Index

A

Abuse and neglect,

see Child abuse

Adjudication, 2, 157-162, 164-181 (passim), 222, 226

see also Attorneys;

Constitutional law;

Diversion;

Probation and parole;

Sentencing

adult courts, general, 13, 18-19, 154, 155, 204-209;

see also Waiver to adult justice system

age factors, general, 1, 167, 170-173, 206-209 (passim), 212, 215-216

black persons, 167, 231, 232, 237, 250, 254-257

child abuse, 162

confidentiality, 205, 212-213

conviction rates, 160

data submitted by courts, 156

detention and, 178, 179, 181

developmental factors, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 157, 166

double jeopardy, 159-160

due process, 158-159, 160, 244-245

gender factors, 167, 203, 204, 214

historical perspectives, 13, 154, 157-162, 167, 214-215, 220-222

international perspectives, 17, 18-19, 20

jury trials, 160, 166

peer group interventions vs, 135

preventive interventions, 125

projection methodology, 62

racial factors, 6, 8, 156, 167, 216, 232, 237, 247, 249, 250-259 (passim)

white persons, 255, 256, 257

Adult criminal justice system, ix, 4, 5, 19, 161, 192

adult courts, general, 13, 18-19, 154, 155, 204-209;

see also Waiver to adult justice system

blended juvenile and adult sentencing, 5, 210-211, 219-220, 223

blurring of lines between juvenile system and, 4, 13

conviction rates, 160

historical perspectives, 157, 159

incarceration, 6, 12, 17, 161, 217-218, 219, 220-222, 225, 231;

see also “blended...” supra

international perspectives, 17, 19, 21

police encounters with adults, 164

African Americans,

see Black persons

After care, 194-200, 350-352

see also Probation and parole;

Surveillance



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JUVENILE CRIME Index A Abuse and neglect, see Child abuse Adjudication, 2, 157-162, 164-181 (passim), 222, 226 see also Attorneys; Constitutional law; Diversion; Probation and parole; Sentencing adult courts, general, 13, 18-19, 154, 155, 204-209; see also Waiver to adult justice system age factors, general, 1, 167, 170-173, 206-209 (passim), 212, 215-216 black persons, 167, 231, 232, 237, 250, 254-257 child abuse, 162 confidentiality, 205, 212-213 conviction rates, 160 data submitted by courts, 156 detention and, 178, 179, 181 developmental factors, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 157, 166 double jeopardy, 159-160 due process, 158-159, 160, 244-245 gender factors, 167, 203, 204, 214 historical perspectives, 13, 154, 157-162, 167, 214-215, 220-222 international perspectives, 17, 18-19, 20 jury trials, 160, 166 peer group interventions vs, 135 preventive interventions, 125 projection methodology, 62 racial factors, 6, 8, 156, 167, 216, 232, 237, 247, 249, 250-259 (passim) white persons, 255, 256, 257 Adult criminal justice system, ix, 4, 5, 19, 161, 192 adult courts, general, 13, 18-19, 154, 155, 204-209; see also Waiver to adult justice system blended juvenile and adult sentencing, 5, 210-211, 219-220, 223 blurring of lines between juvenile system and, 4, 13 conviction rates, 160 historical perspectives, 157, 159 incarceration, 6, 12, 17, 161, 217-218, 219, 220-222, 225, 231; see also “blended...” supra international perspectives, 17, 19, 21 police encounters with adults, 164 African Americans, see Black persons After care, 194-200, 350-352 see also Probation and parole; Surveillance

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JUVENILE CRIME Age factors, 3, 11, 54 see also Developmental factors; Prenatal/perinatal risk factors; Status offenses adjudication, general, 1, 167, 170-173, 206-209 (passim), 212, 215-216 adult criminal justice system, age of waiver to, 1, 25, 206-209 (passim), 215-216, 220, 250 after care, 196-199 arrest rates, 10, 14, 27, 28, 32-48, 322 assault, 37, 39, 41, 46 child abuse, 96-97 community age structure, 96-97 criminal justice system, understanding of, 16 criminal responsibility, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 157, 206 definition of juvenile, 23, 236 detention, alternatives to, 180-183 elderly persons, 330, 331, 332, 336 gender related to, 68, 69, 95 gun use, 10, 209, 216 homicide, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 62-63, 207, 209, 322, 325, 326, 333, 336-344 incarceration, 186-187, 220, 221, 222 international perspectives, criminal responsibility, 17, 18, 20 job training, 151 juvenile justice system, 16, 157, 167, 170-173, 175-176, 180-183, 206-211 (passim), 215, 256 longitudinal studies, 68, 72 parental discipline, 78 peer influences, 80-82 prevalence, 10, 27, 28, 32-56, 64, 68, 319, 320-348 preventive interventions, 8, 105, 152 projections of crime rates, 319, 320-348 property crime, 48-53 rape, 37, 38, 40 research methodology, 10, 64 risk factors, general, 10-11, 67-69, 71, 72, 73, 76-77, 85, 87, 96-97, 105 robbery, 37, 39, 41 school suspension/expulsion, 85, 87 sentencing, 210-212, 253-254 suicide, 45 teenage parents, 76-77, 102, 105, 116, 242 victim-offender mediation, 175-176 victims of crime, 29, 30, 35, 42 victim's perception of offender, 29, 35, 64 violent crimes, 10, 33-48 (passim), 54, 68, 207, 322, 323, 324, 326-329; see also “assault”, “homicide,” and “rape” supra Aid to Families with Dependent Children, 109 Alcohol and drug abuse, 14, 23, 56-57 see also Smoking adult justice system, waiver to, 214-215, 216, 220 after care, 194, 196-197, 199 black persons, 56, 63, 97-98, 258 cocaine, 9, 57, 71, 97, 98, 104, 190, 258, 317, 330 community-based interventions, 141, 143, 146-147 community-level factors, 93, 97-98 crack cocaine, 45, 46, 97, 98, 330 defined, 317-318 detention, alternatives to, 182-183 detention for, 177 developmental factors, 73-74 gender factors, 56-57, 59, 102, 203 heroin, 9, 71, 104, 317 historical perspectives, 54, 55, 56-57 homicides, 43-44, 45-46 incarceration, 45, 186, 187, 190-191, 220 marijuana, 55, 141, 147 peer group interventions, 137 policing policies, 98, 245 prenatal exposure, 9, 71, 104-105, 108 prevalence, 43-44, 45-46, 54, 55, 56-57, 59, 74, 330, 332 preventive interventions, 9, 108, 122, 129, 137, 141, 143, 146-147, 152-153 racial factors, 56, 63, 97-98, 258 school-based interventions, 122, 129 status offenses, 54, 55, 59, 74, 160 testing offenders, 194 American Bar Association, 211 American Correctional Association, 226

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JUVENILE CRIME American Indians adult justice system, waiver to, 216, 220 juvenile justice system, 8, 155, 234, 258 residential segregation, 91 sentence length, 253 Annie E. Casey Foundation, 179 Arkansas, 187 Arrest rates, 32, 34, 62, 90, 322 see also Prevalence; Recidivism; Uniform Crime Reports after care, 197 age factors, 10, 14, 27, 28, 32-48, 322 black persons, 3, 34, 56, 63, 97-98, 230, 231, 233, 234, 235-237, 244, 246, 254, 255, 256, 257 community-based interventions, 141, 143 curfews and, 145 data sources, 26-29 diversion programs, 171, 173 drug offenses, 54, 55, 56-57, 97-98 employment effects, 151, 197, 199, 203 gender factors, 34, 56, 57-60, 164, 203, 244, 245-246, 322 guns, 44, 47 Internet, 32, 35, 40 job training, 151, 197, 199 National Incident-Based Reporting System, 10, 28-29, 64 police policies, 2, 6, 26, 27, 29, 46-47, 163-164, 244, 245-246 preventive interventions, 111, 141, 143 property crime, 27, 32, 33, 34, 48-53 racial factors, 3, 34, 56, 63, 97-98, 230-237 (passim), 244-249 (passim), 254, 255, 256, 257, 259 research methodology, 10, 26-29, 37, 42, 61, 62 state-level factors, 26, 63-64 status offenses, 54-56 violent crimes, 37-48, 62-63, 146 weapons, 41, 44, 164 Arson, 17, 32, 33, 51, 53 defined, 316 Asians, 234, 240-241 arrest rates, 230 incarceration, 222 school suspension, 85 Assault see also Homicide age factors, 37, 39, 41, 46 community-based interventions, 141 defined, 316 detention for, 177 gender factors, 59, 60, 235 police policies, 46-47, 48 prevalence, 2, 32, 36, 37, 39, 41, 46-48, 235, 322 racial factors, 235, 236, 238, 242, 246 victim-offender mediation, 175 Attention deficit disorder, 9, 71, 72, 73, 104, 190 Attitudes fear of victimization, 1, 99, 106, 133, 143, 145, 155, 158, 162, 316, 328 gun culture, 98 mentoring, 149 peer group interventions, 136-137 of police, 244, 245 toward police, 246 racial bias, 220-222, 242, 244-246 (passim), 250, 251-253 school suspension, 85 stigma of delinquency, 31, 157, 174, 212, 216, 242, 328; see also Confidentiality students, 122 superpredators, ix, 7, 25, 328-329 about violence, general, 330 Attorneys effectiveness of, 166-167 prosecutorial filings, waivers to adult system, 5, 155, 207, 208-209, 214, 215, 216, 223 prosecutors, other, 19, 156, 226, 247, 259, 329 right to representation by, 166 Australia, 18-19 Austria, 18-19, 20 Automobile theft, see Motor vehicle theft B Behavioral modification interventions, 11, 112, 118, 124-125, 130-131, 192, 193-194, 225 contingent reinforcement, 123, 131, 147 mentoring, 147 Belgium, 18-19, 20

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JUVENILE CRIME Black persons, 68, 228, 230 adjudication, 167, 231, 232, 237, 250, 254-257 adult justice system, waiver to, 216, 220, 221, 231, 232, 233, 250, 257-258 arrest rates, 3, 34, 56, 63, 97-98, 230, 231, 233, 234, 235-237, 244, 246, 254, 255, 256, 257 community-level factors, 90-92, 237-238, 240-241, 258 detention, 178, 179, 182, 233 drug use, 56, 63, 97-98, 258 gangs, 95 homicides, 98, 339-344 homicide victims, 42 incarceration, 220, 221, 222, 232, 233, 255, 256, 257 juvenile justice system, 3, 6, 8, 167, 216, 220, 221, 230-258 (passim) marital status, 252 policing policies, 243-244, 246 poverty, 237-238, 240, 245, 258 prevalence, 3, 34, 56; see also “arrest rates” supra probation, 233 risk factors, general, 56, 63, 76, 85, 86, 90-92, 95, 97-98, 237-241, 242, 252 school suspension, 85, 86 self-reports of delinquency, 31 sentencing, 252-253 single-parent families, 76, 252 suicide rates, 46 victims of crime, 244 Brain functioning, 16 Breed v. Jones, 159-160 Britain, see United Kingdom Bureau of Justice Statistics, 64, 225, 333 Bureau of the Census, 323-324, 336, 340 Burglary, 27, 32, 33, 49, 50, 52, 322 defined, 316 gender factors, 59 racial factors, 238 victim-offender mediation, 175 C Canada, 17 after-school interventions, 149-150 homicides, 45-46 Capital punishment, 21, 157, 187, 211, 252-253 Car theft, see Motor vehicle theft Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, 10, 186, 225 Child abuse, 3-4, 78-79, 96-97, 103 court involvement, 162 defined, 317 incarcerated juveniles, 186-187 preventive interventions, 111, 116 sexual, 31, 204 Children in Custody Census, 186 see also Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement Children's Defense Fund, 211 Cocaine, 9, 57, 71, 97, 98, 104, 190, 258, 317, 330 see also Crack cocaine Community-level factors, 21 see also Familial factors; Local government; Peers and friends; Rural areas; School-based interventions; Schools, other; Surveillance after care, 194-200, 350-352; see also Probation and parole alcohol and drug abuse, general, 93, 97-98 alcohol and drug abuse interventions, 141, 143, 146-147 arrest rates and interventions, 141, 143 assault, interventions, 141 black persons, 90-92, 237-238, 240-241, 258 community service, 172-173, 179, 227 counseling, 140-141 detention/incarceration, alternatives to, 7, 141, 176, 195, 200, 213, 224 diversion, 170-173 economic development, 90-92, 96, 103, 145-146 socioeconomic status, 139, 141-142, 143, 147, 148 educational attainment, 141, 147 employment effects of criminal embeddedness, 201, 203 familial interventions, 4, 79-80, 95, 105, 139, 140-144 funding, 7, 8, 213, 224

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JUVENILE CRIME gangs, 83, 93-94, 95, 98, 99, 144-145, 330 gender factors, 83, 93-94, 95, 96, 101 guns, 97, 98-99 homicide, 146 housing, 139, 140-141, 142-144, 145, 240, 241 mass media interventions, 140-141, 147 mentoring, 140-141, 147-149 multisystemic therapy, 174, 224 nutrition, 141 police policies, 144-145, 246 prenatal/perinatal care, 96 preventive interventions, general, ix, 4-6, 7, 20, 107, 138-151, 152, 170 racial factors, 90-92, 95, 96, 103, 147, 236, 237-238, 240-241, 259; see also “segregation” infra research methodology, 7, 138-151 (passim), 193 restorative justice model, 20, 156, 176, 195, 213, 223; see also Mediation; Restitution risk factors, general, ix, 2, 3, 4, 11, 15, 66, 67, 79-80, 83-100, 103, 105, 330 segregation, 91, 92, 95, 96, 103, 236, 238, 240-241 smoking interventions, 141, 146-147 treatment of offenders in, 5-6 urban areas, 139, 142-144, 146-147 victim interventions, 141, 143, 145 violent crime, general, 97-99, 103, 145-146 Community service, 172-173, 179, 227 Conduct disorder, 3, 67, 73, 75, 100, 101, 190 Confidentiality, 205, 212-213 Constitutional law, 158-160, 208 capital punishment, 211 double jeopardy, 159-160 due process, 158-159, 160, 244-245 Contempt charges, 204 Contingent reinforcement, 123, 131, 147 Co-offending, 10, 28, 64 peer influences, 81, 93 Correctional facilities, see Detention; Incarceration Cost and cost-effectiveness factors, 12, 193, 226 after-school interventions, 150 detention/confinement, alternatives to, 7, 179 drug use, 98 early childhood interventions, 116, 118, 133, 134-135 incarceration, 155 peer group interventions, 135 prenatal interventions, 109, 116 property crimes, 48 Counseling, 88, 192 after care, 194, 196 community-based interventions, 140-141 detention, alternatives to, 180-181, 182-183, 247, 249 diversion and, 170 family, 170, 173, 174, 182-183, 184, 194, 196, 198; see also “parent” infra mentors, 140-141, 147-149 parent, 112, 113, 118, 136-137, 182-183, 184 peer, 82, 132, 135, 136-137 probation and, 184 racial factors, 247, 249 student, 113, 131, 132, 133 Courts, see Adjudication Crack cocaine, 45, 46, 97-98, 330 Curfews, 54, 55, 57-58, 145, 163, 179 after care, 194 defined, 318 D Day care, 117-118 Death sentence, see Capital punishment Definitional issues, 23 academic tracking, 87 alcohol and drug abuse, 317-318 child abuse and neglect, 78-79 criminal delinquency, 162 diversion, 169 due process, 244(n.4) juvenile, 23, 236 juvenile justice, 156 probation, 185

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JUVENILE CRIME racial disparity, 229-231 status offenses, 162 Uniform Crime Reports, 315-318 Delaware, 188 Demographic factors see also Age factors; Gender factors; Marital status; Race/ethnicity; Rural areas; Urban areas detention, 177 projections of crime rates, 61, 319, 320, 336 Denmark, 18-19, 20 Department of Education Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, 1 Department of Justice, 10 see also Federal Bureau of Investigation; Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bureau of Justice Statistics, 64, 225, 333 Detention, 2, 4, 7, 156, 176-182, 223-224 see also Incarceration adjudication and, 178, 179, 181 age factors in alternatives to, 180-183 attorneys, right to, 166 black persons, 178, 179, 182, 233 community-based alternatives to detention/incarceration, 7, 141, 176, 195, 200, 213, 224 community service, 172-173, 179, 227 costs of alternatives to, 7, 179 counseling as alternative to, 180-181, 182-183, 247, 249 drug abuse, 177, 182-183 familial factors, 178, 180-181 gender factors, 178, 179, 203-204 historical perspectives, 158, 159, 161, 162, 177 mental illness and, 178, 223 peers and friends, 178 police policies, 164 racial factors, 178, 179, 182, 232, 233, 247, 249 recidivism and, 181, 183 school-based alternatives to, 182-183 schools, impacts on education of detainee, 178 sentencing and, 177 standards, 12, 226 status offenses, 176, 177-178, 180-182 urban areas, 179 Deterrence, 2, 4, 21, 85, 192, 210, 218, 330 see also Recidivism Developmental factors, 1, 3, 5, 14, 15-16, 22, 66-106 see also Age factors; Early childhood development; Familial factors; Parental factors; Prenatal/perinatal risk factors adjudication, criminal responsibility, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 157 right to an attorney, decision, 166 alcohol and drug abuse, 73-74 attention deficit disorder, 9, 71, 72, 73, 104, 190 conduct disorder, 3, 67, 73, 75, 100, 101, 190 gender factors, 67, 73 hyperactivity, 9, 70, 71, 73, 104, 121, 129, 191 impulsivity, 9, 67, 70, 71, 72, 77, 100, 102, 104, 121, 131, 328 language development, 3, 72-73, 105 longitudinal studies, 67, 68, 72, 74, 75, 77, 105 racial factors, 67, 72, 228 research methodology, 66-67, 79 socioeconomic status and, 72 workshop agenda, 352-353 Diet, see Nutrition Disproportionate Minority Confinement initiative, 228-229 see also Race/ethnicity Diversion, 155, 167-176, 223 arrest rates, 171, 173 community-level factors, 170-173 counseling, 170, 173, 174 defined, 169 family counseling, 170, 173, 174 foster care, 7, 166, 172-173, 174-175, 224 mediation, 132, 170-171, 175-176; see also “restitution” infra peers and friends, 172-173 recidivism, 169, 171, 176 restitution, 165, 166, 171, 172, 173, 176, 179, 195, 223 restorative justice model, general, 20, 156, 176, 195, 213, 223 school-based interventions, 172-173

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JUVENILE CRIME Divorce, 75 Double jeopardy, 159-160 Dropouts, 88, 104, 121, 147 job training, 151 Drug abuse, see Alcohol and drug abuse Due process, 158-159, 160, 244-245 E Early childhood development, 3, 12, 67, 68, 70-74 (passim), 84-85, 95, 101, 105 see also Prenatal/perinatal risk factors cost-effectiveness of interventions, 116, 118, 133, 134-135 employment and, 116 peer interventions, 116, 138 preventive interventions, 108-119, 123, 132-135, 138, 151-152 racial factors, 238, 239-240 school-based interventions, 123, 132-133 Economic factors see also Cost and cost-effectiveness factors; Employment factors; Funding; Socioeconomic status community-based, 90-92, 96, 103, 145-146 prevalence of crime, 330 Education, 3, 8-9, 14 see also School-based interventions; Schools, other after care, 196 detained persons, 223 incarcerated persons, 5, 11, 14, 186, 187, 188, 189-190, 223, 225 Educational attainment community-based interventions, 141, 147 detained/incarcerated persons, 223 police, 245 Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 189 Elderly persons, 330, 331, 332, 336 Electronic monitoring, 194 Emotional factors, 4, 15-16 attention deficit disorder, 9, 71, 72, 73, 104, 190 conduct disorder, 3, 67, 73, 75, 100, 101, 190 hyperactivity, 9, 70, 71, 73, 104, 121, 129, 191 impulsivity, 9, 67, 70, 71, 72, 77, 100, 102, 104, 121, 131, 328 preventive interventions, 121, 123, 124, 126, 131 Employment factors after-school interventions, 149 arrest rates, 151, 197, 199, 203 community-level factors, 201, 203 early childhood interventions, 116 gender factors, 201, 202 incarceration, 5, 202 job training/placement, 150-151, 196, 197-198 juvenile justice system involvement and, 5, 200-203 maternal employment, 14 mentoring, 147 parental employment, 14, 238, 239 peer factors, 201 racial factors, 202, 238, 239, 240 England and Wales, 18-19, 20 Ethnicity, see Race/ethnicity Europe, 17 F Familial factors, 172-174 see also Child abuse; Marital status; Parental factors after care, 194 community-based interventions, 4, 79-80, 95, 105, 139, 140-144 counseling, 170, 173, 174, 182-183, 184, 194, 196, 198 definition of offenses against family, 317 detention, 178, 180-181 diversion and counseling, 170, 173, 174 foster care, 7, 166, 172-173, 174-175, 224 historical perspectives, 75 home visitation, 108-116 (passim), 118, 119 housing, 139, 140-141, 142-144, 145, 240, 241 intergenerational effects of criminality, 201, 202

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JUVENILE CRIME longitudinal studies, 77, 111-115 (passim), 118-119 mentoring, 149 multisystemic therapy, 174, 224 number of children, 77 peer influences, 81 preventive interventions, ix, 8, 20, 107, 108-120, 124-125, 135, 152 probation, 183 racial factors, 240 research methodology, 79, 108-120, 124-125, 135, 193 risk factors, general, 3, 15, 22, 69, 74, 75-80, 81, 95, 103, 105, 240, 330 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 10, 32-33, 35, 37-42, 49, 50, 64 see also Uniform Crime Reports National Incident-Based Reporting System, 10, 28-29, 64 status offenses, 54, 55 Federal government, ix, 7, 13, 225 see also Funding; Legislation; specific departments and agencies incarcerated persons, treatment of, 11, 155 jurisdiction, 155 prenatal exposure to alcohol/drugs, interventions, 9, 105 preventive interventions, 105, 152 projections of crime and, 64-65 school interventions, 105 Females, see Gender factors; Prenatal/perinatal risk factors Fines, 159, 166, 172-173, 195 Firearms, see Guns Florida, 216 Food, see Nutrition Forecasts, see Projections Foreign-born persons, see Immigrants Foreign countries, see International perspectives; specific countries Foster care, 7, 166, 172-173, 174-175, 224 France, 18-19 Friends, see Peers and friends Funding, 7, 9, 11-12 after care, 200 community-based treatments, 7, 8, 213, 224 female juvenile offense research, 10 incarceration, federal funding requirements, 11, 155 incarceration, research on, 225, 226, 228-229 research, general, 64, 152, 153, 226-227, 228-229 state funding for preventive interventions, 153, 225 state juvenile justice systems, federal funding, 155 G Gangs, 83, 93-94, 95, 98, 99, 330 police policies, 144-145 in re Gault, 159 Gender factors, 108 see also Marital status; Prenatal/perinatal risk factors; Rape; Teenage parents adjudication, 167, 203, 204, 214 adult justice system, waiver to, 214 age factors and, 68, 69, 95 arrest rates, 34, 56, 57-60, 164, 203, 244, 245-246, 322 assault, 59, 60, 235 burglary, 59 child abuse, 101, 102 community-level factors and, 83, 93-94, 95, 96, 101 contempt charges, 204 curfew violations, 57-58 detention, 178, 179, 203-204 developmental factors, 67, 73 drug use, 56-57, 59, 102, 203 employment and justice system involvement, 201, 202 foster care, 175 gangs, 83, 93-94, 95, 98, 144-145, 330 guns, 45, 98-99 homicide, 61, 339 incarceration, 102, 158, 186-187, 203-204 intelligence, 102 juvenile justice system, 10, 106, 156, 158, 164, 167, 175-176, 178, 179, 201, 202, 203-204, 214, 227 longitudinal studies, 101, 204 maternal behavior, general, 108 maternal employment, 14 mental illness, 3, 102, 190 mentoring, 148

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JUVENILE CRIME peers and friends, 100, 137; see also “gangs” supra police policies, 243, 245 prevalence, 34, 56, 57-60, 322, 328; see also “arrest rates” supra probation, 158, 204 property crimes, 58, 203 prostitution, 58 racial factors and, 67, 95, 96, 235, 241-242, 244 recidivism, 69 risk factors, 11, 57-60, 68, 69, 76-77, 83, 85, 93-94, 95, 96, 98, 100-102, 106 robbery, 60, 235 runaways, 56, 57-58, 59, 101 school-based interventions, 125 school suspension, 85 self-reports of delinquency, 31, 58 sentencing, 203, 253-254 status offenses, 203, 204 suicide, 45, 46, 102 theft, 59, 60 vandalism, 59, 60 victims of crime, 101 victim-offender mediation, 175-176 violent crimes, 58, 59, 69, 203, 241-242, 328-329 weapons use, 60, 235 General Accounting Office, 215, 250 Genetic factors, 66, 230 Geographic factors, 90, 258, 322, 324 see also Community-level factors; Rural areas; State-level factors; Urban areas arrest data, 26 gender, juvenile justice system, 204 homicide, 42 residential segregation, 91, 92, 95, 96, 103, 236, 238, 240-241 Germany, 18-19, 20, 21 Government role, see Federal government; Local government; State government Guggenheim Foundation, 1 Guns, 44-45, 97, 106 adult justice system, waiver to, 209, 215 age factors, 10, 209, 216 arrest rates, 44, 47 blacks, 98 community-level factors, 97, 98-99 gender factors, 45, 98-99 gun/drug culture, 98 homicides, 2, 42-43, 44, 45-46, 47, 63, 98, 99 peer influences, 83 prevalence of, 2, 10, 42-47 (passim), 330 racial factors, 46 status offenses, 54 suicides, 44-45, 46 H Health care incarcerated persons, 188 Health insurance, detention and coverage, 178 Heroin, 9, 71, 104, 317 Hispanics adult justice system, waiver to, 216, 219, 220 arrest rates, 34, 230, 246 classification of, 230 gangs, 95 incarceration, 219, 220, 222 juvenile justice system, 8, 34, 219, 220, 222, 230, 238-241, 246, 252, 258 policing policies, 246 preventive interventions, 117 risk factors, 85, 90-91, 95, 238-241, 252 school suspension, 85 socioeconomic factors, 238-239, 240 urban neighborhoods, 90-91 Historical perspectives, 2, 25, 107, 204-205, 320-329 see also Prevalence adjudication, 13, 154, 157-162, 167, 214-215, 220-222 adult justice system, general, 157, 159 adult justice system, waiver to, 214-215, 220-222 age of criminal responsibility, 14 detention, 158, 159, 161, 162, 177 drug offenses, 54, 55, 56-57 familial risk factors, 75 gangs, 93-94 incarceration, 157, 158, 160-161, 187, 220-222 juvenile justice system, 5, 154-155, 203 legislation and policy, 4, 13-14

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JUVENILE CRIME National Incident-Based Reporting System, 28 police policies, 144, 160, 163 preventive interventions, 13, 161 probation, 158, 160, 184 property crimes, 48-53, 324 racial bias, 220-222, 250 sentence length, 218 status offenses, 54-56, 160, 161 suicides, 44-45 Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), 28 urban neighborhoods, poverty, 90-91 violent crime, 34-48, 62-63, 155, 162, 322, 323, 324, 325, 332-335, 341-342 waiver to adult justice system, 214-215, 220-222 Homeless persons, 30 Home visitation, 108-116 (passim), 118, 119 Homicide, 3 see also Suicide adult justice system, waiver to, 207, 209, 214, 216 age factors, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 62-63, 207, 209, 322, 325, 326, 333, 336-344 alcohol and drug abuse and, 43-44, 45-46 black persons, 42, 98, 339-344 community-based interventions, 146 defined, 315 gender factors, 61, 339 gun-related, 2, 42-43, 44, 45-46, 47, 63, 98, 99 international perspectives, 21, 45-46 Internet, 40, 43 prevalence, 1, 2, 21, 32, 33, 37, 38, 40, 42-46, 47, 62-63 projections, 3, 61, 63, 322, 325, 333-344 Uniform Crime Reports, 27, 28, 29, 37, 42 racial factors, 42, 98, 242, 253, 333, 339-344 robbery, homicide during, 28, 29 self-reports, 47 socioeconomic status, 90 urban areas, 42, 45, 90 victims of, 30, 42 waiver to adult justice system, 207, 209, 214, 216 weapons, 41, 42-43; see also “gun-related” supra Housing, 139, 140-141, 142-144, 145 see also Incarceration homeless persons, 30 racial factors, 240, 241; see also Segregation Hungary, 18-19 Hyperactivity, 9, 70, 71, 73, 104, 121, 129, 191 I Idaho, 218 Illinois, 157, 216 Immigrants incarceration, 221 juvenile justice system, 158 Impulsivity, 9, 67, 70, 71, 72, 77, 100, 102, 104, 121, 131, 328 Incarceration, 4, 5-6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 156, 166, 168-169, 186-191, 193, 213, 223-224, 226, 227, 328-329 see also Probation and parole; Sentencing abuse of incarcerated children, 186-187 adult facilities, children in, 6, 12, 17, 161, 217-218, 219, 220-222, 225, 231 blended juvenile and adult sentences, 5, 210-211, 219-220, 223 after care, 194-200 age factors, 186-187, 220, 221, 222 black persons, 220, 221, 222, 232, 233, 255, 256, 257 Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, 10, 186, 225 community-based alternatives to detention/incarceration, 7, 141, 176, 195, 200, 213, 224 community service, 172-173, 179, 227 condition of facilities, 6, 186-188, 224 cost factors, 155 drug offenders, 45, 186, 187, 190-191, 220 educational attainment and, 223

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JUVENILE CRIME education of inmates, 5, 11, 14, 186, 187, 188, 189-190, 223, 225 employment effects, 5, 202 federal funding requirements, 11, 155 funding of research on, 186, 193-194, 225, 226, 228-229 gender factors, 102, 158, 186-187, 203-204 health care, 188 Hispanics, 219, 220, 222 historical perspectives, 157, 158, 160-161, 187, 220-222 immigrants, 221 international perspectives, 19, 20, 21 isolation/lockups, 11, 188, 193-194, 231, 225 job training, 151 Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 10 length of, 17, 19, 20, 21, 155, 156, 159, 161-162, 202, 211, 217-218, 219, 221-222, 224, 253 longitudinal studies, 191 mental health and illness, 5, 10, 150, 161, 186, 189, 190-191, 223, 257 nutrition, 187 physical restraints, 11, 225 property crimes, 220 racial factors, 219, 220, 221, 222, 228, 231, 232, 233, 249, 255, 256, 257, 259 rape, 187 recreational activities, 189, 193 research methodology, 186, 225, 226; see also “funding of research on” supra shock intervention programs, 8, 152-153, 192 standards, 12, 188, 189, 226 state variations, 11, 156, 228 status offenses, 54 suicide, 188, 223 violent crime, 44, 186, 213, 219, 220 Intelligence, 16, 72 preventive interventions, 116, 121 race and, 230 school suspension, 85-86, 87 school tracking and grade retention, 4, 9, 11-12, 83-84, 87-89, 103, 104 International convention on Civil and Political Rights, 211 International perspectives, 17-21 see also Immigrants; specific countries adjudication, 17, 18-19, 20 adult criminal justice system, 17, 19, 21 capital punishment, 211 criminal responsibility, age of, 17, 18, 20 homicide, 21, 45-46 incarceration/sentencing, 19, 20, 21 teenage parents, 77 violent crimes, 17, 20, 21, 45-46 Internet arrest rates, 32, 35, 40 drug offenses, 55 homicides, 40, 43 property crime, 49, 50 status offenses, 54, 55 suicide, 46 Interventions, 12, 14, 21 see also Behavioral modification interventions; Detention; Diversion; Education; Incarceration; Preventive interventions; Recreational activities; School-based interventions after care, general, 194-200, 350-352; see also Probation and parole; Surveillance multisystemic therapy, 174, 224 peer influences, 82, 174 Italy, 18-19 J Jails, see Detention; Incarceration Japan, 18-19 Judicial proceedings, see Adjudication Jury trials, 160, 166 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, 2, 13, 21, 54, 155, 161, 228 see also Status offenses

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JUVENILE CRIME Juvenile justice system, 5-6, 4, 16, 18, 24, 62, 154-227 see also Adjudication; Arrest rates; Detention; Incarceration; Police policies; Prevalence; Probation and parole; Waiver to adult justice system age factors, 16, 157, 167, 170-173, 175-176, 180-183, 206-211 (passim), 215, 256 American Indians, 8, 155, 234, 258 black persons, 3, 6, 8, 167, 216, 220, 221, 230-258 (passim) blurring of lines between adult system and, 4 confidentiality, 205, 212-213 defined, 156 diversion, see Diversion employment effects of involvement in, 5, 200-203 gender factors, 10, 106, 156, 158, 164, 167, 175-176, 178, 179, 201, 202, 203-204, 214, 227 Hispanics, 8, 34, 219, 220, 222, 230, 238-241, 246, 252, 258 historical perspectives, 5, 154-155, 203 immigrants, 158, 221 local government, 155 mentoring, 148-149 public opinion, 25 racial factors, 2, 3, 6, 8, 22, 24, 34, 63, 156, 167, 216, 219, 220, 230-258 (passim) research methodology, 163, 170-171, 175-176, 191-194, 229-231, 234, 235, 247 socioeconomic status, 158, 201, 237-238, 240, 246, 253 state funding for preventive interventions, 153, 225 state juvenile justice systems, federal funding, 155 violent crime, 155, 163, 186, 212, 213, 219, 220 Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 10 K Kent v. the United States, 158-159, 207-208 L Land, Kenneth, 319-348 Language development, 3, 72-73, 105 Larceny, see Burglary; Robbery; Theft Lawyers, see Attorneys Legislation, 2, 4 Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 189 foreign countries, 20 historical perspectives, 4, 13-14 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, 2, 13, 21, 54, 155, 161, 228 state, 1, 5, 13, 25, 155-156, 157, 161-162, 165, 204-222 Litigation, see Adjudication Local factors, see Community-level factors Local government, 1, 7, 13 see also Police policies juvenile justice systems, 155 prenatal exposure to alcohol/drugs, 9, 105 projections of crime and, 64-65 status offenses, 54-56 Longitudinal studies, 12 age factors, 68, 72 alcohol and drug abuse, 74 developmental factors, 67, 68, 72, 74, 75, 77, 105 divorce, 75 family interventions, 111-115 (passim), 118-119 gender factors, 101, 204 incarceration, mental health issues, 191 number of children in family, 77 parental punishment, 78 prenatal interventions, 109 preventive interventions, 111-115 (passim), 118-119, 121, 122 school-based interventions, 121, 122 teenage parents, 77 M MacArthur Foundation, 1 Marijuana, 55 community-based interventions, 141, 147

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JUVENILE CRIME Marital status, 69, 75 black persons, 252 divorce, 75 prenatal interventions, 109 single-parent families, 3, 14, 75-76, 92, 109, 242, 252 Maryland, 187, 196-197 Massachusetts, 189 Mass media community-based interventions, 140-141, 147 gang violence, 94 violence portrayed, 97, 99-100, 330 McCall, Patricia, 319-348 McKeiver v. Pennsylvania, 160 Mediation, 132, 170-171, 175-176 see also Restitution Men, see Gender factors Mental health and illness, general, 4, 73, 118, 148, 173, 174 see also Alcohol and drug abuse; Emotional factors attention deficit disorder, 9, 71, 72, 73, 104, 190 community-level factors, 95-96 conduct disorder, 3, 67, 73, 75, 100, 101, 190 detention, 178, 223 gender factors, 3, 102, 190 hyperactivity, 9, 70, 71, 73, 104, 121, 129, 191 incarceration, 5, 10, 150, 161, 186, 189, 190-191, 223, 257 suicide, 44-45, 46, 102, 188, 223 Mentoring, 140-141, 147-149 Methodology, see Research methodology Military service, 69 Minnesota, 196-197 Minority groups, see Race/ethnicity Monitoring the Future, 30, 36-37, 48, 49, 56 Motor vehicle theft defined, 316 prevalence, 27, 32, 33, 51, 53, 325, 326 Multisystemic therapy, 174, 224 Murder, see Homicide N National Center for Health Statistics, 42 National Center for Juvenile Justice, 156(n.1) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 29-30, 64, 236-237, 246, 248-249, 321, 323 National Incident-Based Reporting System, 10, 28-29, 64 National Institute for Mental Health, 152 National Institute of Justice, 152 National Institute on Child Health and Human Development, 152 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 36-37, 201 National Youth Survey, 190, 235, 246, 248-249 Native Americans, see American Indians Neglect, see Child abuse Neighborhoods, see Community-level factors Netherlands, 18-19, 20, 21 New Jersey, 217 New Mexico, 216 New York State, 217, 218 New Zealand, 18-19, 20 Nutrition community-based interventions, 141 incarcerated persons, 187 O Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), ix, 1, 10, 64, 152, 156(n.1), 200, 226, 231-232 Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, 10, 186, 225 Disproportionate Minority Confinement initiative, 228-229 Outreach, 108-116 P Parental factors, 3-4, 71, 75, 96-97, 103, 330 see also Child abuse; Familial factors; Prenatal/perinatal risk factors after-school interventions, 149 community-based interventions, 140-144 counseling, 112, 113, 118, 136-137, 182-183, 184 discipline, age factors, 78

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JUVENILE CRIME disobedience/incorrigibility, 23, 24, 73, 101, 160, 162, 203; see also Runaways employment, 14, 238, 239 foster care, 7, 166, 172-173, 174-175, 224 home visitation, 108-116 (passim), 118, 119 intergenerational effects of criminality, 201, 202 mentoring and, 149 number of children, 77 peer influences, 81, 136-137 preventive interventions, 5, 108-120, 126, 136-137, 151 school suspension, 85 single-parent families, 3, 14, 75-76, 92, 109, 242, 252 teenage parents, 76-77, 102, 105, 116, 242 Parole, see Probation and parole Peers and friends, 4, 15, 22, 69, 71, 74, 79, 80-83, 93, 135 after-school interventions, 150 age factors, 80-82 alcohol and drug abuse, 137 community-based interventions, 140-143, 147 co-offending, 81, 93 counseling, 82, 132, 135, 136-137 detention and, 178 diversion, 172-173 early childhood interventions, 116, 138 employment effects of criminal embeddedness, 201 familial factors, 81 foster care and, 175 gangs, 83, 93-94, 95, 98, 99, 144-145, 330 gender factors, 100, 137 gun use, 83 mediation, 132 multisystemic therapy, 174, 224 parental factors, 81, 136-137 preventive interventions, 82, 125, 135-138, 140-143, 151, 153, 172-173, 174 racial factors, 243 research methodology, 82, 125, 135-138, 140-143, 151, 153 school-based interventions, 125, 136-137 school suspension and expulsion, 85 smoking, 135, 138 violence, 83; see also “gangs” supra Police policies, 155, 162-164, 226 adults, encounters with, 164 arrest rates and, 2, 6, 26, 27, 29, 46-47, 244, 245-246 assault, 46-47, 48 attitudes of police, general, 244, 245 attitudes toward police, general, 246 black persons, 243-244, 246 community factors, 144-146, 246 court referrals, 162 curfews, 54, 55, 57-58, 145, 163, 179 detention, 164 drug abuse, 98, 245 educational attainment, 245 gangs, 144-145 gender factors, 243, 245 historical perspectives, 144, 160, 163 projections of prevalence, 62, 330 racial disparity, 6, 8, 243-247 research methodology, 144-145, 163, 247 school-based interventions, 126 socioeconomic status, 246 urban areas, 163, 246 victims of crime, 163 violent crimes, 163 Prenatal/perinatal risk factors, 3, 12, 67, 69-71, 104-105 alcohol and drug abuse, 9, 71, 104-105, 108 community-level factors, 96 cost-effectiveness of interventions, 109, 116 preventive interventions, 9, 104-105, 108-115 (passim), 120, 151-152 racial factors, 238-239 smoking, 217-218, 220 teenage parents, 76-77, 102, 105, 116, 242 Prevalence, ix, 1, 2, 13, 17, 23-24, 25-65 see also Arrest rates; Uniform Crime Reports adjudication, 167 age factors, 10, 27, 28, 32-56, 64, 68, 319, 320-348 alcohol and drug abuse, 43-44, 45-46, 54, 55, 56-57, 59, 74, 330, 332 arrest rates, 111, 141, 143

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JUVENILE CRIME assault, 2, 32, 36, 37, 39, 41, 46-48, 235, 322 black persons, 3, 34, 56 drug offenses, 54, 55, 56-57 early childhood, 116 gender factors, 34, 56, 57-60, 322, 328 arrest rates, 34, 56, 57-60, 164, 203, 244, 245-246, 322 gun use, 2, 10, 42-47 (passim), 330 homicides, 1, 2, 21, 32, 33, 37, 38, 40, 42-46, 47, 62-63 projections, 3, 61, 63, 322, 325, 333-344 Uniform Crime Reports, 27, 28, 29, 37, 42 motor vehicle theft, 27, 32, 33, 51, 53, 325, 326 National Crime Victimization Survey, 29-30, 64, 236-237, 246, 248-249, 321, 323 National Incident-Based Reporting System, 10, 28-29, 64 projections, crime rates, general, 7, 60-62, 64-65, 319-348 homicides, 3, 61, 63, 322, 325, 333-344 property crime, 27, 29-30, 32, 33, 34, 48-53, 322, 324, 331-332 racial factors, 3, 31, 34, 46, 56, 229, 235, 322 rape, 2, 27, 32, 37, 38, 40, 235 robbery, 2, 27, 28, 29, 32, 37, 39, 41, 235, 236, 322 status offenses, 54-56, 167 suicide, 44-45, 46 violent crimes, 2, 13, 17, 20, 25, 32, 33, 34-48, 62-63, 155, 235, 322, 323, 324, 326-332 (passim) Preventive interventions, ix, 1, 4-5, 12, 18, 21, 24, 107-153 see also Behavioral modification interventions; Counseling; Recreational activities; School-based interventions age factors, 8, 105, 152 alcohol and drug abuse, 9, 108, 122, 129, 137, 141, 143, 146-147, 152-153 arrest rates, 111, 141, 143 child abuse, 111, 116 community-based, ix, 4-6, 7, 20, 107, 138-151, 152, 170 early childhood, 108-119, 123, 132-135, 138, 151-152 emotional factors, 121, 123, 124, 126, 131 familial, ix, 8, 20, 107, 108-120, 124-125, 135, 152 federal government, 105, 152 funding, 153, 225 historical perspectives, 13, 161 intelligence and, 116, 121 juvenile justice system, 4 longitudinal studies, 111-115 (passim), 118-119, 121, 122 mentoring, 140-141, 147-149 parental factors, 5, 108-120, 126, 136-137, 151 peer-group factors, 82, 125, 135-138, 140-143, 151, 153, 172-173, 174 prenatal, 9, 104-105, 108-115 (passim), 120, 151-152 projections, 3, 7, 60-62, 64-65, 319-348 racial factors, 117, 119-120 research methodology, 8, 108-153 (passim) sexual activity, 109 shock intervention programs, 8, 152-153, 192 smoking, 9, 105, 108, 111 socioeconomic status, 109, 117 welfare, 109, 111, 116 teenage parents, 116 urban areas, 119-120 Prisons, see Incarceration Probation and parole, 111, 156, 165, 166, 168-169, 179, 182-186, 194, 195, 198, 226 see also After care adult justice system, waiver to, 217 blended juvenile and adult sentences, 211 counseling, 184 court referrals, 162 defined, 185 gender factors, 158, 204 historical perspectives, 158, 160, 184 job training, 151 peer group interventions, 135 racial factors, 233, 251 recidivism, 184, 185

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JUVENILE CRIME state government, 183, 184 status offenses, 184 violent crimes, 185 Projections crime rates, general, 7, 60-62, 64-65, 319-348 homicides, 3, 61, 63, 322, 325, 333-344 Property crimes, 48-53, 331-332 see also Arson; Burglary; Motor vehicle theft; Robbery; Theft adult justice system, waiver to, 216, 220 age factors, 48-53 arrest rates, 27, 32, 33, 34, 48-53 defined, 317 detention for, 177 gender factors, 58, 59, 60, 203 historical perspectives, 48-53, 324 incarceration for, 220 Internet, 49, 50 prevalence, 27, 29-30, 32, 33, 34, 48-53, 322, 324, 331-332 vandalism, 59, 60, 150, 175 defined, 317 school property, 48, 49, 60, 123, 129 victim reports, 29-30, 236 Prosecutors, 19, 156, 226, 247, 259, 329 waivers to adult system, 5, 155, 207, 208-209, 214, 215, 216, 223 Prostitution, 58, 317 Poverty, see Socioeconomic status Public opinion, 1, 2, 13, 99, 106, 133, 143, 145, 155, 158, 162, 316, 328 R Race/ethnicity, 4, 228-260 see also American Indians; Asians; Black persons; Hispanics; Immigrants; White persons adjudication, 6, 8, 156, 167, 216, 232, 237, 247, 249, 250-259 (passim) adult justice system, waiver to, 216, 219, 220, 221, 222, 231, 232, 233, 250, 254-258 alcohol and drug abuse, 56, 63, 97-98, 258 arrest rates, 3, 34, 56, 63, 97-98, 230-237 (passim), 244-249 (passim), 254, 255, 256, 257, 259 assault, 235, 236, 238, 242, 246 bias, general, 220-222, 242, 244-246 (passim), 250, 251-253 burglary, 238 community-based interventions, 147 community-level factors, 90-92, 95, 96, 103, 147, 236, 237-238, 240-241, 259; see also “segregation” infra counseling, 247, 249 definitional issues, disparity, 229-231 detention, 178, 179, 182, 232, 233, 247, 249 developmental factors, 67, 72, 228 early childhood, 238, 239-240 employment, 202, 238, 239, 240 gangs, 95 gender factors and, 67, 95, 96, 235, 241-242, 244 guns, 46 historical perspectives on bias, 220-222, 250 homicides, 42, 98, 242, 253, 333, 339-344 housing, 240, 241; see also “segregation” infra incarceration, 219, 220, 221, 222, 228, 231, 232, 233, 249, 255, 256, 257, 259 intelligence and, 230 juvenile justice system, 2, 3, 6, 8, 22, 24, 34, 63, 156, 167, 216, 219, 220, 230-258 (passim) mentoring, 148 police policies, 6, 8, 243-247 prenatal/perinatal risk, 238-239 prevalence, 3, 31, 34, 46, 56, 229, 235, 322 preventive interventions, 117, 119-120 probation, 233, 251 punitive policies, general, 13-14 rape, 236, 242 research methodology, 8, 64, 229-231, 234, 235, 247, 248-249, 259-260 risk factors, 56, 63, 67, 72, 76, 85, 86, 90-92, 95, 96, 97-98, 103, 237-242, 252, 253, 254-258 robbery, 235, 236, 242, 246, 253 rural areas, 259 school suspension, 85

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JUVENILE CRIME segregation, 91, 92, 95, 96, 103, 236, 238, 240-241 self-reports of delinquency, 31, 230, 235-236, 248-249 sentencing, 252-254 single-parent families, 76, 252 socioeconomic status, 237-239, 240, 246, 253 state-level disparities, 233, 234, 237, 239 suicide rates, 46 urban neighborhoods, 90-92, 250 victim-offender mediation, 175-176 victims of crime, other, 235, 238, 246, 253 victims' perception of offender, 64,236 violent crimes, general, 34, 230, 235, 241-242, 246, 333 weapons, 46, 235 workshop agenda, 353-354 Rape adult justice system, waiver to, 214, 216 age factors, 37, 38, 40 confidentiality of court proceedings, 213 defined, 316 incarceration, 187 prevalence, 2, 27, 32, 37, 38, 40, 235 racial factors, 236, 242 Recidivism, 4, 7, 11, 155, 191, 193 see also Deterrence adult justice system, waiver to, 215, 218-219, 223 after care, 195, 197, 199-200 detention, alternatives to, 181, 183 diversion and, 169, 171, 176 gender factors, 69 mediation, 176 probation, 184, 185 school suspension, 85 Recreational activities, 93, 130, 136, 175 after-school programs, 149-150 incarcerated persons, 189, 193 mentoring, 148, 149 Research methodology, 2, 10-12, 26-31, 62 see also Definitional issues; Funding; Longitudinal studies; Self-reports of offenders after care, 195-200 after-school interventions, 149-150 age factors, 10, 64 arrest data, 10, 26-29, 37, 42, 61, 62 committee study at hand, ix, 1-2, 21-22, 107, 349-354 community-based interventions, 7, 138-151, 193 detention and alternatives to, 176-183 developmental factors, 66-67, 79 diversion, 169-174 ethnographic, 94-95 familial factors, 79, 108-120, 124-125, 135, 193 familial interventions, 108-120, 124-125, 135 incarceration, 186, 193-194, 225, 226, 228-229 job training, 150-151 juvenile justice system, 163, 170-171, 175-176, 191-194, 229-231, 234, 235, 247 Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 10 mediation, 170-171, 175-176 mentoring, 147-149 multisystemic therapy, 174, 224 National Incident-Based Reporting System, 10 peer influences, 82 peer interventions, 125, 135-138, 140-143, 151, 153 police policies, evaluation, 144-145, 163, 247 prenatal interventions, 108-109 preventive interventions, 8, 108-153 (passim) probation, 183-185, 196-199 projections of crime, 60-62, 64-65, 319-346 racial factors, 8, 64, 229-231, 234, 235, 247, 248-249, 259-260 school-based interventions, 114, 118, 119-120, 121-135, 140-141, 146 Uniform Crime Reports, 10, 26-29, 63-64 victim reports, 29-30 Restitution, 165, 166, 171, 172, 173, 176, 179, 195, 223 Restorative justice model, 20, 156, 176, 195, 213, 223 see also Mediation fines, 159, 166, 172-173, 195

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JUVENILE CRIME Risk factors, ix, 1, 3, 10-11, 24, 66-106 see also Age factors; Alcohol and drug abuse; Community-level factors; Developmental factors; Familial factors; Geographic factors; Interventions; Peers and friends; Preventive interventions; Race/ethnicity; Socioeconomic status compound, 201, 231, 253, 254-258 Robbery see also Burglary age factors, 37, 39, 41 defined, 316 gender factors, 60, 235 homicide during, 28, 29 prevalence, 2, 27, 29, 32, 37, 39, 41, 235, 236, 322 Uniform Crime Reports, 27, 28, 29 racial factors, 235, 236, 242, 246, 253 Runaways, 54, 56, 109, 160, 162 defined, 318 gender factors, 56, 57-58, 59, 101 Rural areas attorney, right to representation by, 166 community-based interventions, 147 racial factors, 259 school risk factors, 85, 87 Russia, 18-19, 21 S Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, 1 School-based interventions, 1, 4-5, 8-9, 11-12, 72-73, 107, 114, 118, 119-120, 121-135, 140-141, 146-147, 151, 152 after-school interventions, 149-150 alcohol and drug abuse, 122, 129 attendance, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 147, 148 counseling, 113, 131, 132, 133 detention, alternatives to, 182-183 diversion, 172-173 early childhood, 123, 132-133 foster care and, 175 gender factors, 125 longitudinal studies, 121, 122 peer group interventions, 125, 136-137 research methodology, 114, 118, 119-120, 121-135, 140-141, 146 Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, 1 workshop agendas, 350 Schools, other, 4 see also Education; Educational attainment attendance, 30, 62, 87, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 147, 148, 162, 175 confidentiality of court proceedings, 212-213 detention and, 178 dropouts, 88, 104, 121, 147, 151 mass shootings, 342 property crime, damage to, 48, 49, 60, 123, 129 risk factors, age, 69, 72-73, 83-89, 103, 104, 122, 123 self-report data, 30 suspension/expulsion, 84-87, 104 tracking and grade retention, 4, 9, 11-12, 83-84, 87-89, 103, 104 workshop agendas, 349-350 Segregation, 91, 92, 95, 96, 103, 236, 238, 240-241 Self-reports of offenders, 2, 6, 10, 26, 30-31, 36-37 after care, 197, 199 assault, 48 attendance, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 147, 148 child abuse, 79 co-offending, 64 diversion programs, 171 drug use, 56 gender factors, 31, 58 homicide, 47 peer group interventions, 137 property crimes, 48 race/ethnicity, 31, 230, 235-236, 248-249 status offenses, 55 violent crimes, 48, 58 Sentencing, 5, 13, 44, 155, 166, 168, 104, 205, 210-212, 215, 217-218 see also Adjudication; Adult criminal justice system; Incarceration; Probation and parole adult justice system, waiver to, 217-218, 220

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JUVENILE CRIME age factors, 210-212, 253-254 attorneys, right to, 166 black persons, 252-253 blended juvenile and adult sentencing, 5, 210-211, 219-220, 223 capital punishment, 21, 157, 187, 211, 252-253 community service, 172-173, 179, 227 detention and, 177 fines, 159, 166, 172-173, 195 gender factors, 203, 253-254 international perspectives, 19, 20, 21 length of, 17, 19, 20, 21, 155, 156, 159, 161-162, 202, 211, 217-218, 219, 221-222, 224, 253 mandatory, 161-162, 211 projections of crime and, 64-65 racial factors, 252-254 restitution, 165, 166, 171, 172, 173, 176, 179, 195, 223 restorative justice model, general, 20, 156, 176, 195, 213, 223 Sex differences, see Gender factors Sexual abuse, 31, 101, 187, 204 see also Rape confidentiality of court proceedings, 212 defined, 317 prostitution, 58 Sexual activity preventive interventions, 109 prostitution, 58 school-based interventions, 127 Single-parent families, 3, 14, 75-76, 92, 109, 242, 252 Smoking community-based interventions, 141, 146-147 peer group interventions, 135, 138 prenatal exposure, 71, 105 preventive interventions, 9, 105, 108, 111 Social factors, general, 5 see also Community-level factors; Familial factors; Peers and friends; Race/ethnicity early childhood interventions, 116 preventive interventions, 108 risk factors, 14, 15, 66, 67, 69, 71, 72, 74-83, 103, 108 school-based interventions, 126 self-reports of delinquency, stigma, 31 Socioeconomic status, 14, 103, 200-203, 328 see also Educational attainment; Employment factors after-school interventions, 150 bias, 2 black persons, 237-238, 240, 245, 258 community-based interventions, 139, 141-142, 143, 147, 148 economic development, 90-92, 96, 103, 145-146 community-level factors, 90-92, 96, 103 developmental risk factors, 72 Hispanics, 238-239, 240 homeless persons, 30 homicide, 90 job training, 150-151 juvenile justice system, 158, 201, 237-238, 240, 246, 253 mentoring, 148 policing policies, 246 prenatal interventions, 109 preventive interventions, 109, 117 racial factors, 237-239, 240, 246, 253 school suspension, 85 single-parent families, 76 urban areas, 90-92, 96 welfare, 109, 111, 116, 201 Standards adult court, waiver of juveniles to, 208-209 American Correctional Association, 226 community-based interventions, evaluation, 139 detention and incarceration, 12, 226 educational, incarcerated persons, 189 health care, incarcerated persons, 188 racial disparities, state comparisons, 234 State government, ix, 1, 5, 7, 13, 23, 63-64, 225, 226 see also Adult criminal justice system; Juvenile justice system antisocial youths, grouping practices, 9 funding for preventive interventions, 153, 225

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JUVENILE CRIME incarcerated persons, treatment of, 11, 156, 228 legislation, 1, 5, 13, 25, 155-156, 157, 161-162, 165, 204-222 prenatal exposure to alcohol/drugs, 9, 105 probation, 183, 184 projections of crime and, 64-65 racial disparities, 233, 234 status offenses, 54-56 State-level factors arrest data, 26, 63-64 racial disparities, 233, 234, 237, 239 Status offenses, 54-56, 57-58, 162, 167, 223 see also Runaways alcohol use, 54, 55, 59, 74, 160 curfews, 54, 55, 57-58, 145, 163, 179, 194, 318 detention, alternatives to, 176, 180-182 detention for, 177-178 disobedience/incorrigibility, 23, 24, 73, 101, 160, 162, 203 guns, possession of, 54 historical perspectives, 54-56, 160, 161 Internet, 54, 55 prevalence, 54-56, 167 probation, 184 Stigma of delinquency, 31, 157, 174, 212, 216, 242, 328; see also Confidentiality Substance abuse, see Alcohol and drug abuse Suburban areas, 259 Suicide, 44-45, 46, 102 detained/incarcerated persons, 188, 223 gun-related, 44-45, 46 Superpredators, ix, 7, 25, 328-329 Supplemental Homicide Reports, 29, 37, 42, 339 Supreme Court, see Constitutional law Surveillance, 176, 182, 194, 196, 199, 200, 223, 258 see also Probation and parole electronic monitoring, 194 Survey of Youth in Residential Placement, 225 Sweden, 18-19, 20 Switzerland, 18-19, 20 T Teenage parents, 76-77, 102, 105, 242 preventive interventions, 116 Texas, 187-188, 219 Theft, 27, 32, 33, 50, 52, 322 see also Burglary; Motor vehicle theft; Robbery defined, 316 developmental factors, 67 gender factors, 59, 60 victim-offender mediation, 175 Tobacco use, see Smoking U Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), 10, 26-29, 30, 32-34, 63-64, 236-237, 248-249, 254, 321-322, 323, 330, 339 age factors, 10, 27, 28, 321-322, 323, 330 definition of offenses used in, 315-318 Supplemental Homicide Reports, 29, 37, 42, 339 United Kingdom employment and justice system involvement, 201 number of children in family, 77 socioeconomic segregation, 91 teenage parents, 77 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 211 Urban areas, 90-92, 240-241, 242, 252, 328 adult justice system, waiver to, 214, 215, 216, 250 after care, 198-199 attorney, right to representation by, 166 community-based interventions, 139, 142-144, 146-147 curfews, 163 detention, alternatives to, 179 drug abuse, 45, 73-74 employment effects of criminal embeddedness, 201 gangs, 83, 93-94, 95, 98, 99, 144-145, 330 Hispanics, 90-91 homicides, 42, 45, 90 police policies, 163, 246

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JUVENILE CRIME preventive interventions, 119-120 school-based interventions, 128-129 school suspension/expulsion, 85, 87 V Vandalism see also Arson after-school interventions, 150 defined, 317 gender factors, 59, 60 school property, 48, 49, 60, 123, 129 victim-offender mediation, 175 Victims of crime see also Child abuse age factors, 29, 30, 35, 42, 64, 175-176 arrest reports, 42 assault, 48 community-based interventions, 141, 143, 145 confidentiality of court proceedings, 212 court referrals of offenders, 162 fear of victimization, 1, 99, 106, 133, 143, 145, 155, 158, 162, 316, 328 gender factors, 101, 175-176 homicides, 30, 42 legislation, general, 205 media portrayals, 99 mediation, victim-offender, 132, 170-171, 175-176; see also “restitution” infra National Crime Victimization Survey, 29-30, 64, 236 police policies, 163 property crime, 48, 49 racial factors, 64, 175-176, 235, 236, 238, 246, 253 reports by, 28, 29-30, 35, 42, 48, 64, 248-249 restitution, 165, 166, 171, 172, 173, 176, 179, 195, 223 restorative justice model, 20, 156, 176, 195, 213, 223; see also “mediation...” and “restitution” supra rights of, state legislation, 205, 213 Video games, 99-100 Violent crimes see also Assault; Child abuse; Homicide; Rape; Robbery; Suicide adult justice system, waiver to, 207, 214 after-school interventions, 149 age factors, 10, 33-48 (passim), 54, 68, 207, 322, 323, 324, 326-329 arson, 17, 32, 33, 51, 53, 316 community-level, 97-99, 103, 145-146 confidentiality of court proceedings, 212 developmental factors, 67 gender factors, 58, 59, 69, 203, 241-242, 328-329 historical perspectives, 34-48, 62-63, 155, 162, 322, 323, 324, 325, 332-335, 341-342 incarceration for, 186, 213, 219, 220 international perspectives, 17, 20, 21, 45-46 juvenile justice system, 155, 163, 186, 212, 213, 219, 220 mass media portrayal of, 97, 99-100, 330 peer influences, 83 police policies, 163 prevalence, 2, 13, 17, 20, 25, 32, 33, 34-48, 62-63, 155, 235, 322, 323, 324, 326-332 (passim) probation, 185 racial factors, 34, 230, 235, 241-242, 246, 333 superpredators, ix, 7, 25, 328-329 Uniform Crime Reports, general, 10, 27, 330 victim reports, 35 Virginia, 215-216 W Waiver of right to attorney, 166 Waiver to adult justice system, 2, 5, 161-162, 165, 168, 206-209, 214-219, 223, 225, 226 age of waiver to, 1, 25, 206-209 (passim), 215-216, 220, 250 black persons, 216, 220, 221, 231, 232, 233, 250, 257-258

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JUVENILE CRIME drug crimes, 214-215, 216, 220 gender factors, 214 gun used in crime, 209, 215 historical perspectives, 214-215, 220222 homicides, 207, 209, 214, 216 property crimes, 216, 220 prosecutorial filings, 5, 155, 207, 208209, 214, 215, 216, 223 racial factors, 216, 219, 220, 221, 222, 231, 232, 233, 250, 254-258 rape, 214, 216 recidivism, 215, 218-219, 223 sentencing, 217-218, 220 standards, 208-209 urban areas, 214, 215, 216, 250 violent crimes, 207, 209, 214, 216 weapon used in crime, 209, 215, 216 Weapons, 99, 330 see also Guns adult justice system, waiver to, 209, 215, 216 arrest reports, 41, 44, 164 definition of possession as crime, 317 gender factors, 60, 235 homicides, 41, 42-43 racial factors, 46, 235 Welfare employment and justice system involvement, 201 preventive interventions, 109, 111, 116 White persons, 228, 232, 235, 251, 254-256 adjudication, 255, 256, 257 adult courts, waiver to, 250 arrest rates, 34, 56, 232, 235-237, 244, 255, 256, 257 community-based interventions, 147 developmental factors, 67 drug use, 56, 63 employment, 202 gangs, 95 gender factors, 67, 95 homicides, 339-344 incarceration, 222, 232, 255, 256, 257 policing policies, 244, 246 sentence length, 253 single-parent families, 76, 252 socioeconomic factors, 238-239, 240, 258 suicide rates, 46 victims of crime, 246 Women, see Gender factors; Prenatal/perinatal risk factors World Wide Web, see Internet Y Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance system, 30