developing contingency plans for everything and training staff in them. What Went Opening Day!!! We learned a lot and now plan for Good project management and over- Well Integrated Schedule prepared by contingencies. As much emphasis is sight, regular meetings, sound program Activation Team. placed on what to do when systems don't management, focused Activation Team work as on how to operate when and a decisive and empowered steering Training--Activation Team consolidated everything is normal. committee. contractor training programs and incorporated them into an overall program Soft Trails--Airport and Stakeholder (i.e. Airline) staff (no community volunteers were used--this facilitated staff orientation Peer Reviews--Activation Team visited Toronto, San Francisco, & Detroit to review programs and incorporate lessons 119
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120 learned Move Control Command Center provided centralized coordination, Respondent No 7 Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Yes Yes Yes No No No Metrics Used Although no formal "metrics" were used-- Overall perception (public, media) The activation was extremely successful. to Measure other than to ensure that our Guiding Number & impact of occurrences Situation Room monitored issues as they Success Principles were being met--we arose (which were few). Media coverage considered our Transition Program a Qualitatively & quantitatively assessed was used as an external feedback success based on the number of staff-induced errors mechanism, and it was overwhelmingly "attaboys" received from the community, Systems performance (KPIs where positive. Opening day was just another media, FAA & TSA. The feedback was applicable) day. very positive, so the return-on-investment (ROI) was high. Benefits/ The challenges were seen and felt mostly Fit-out schedule for concessionaires The new security system caused a lot of Challenges post-opening when it became evident that Political aspects relating to `grandfather' behind-the-scenes grief for airline and we had issues with the BHS and Fire rights of entities or unions airport employees. Alarms were going off Alarm systems. Also because training continuously (no exaggeration), and was not properly covered by scope and System-wise: security personnel had to be outsourced spec earlier, there were issues with Baggage Handling System to guard doors where security system was personnel and employees not Specific system interfaces not operational. This ended up being very understanding how certain pieces of costly. In hindsight, a cutover plan, which equipment or software worked. We allowed more time for employees to discovered that our signage was causing become familiar with the new system the general travelling public some would have made things easier. headaches. Our Computerized Another challenge was ensuring that all of Maintenance Management System the necessary training occurred prior to (CMMS) was not functional, which terminal opening. Training is best done created its own set of problems for our immediately before the knowledge is put Facilities group. to use, but some employees (such as I will describe these more fully when we maintenance personnel) were required to chat next week. attend as much as 120 hours of training. Wayfinding was a bit difficult for the back- of-house staff. It was difficult for airline/airport personnel to determine secure areas from non-secure areas. Immediately upon activation, we went through the terminal and hung several sheets of green poster board to identify areas of transition between non-secure and secure areas. What Went The Transition Team worked well Cooperation with the airport community The opening itself went amazingly Well together. Operational & Contingency Planning smoothly. The staff in the Situation There was lots of communication both Room was quite frankly bored. A member Tests & Trials of the media complained that he had been upline and downline, as well as formal and informal. "hanging around the terminal for 8 hours waiting for something to go wrong, with A large amount of faith and trust was nothing to show for it."
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shown by the Executive Director and The physical move from the old terminal senior staff towards the Transition Team. to the new also went extremely well. The In many respects we were building the move was meticulously planned and plan as we went along; I guess our executed. Most move activity occurred in thinking was strategically on track and the two weeks prior to opening, and some correct for the most part. occurred after opening. Only mission- critical items were moved during the overnight period, and the move was completed in plenty of time for opening the next morning. Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Yes Yes Yes No No No Metrics Used No formal metrics for success. 1st phase Metrics were the on-time transfer of Terminal opened as scheduled. No flights to Measure all flights left within 15 minutes of operations from the old airport and the were delayed as a result of facility. Success departure times, no adverse publicity for opening of the new airport in one day. any phase of the transition Benefits were a clear goal setting that was recognized by all participants. Project was supported by specific milestones that had to be met: completion of construction, dates for testing specific functions and entire operation, transfer and opening of the airport. Benefits/ Delays in the construction programme The establishment of a new airport Schedule and budget. Challenges meant trials overlapped with construction operator, the alignment of all significantly. True state of construction stakeholders' procedures and determining progress not always known. that procedures had been properly tested. What Went A comprehensive training and The equipment transfer from the old Baggage handling system was contracted Well familiarization programme with all staff airport to the new airport. as design-build and was a major success. having visited the facility a number of times prior to opening. The 90/60/30 method of reporting on readiness was also extremely successful in getting all the stakeholders aiming towards same goal in a controlled manner. Having previous experience in the ORAT team meant that we could know what mattered and what didn't. 121
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122 Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Yes Yes No No Metrics Used Pax complaints (none recalled) airline Overall perception (public, media) to Measure complaints, maintenance calls from Number & impact of occurrences Success tenants, performance of BHS screening. Qualitatively & quantitatively assessed staff-induced errors Systems performance (KPIs where applicable) Benefits/ Operation of the in-line BHS and cut- Late establishment of ORAT program Challenges overs to new conveyor devices installed in Short duration between handover and the existing line. Also, implementing opening alternative plans for MuFIDS errors in displays Fit-out schedule for concessionaires Political aspects relating to `grandfather' rights of entities or unions System-wise: Baggage Handling System Specific system interfaces What Went Coordination and cooperation amongst Cooperation with the airport community Well the airport staff and between the airline Operational & Contingency Planning staff and airport staff. Tests & Trials Cooperation with Construction Manager and General Contractor Public open house that loaded the building prior to operation--excellent public turn-out. International Airline staff familiarity with new BHS and access control system. Move of the airport staff to new office. TSA staff familiarization and operational readiness trails on the BHS. What would you do again? What would you do differently? Explain. Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 What would More joint working groups to encourage Same activation format Same program with adjustments to reflect you do more transparency between groups. scope of project. Again? What would Integrate Activation plan with Construction More involvement during design phase to SPOCs (single points of contact) for each you do & Commissioning plans. prevent "changes" during construction. department should have hard line differently? Formalize interface management and reporting to Activation Team and dotted expand to include systems, processes, Better engage airlines line to department. For this project it was people, construction, operations, and other way around and at times this led to other stakeholders. More time spent with maintenance conflicts in demand for SPOC focus/time. personnel and airline tenants. Enforce joint/consistent metrics for reporting progress and have it audited by Testing jet bridges, apron lighting, other
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an independent 3rd party. airline operational components. Better engage operations (particularly airline) Make sure that Authority Staff, Airline Staff, and other significant stakeholders complete familiarization and training prior to opening. Develop and communicate contingency plans to address what happens should systems, equipment, people, processes fail. Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 What would We would do the same program but Follow similar plan but keep AOD soft. Development of the Activation Team, a you do would start sooner and make sure it was formal process, established goals and Again? incorporated upfront as part of the overall measures to control change orders and program. costs. We would engage the same group of consultants and make sure it was led by Kim Arnold from Jacobs. What would Start sooner Foster closer cooperation and better more you do Enforce transparency regarding progress transparent communications between all differently? of construction. stakeholders. Make sure activation requirements are Start detailed planning earlier incorporated from the start. Keep all stakeholders engaged throughout Increase rigor of testing, commissioning, and trials Have contingencies for everything. Respondent No 7 Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 What would Would follow same methodologies and The use of Airport Ambassadors you do implementation strategies. (volunteers with red sweaters placed Again? strategically throughout the new terminal to assist passengers) was particularly well received. The plan to terminate the last flights of the day at the new terminal worked splendidly. What would Add more structure. Define metrics and Seek ways to optimize Coordination and Communication could have been you do measurements to be achieved. Ensure Communication. improved considerably. Generally differently? that training and elements of the design speaking, project team executives were of the facility be revised to better meet our very guarded with information, and this needs. resulted in an information vacuum, which quickly got filled with misinformation and a lot of paranoia. The key stakeholders were not engaged early enough in the process to make key decisions affecting the operation of the terminal, and this resulted in either a lack of goodwill or last- minute design changes and/or added expense. 123
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124 Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 What would Soft opening Establish a dedicated team responsible to Yes, I would hope to. you do 90,60, 30 Process monitor preparations and to perform Again? SPOC Process: The establishing of an testing. operational readiness Single Point of Contact (SPOC) and deputy SPOC for each organisation was very successful and ensured the participation of all key stakeholders and facilitated easier flow of information. Treat ORAT as a specialist activity that warrants expert help What would Review effectiveness of large trials (3,000 Perform more detailed assessment of the Try to mitigate Owner/Airline directed you do + people) against targeted smaller trials level of training and familiarization of changes. differently? (load tests) without members of the stakeholders through more extensive public. testing. Recognise the detailed planning and logistics involved in big trials and resource accordingly. Better access and integration with the construction commissioning team. Complete commissioning before opening!! Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 What would Same organization strategy with the same Would follow same methodologies and you do commitment from senior executive implementation strategies. Again? management. Operational readiness trials. Creation of Plan A, Plan B and sometimes even Plan C Regular communication with all parties Employee same tracking tools Make the airlines and tenants part of the activation program--track their progress on tasks. What would Conduct earlier readiness trials on Seek ways to optimize Coordination and you do modification on existing BHS systems Communication. differently? with seasoned airlines. Considerable attention was paid to the international carriers because they were operating new systems and not enough attention paid to the domestic carrier that was to only experience a relatively minor change in the BHS. Ghost flights for MuFIDS to test consistency between monitor and back- wall displays.
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With the benefit of hindsight are there any changes you would make or suggest making regarding? Explain. Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Define activation requirement early and Activation format was good. Would not recommend any material incorporate into construction schedule. If changes. this is done it should be possible to conduct many early trials while portions of the facility are still in construction. Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Start sooner If possible, always phase opening. This Enforce transparency regarding progress was not possible for opening of CLK but of construction. has been possible for T2 and other expansions Make sure activation requirements are incorporated from the start. Respondent No 7 Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Fine tuning on certain processes and use of more e-tools for higher visibility by all parties involved to ensure same level of information and common understanding. Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 Minimize changes to airport operational IT More detailed testing would identify systems whilst airport transition weaknesses in level of familiarization of programme ongoing. stakeholders with new airport Freeze construction at least 90 days out environment. from AOD. Work closer with engineering and delivery team so true extent of facility readiness can be gauged in advance of trials etc., to avoid duplication of efforts or time wasting. Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Plan and execute operational readiness Fine tuning on certain processes and use trials even on the apparent simplest of more e-tools for higher visibility by all process. parties involved to ensure same level of information and common understanding 125
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126 Are there any other lessons learned or caveats you can share with us? Explain. Respondent No 1 Respondent No 2 Respondent No 3 Familiarization and training of all staff and Active involvement of design and Can't start too early stakeholders is critical. construction team with Activation Team Detailed terminal operation plan is critical Transparent, consistent, objective produces best results (partnering across for development of trials and for prov ing reporting and metrics to measure staff/organizational boundaries) terminal functions as planned progress would provide management with information needed to make better Activation Team involvement during Training is critical decisions. design can improve the final product as In addition to proving terminal systems, well as smooth the transition to opening processes, procedures, staff, etc., function day. as planned; they provide great opportunity to introduce media and public to new facility in a controlled manner. Detailed highly scheduled transition plans are critical to measuring success and eliminating surprises on AOD. Respondent No 4 Respondent No 5 Respondent No 6 Complete concession construction Have contingencies for everything and Make sure everything gets tested before sooner. make sure everyone is as trained in the contractor packs up and leaves as it is Have full time liaisons between various contingencies as normal operations. very difficult to get them mobilized and constituents and stakeholders. Keep AOD soft as long as possible--don't back onsite once they leave. Ensure a commit until everything and everyone is good hand-off to system maintainers and ready. make sure training of maintenance staff takes place and they receive manuals for Familiarization and training take time. all system. A good understanding of People do not take training and warranty items and who is responsible for familiarization seriously until they are in what is critical in such a large project. new facility. Respondent No 7 Respondent No 8 Respondent No 9 Training Lessons learned are on secondary issues Back Door Ops to restaurants or subjects not directly controlled by ORAT. Oversize belt for the BHS Standards (signage, graphics, etc.) Diving into details Creative use of IT (WiFi network) Respondent No 10 Respondent No 11 Respondent No 12 All large construction projects or new No formal debriefing took place to collect builds need to have a defined end to end all data relevant to actual transfer and project delivery process that is bought into opening. Also importance of home-based and most importantly understood by all carrier in successful transfer. stakeholders involved in the project. The process for moving out of one phase of the project needs to be understood and adhered to by all (what are the project gateways, what form of controls are administered to ensure the timing is right
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to move to the next stage and ensure all pre-requisites have been met?). The communications need to be clear-- (who is in charge, who makes the decisions, who is responsible for what). There should to be a corporate-wide Information Sharing tool--a project extranet for example where everyone can get access to the most up to date information, drawings and status reports. It should be obligatory for all parties involved in the new facility to use a collaboration tool. End users need to be involved in all phases of the project not just the start and the end--the evolution of the project needs to be an iterative process. Recognise that not everything can be completed for opening day and put in place a decision process to manage the risk and to accept the asset in a particular condition with a follow up team to complete what remains to be done. Respondent No 13 Respondent No 14 Scores but none significant. 127