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Educating Children with Autism (2001)

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References NOTE: Papers prepared for the committee are marked with an asterisk (*) and are available from the Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sen- sory Sciences at the National Research Council. CHAPTER 1 American Psychological Association 2000 Criteria for Treatment Guidelines. Washington, DC: Template Implementation Work Group of the Board of Professional Affairs, Board of Scientific Affairs and Committee for the Advancement of Professional Psychology, American Psycho- logical Association. Baranek, G.T. *1999 Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism. Paper presented at the First Workshop of the Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, December 13-14, 1999. University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill School of Medicine. Barlow, D.H. 1996 Health care policy, psychotherapy research, and the future of psychotherapy. American Psychologist 51(10):1050-1058. Chambless, D.L., and S.D. Hollon 1998 Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psy- chology 66(1):7-18. Dawson, G., and J. Osterling 1997 Early intervention in autism: Effectiveness and common elements of current approaches. Pp. 307-326 in The Effectiveness of Early Intervention: Second Genera- tion Research, M.J. Guralnick, ed. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing. 231

232 REFERENCES Filipek, P.A., P.J. Accardo, S. Ashwal, G.T. Baranek, E.H. Cook, Jr., and G. Dawson 2000 Practice parameter: Screening and diagnosis of autism. Neurology 55(4):468-479. Goldstein, H. *1999 Communication Intervention for Children with Autism: A Review of Treatment Efficacy. Paper presented at the First Workshop of the Committee on Educa- tional Interventions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, De- cember 13-14, 1999. Department of Communication Sciences, Florida State Uni- versity. Horner, R.H., E.G. Carr, P.S. Strain, A.W. Todd, and H.K. Reed *2000 Problem Behavior Interventions for Young Children with Autism: A Research Synthesis. Paper presented at the Second Workshop of the Committee on Educa- tional Interventions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, April 12, 2000. Department of Special Education, University of Oregon. Howlin, P. 1998 Pracititioner review: Psychological and educational treatments of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 39(3):307-322. Hurth, J., K. Whaley, D. Kates, and E. Shaw *2000 Enhancing Services for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Their Families: Infrastructure, Training, and Collaborative Funding. Paper presented at the Second Workshop of the Committee on Educational Interven- tions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, April 12, 2000. Kasari, C. *2000 Assessing Change in Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autism. Paper presented at the Second Workshop of the Committee on Educational Inter- ventions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, April 12, 2000. Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California at Los Angeles. Lonigan, C.J., J.C. Elbert, and S.B. Johnson 1998 Empirically supported psychosocial interventions for children: An overview. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 27(2):138-145. Mandlawitz, M. *1999 The Impact of the Legal System on Educational Programming for Young Chil- dren with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Paper presented at the First Workshop of the Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, December 13-14, 1999. McConnell, S.R. *1999 Interventions to Facilitate Social Interaction for Young Children With Autism: Review of Available Research and Recommendations for Future Research. Paper presented at the First Workshop of the Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, December 13-14, 1999. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Minnesota. New York State Department of Health 1999 Clinical Practice Guideline: The Guideline Technical Report. Autism/Pervasive Devel- opmental Disorders, Assessment and Intervention for Young Children (0-3 Years). Al- bany, NY: New York State Department of Health, Early Intervention Program. Rogers, S.J. 1998 Empirically supported comprehensive treatments for young children with au- tism. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 27(2):168-179. Rumsey J.M., B. Vitiello, J. Cooper, and D. Hirtz 2000 Special issue: Treatments for people with autism and other pervasive develop- mental disorders: Research perspectives - Editorial preface. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 30(5):369-371.

CHAPTER 2 233 CHAPTER 2 Aman, M., and N.N. Singh 1986 Manual for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. East Aurora, NY: Slosson Educational Publications. Arvidsson, T, B. Danielsson, P. Forsberg, C. Gillberg, M. Johansson, and G. Kjellgren 1997 Autism in 3-6-year-old children in a suburb of Goeteborg, Sweden. Autism 1(2):163-173. Baird, G., T. Charman, S. Baron-Cohen, A. Cox, J. Sweetenham, S. Wheelwright, and A. Drew 2000 A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: A 6-year follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy Child Adolescent Psychiatry 39(6):694-702. Baron-Cohen, S., J. Allen, and C. Gillberg 1992 Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. British Journal of Psychiatry 161:839-843. Baron-Cohen, S., A. Cox, G. Baird, J. Swettenham, N. Nightingale, K. Morgan, A. Drew, and T. Charman 1996 Psychological markers in the detection of autism in infancy in a large population. British Journal of Psychiatry 168:158-163. Berument, S.K., M. Rutter, C. Lord, A. Pickles, and A. Bailey 1999 Autism screening questionnaire: Diagnostic validity. British Journal of Psychiatry 175:444-451. California Department of Developmental Services 2000 Changes in the Population of Persons with Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders in California’s Developmental Service System: 1987 through 1998. Available: http://www.dds.cahwnet.gov/Autism/main/incidencrptfinal.pdf [Accessed May 2, 2001]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 Prevalence of Autism in Brick Township, New Jersey, 1998: Community Report. At- lanta GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Charman, T., J. Swettenham, S. Baron-Cohen, A. Cox, G. Baird, and A. Drew 1997 Infants with autism: An investigation of empathy, pretend play, joint attention, and imitation. Developmental Psychology 33:781-789. 1998 An experimental investigation of social-cognitive abilities in infants with autism: Clinical implications. Infant Mental Health Journal 19:260-275. Cox, A., K. Klein, T. Charman, G. Baird, S. Baron-Cohen, J. Swettenham, A. Drew, S. Wheel- wright, and N. Nightengale 1999 The early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders: Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised at 20 months and 42 months of age. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40:705-718. Deykin, E.Y., and B. MacMahon 1979 The incidence of seizures among children with autistic symptoms. American Jour- nal of Psychiatry 136(10):1310-1312. Dykens, E.M., and F.R. Volkmar 1997 Medical conditions associated with autism. Pp. 388-410 in Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, D.J. Cohen and F.R. Volkmar. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Fay, W.H. 1973 On the echolalia of the blind and of the autistic child. Journal of Speech and Hear- ing Disorders 38(4):478-489. Filipek, P.A., P.J. Accardo, S. Ashwal, G.T. Baranek, E.H. Cook, Jr., and G. Dawson 2000 Practice parameter: Screening and diagnosis of autism. Neurology 55(4):468-479.

234 REFERENCES Fombonne, E. *1999 Epidemiological Findings on Autism and Related Developmental Disorders. Pa- per presented at the First Workshop of the Committee on Educational Interven- tions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, December 13-14, 1999. Garnett, M.S., and A.J. Attwood 1998 The Australian scale for Asperger’s syndrome. In Asperger’s Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Professionals, T. Attwood, ed. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Hobbs, N. 1975 Issues in the Classification of Children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Hughes, C. 1996 Brief report: Planning problems in autism at the level of motor control. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 26(1):99-107. Jones, V., and M. Prior 1985 Motor imitation abilities and neurological signs in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 15(1):37-46. Kadesjoe, B., C. Gillberg, B. Hagberg, C. Gillberg, and B. Hagberg 1999 Autism and Asperger syndrome in seven-year-old children: A total population study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 29(4):327-331. Kanner, L. 1943 Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child 2:217-250. Klin, A. 1993 Auditory brainstem responses in autism: Brainstem dysfunction or peripheral hearing loss? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 23(1):15-35. Krug, D.A., J. Arick, and P. Almond 1980 Behavior checklist for identifying severely handicapped individuals with high levels of autistic behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 21(3):221-229. Lord, C. 1995 Follow-up of two-year-olds referred for possible autism. Journal of Child Psychol- ogy and Psychiatry 36:1365-1382. 1997 Diagnostic instruments in autism spectrum disorders. Pp. 460-483 in Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, D.J. Cohen and F.R. Volkmar, eds. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Lord, C., and E. Schopler 1989 Stability of assessment results of autistic and non-autistic language-impaired chil- dren from preschool years to early school age. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 30(4):575-590. Lord, C., and R. Paul 1997 Language and communication in autism. Pp. 195-225 in Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, D.J. Cohen and F.R. Volkmar, eds. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Lord, C., M. Rutter, and A. Le Couteur 1994 Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic inter- view for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disor- ders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 24(5):659-685. Lord, C., S. Risi, L. Lambrecht, E.H. Cook, B.L. Leventhal, P.C. DiLavore, A. Pickles, and M. Rutter 2000 The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of so- cial and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 30(3):205-233. Prizant, B.M., and J.F. Duchan 1981 The functions of immediate echolalia in autistic children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 46(3):241-249.

CHAPTER 2 235 Prizant, B.M., and A.L. Schuller 1997 Facilitating communication: Theoretical foundations. Pp. 289-300 in Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, D.J. Cohen and F.R. Volkmar, eds. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Ricks, D.M., and L. Wing 1975 Language, communication, and the use of symbols in normal and autistic chil- dren. Journal of Autism and Child Schizophrenia 5(3):191-221. Robins, D., D. Fein, M. Barton, and M. Liss 1999 The Autism Screening Project: How Early Can Autism Be Detected? Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Meeting, Boston. Schopler, E., R.J. Reichler, R.F. DeVellis, and K. Daly 1980 Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 10(1):91-103. Siegel, B., C. Pliner, J. Eschler, and G.R. Elliott 1988 How children with autism are diagnosed: Difficulties in identification of chil- dren with multiple developmental delays. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pe- diatrics 9(4):199-204. Siegel, B., J. Vukicevic, G.R. Elliott, and H.C. Kraemer 1990 The use of signal detection theory to assess DSM IIIR criteria for autisitic disor- der. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 28(4):542- 548. Sparrow, S. 1997 Developmentally based assessments. Pp. 411-447 in Handbook of Autism and Per- vasive Developmental Disorders, D.J. Cohen and F.R. Volkmar, eds. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Stone, W.L., E.B. Lee, L. Ashford, J. Brissie, S.L. Hepburn, E.E. Coonrod, and B. Weiss 1999 Can autism be diagnosed accurately in children under three years? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40:219-226. Stone, W.L., E.E. Coonrod, and O.Y. Ousley 2000 Brief report: Screening tool for autism in two-year-olds (STAT): Development and preliminary data. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 30(6):607- 612. Tager-Flusberg, H., S. Calkins, T. Nolin, T. Baumberger, M. Anderson, and A. Chadwick- Dias 1990 A longitudinal study of language acquisition in autistic and Down syndrome children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 20(1):1-21. Volkmar, F.R., and D.S. Nelson 1990 Seizure disorders in autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry 29(1):127-129. Volkmar, F.R., A. Klin, and D.J. Cohen 1997 Diagnosis and classification of autism and related conditions: Consensus and issues. Pp. 5-40 in Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, D.J. Cohen and F.R. Volkmar, eds. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Volkmar, F.R., E. Cook, J. Pomeroy, G. Realmuto, and P. Tanguay 1999 Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of the American Acad- emy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 38(12):32S-54S. Wetherby, A.M., D.G. Yonclas, and A.A. Bryan 1989 Communicative profiles of preschool children with handicaps: Implications for early identification. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 54(2):148-158.

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286 REFERENCES Dunst, C.J., and C.M. Trivette 1994 Methodological considerations and strategies for studying the long-term effects of early intervention. Pp. 277-313 in Developmental Follow-Up: Concepts, Domains, and Methods, S.L. Friedman and C.H. Haywood, eds. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc Fenske, E.C., S. Zalenski, P.J. Krantz, and L.E. McClannahan 1985 Age at intervention and treatment outcome for autistic children in a comprehen- sive treatment program. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities 5:49-58. Filipek, P.A., P.J. Accardo, S. Ashwal, G.T. Baranek, E.H. Cook, Jr., and G. Dawson 2000 Practice parameter: Screening and diagnosis of autism. Neurology 55(4):468-479. Fombonne, E. *1999 Epidemiological Findings on Autism and Related Developmental Disorders. Pa- per presented at the First Workshop of the Committee on Educational Interven- tions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, December 13-14, 1999. Garbarino, J., and B. Ganzel 2000 The human ecology of early risk. In Handbook of Early Intervention, 2nd Edition, J. Shonkoff and S. Meisels, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press. Gilliam, J.E. 1995 Gilliam Autism Rating Scale. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Goldstein, H. *1999 Communication Intervention for Children with Autism: A Review of Treatment Efficacy. Paper presented at the First Workshop of the Committee on Educa- tional Interventions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, De- cember 13-14, 1999. Department of Communication Sciences, Florida State Uni- versity. Guralnick, M.J. 1997 Second-generation research in field of early intervention. In The Effectiveness of Early Intervention, M. Guralnick, ed. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing. Hall, G.S., and S.F. Louchs 1977 A developmental model for determining whether treatment is actually imple- mented. American Journal of Educational Research 14:263-276. Harris, S.L., and J.S. Handleman 2000 Age and IQ intake as predictors of placement for young children with autism: A four and six year follow-up. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 30:137- 149. Harris, S.L., J.S. Handleman, R. Gordon, B. Kristoff, and R. Fuentes 1991 Changes in cognitive and language functioning of preschool children with au- tism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 20:281-290. Hatton, D.D., D.B. Bailey, M.R. Burchinal, and K.A. Ferrell 1997 Developmental growth curves of preschool children with vision impairment. Child Development 68:788-806. Horner, R.H., E.G. Carr, P.S. Strain, A.W. Todd, and H.K. Reed *2000 Problem Behavior Interventions for Young Children with Autism: A Research Synthesis. Paper presented at the Second Workshop of the Committee on Educa- tional Interventions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, April 12, 2000. Department of Special Education, University of Oregon. Hoyson, M., B. Jamieson, and P.S. Strain 1984 Individualized group instruction of normally developing and autistic-like chil- dren: The LEAP curriculum. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood 8:157-172.

CHAPTER 15 287 Jocelyn, L.J., O.G. Casiro, D. Beattie, J. Bow, and J. Kneisz 1998 Treatment of children with autism: A randomized controlled trial to evaluate a caregiver-based intervention program in community-day-care centers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 19:326-334. Kasari, C. *2000 Assessing Change in Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autism. Pa- per presented at the Second Workshop of the Committee on Educational Inter- ventions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, April 12, 2000. Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California at Los Angeles. Kazdin, A. 1982 Single-Case Research Designs: Methods for Clinical and Applied Settings. New York: Oxford University Press. Krug, D.A., J. Arick, and P. Almond 1980 Behavior checklist for identifying severely handicapped individuals with high levels of autistic behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 21(3):221-229. LEAP Preschool and Outreach Project 1999 Quality Program Guidelines. Unpublished fidelity of treatment checklist. Denver, CO: Author. Leinhardt, G. 1980 Modeling and measuring educational treatment in evaluation. Review of Educa- tional Research 50:393-420. LeLaurin, K., and M. Wolery 1992 Research standards in early intervention: Defining, describing, and measuring the independent variable. Journal of Early Intervention 16:275-287. Lifter, K., B. Sultzer-Azaroff, S.R. Anderson, and G.E. Cowdery 1993 Teaching play activities to preschool children with disabilities: The importance of developmental considerations. Journal of Early Intervention 17:139-159. Lonigan, C.J., J.C. Elbert, and S.B. Johnson 1998 Empirically supported psychosocial interventions for child: An overview. Jour- nal of Clinical Child Psychology 27:138-145. Lord, C. 1997 Diagnostic instruments in autism spectrum disorder. In Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, 2nd ed, D. Cohen and F. Volkmar, eds. New York: John Wiley. Lord, C., M. Rutter, and A. Le Couteur 1993 Using the ADI—R to diagnose autism in preschool children. Infant Mental Health Journal 14(3):234-252. Lord, C., S. Risi, L. Lambrecht, E.H. Cook, B.L. Leventhal, P.C. DiLavore, A. Pickles, and M. Rutter 2000 The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of so- cial and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 30(3):205-233. McConnell, S.R. *1999 Interventions to Facilitate Social Interaction for Young Children With Autism: Review of Available Research and Recommendations for Future Research. Paper presented at the First Workshop of the Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism, National Research Council, December 13-14, 1999. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Minnesota.

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Educating Children with Autism Get This Book
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Autism is a word most of us are familiar with. But do we really know what it means?

Children with autism are challenged by the most essential human behaviors. They have difficulty interacting with other people-often failing to see people as people rather than simply objects in their environment. They cannot easily communicate ideas and feelings, have great trouble imagining what others think or feel, and in some cases spend their lives speechless. They frequently find it hard to make friends or even bond with family members. Their behavior can seem bizarre.

Education is the primary form of treatment for this mysterious condition. This means that we place important responsibilities on schools, teachers and children's parents, as well as the other professionals who work with children with autism. With the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1975, we accepted responsibility for educating children who face special challenges like autism. While we have since amassed a substantial body of research, researchers have not adequately communicated with one another, and their findings have not been integrated into a proven curriculum.

Educating Children with Autism outlines an interdisciplinary approach to education for children with autism. The committee explores what makes education effective for the child with autism and identifies specific characteristics of programs that work. Recommendations are offered for choosing educational content and strategies, introducing interaction with other children, and other key areas.

This book examines some fundamental issues, including:

  • How children's specific diagnoses should affect educational assessment and planning
  • How we can support the families of children with autism
  • Features of effective instructional and comprehensive programs and strategies
  • How we can better prepare teachers, school staffs, professionals, and parents to educate children with autism
  • What policies at the federal, state, and local levels will best ensure appropriate education, examining strategies and resources needed to address the rights of children with autism to appropriate education.

Children with autism present educators with one of their most difficult challenges. Through a comprehensive examination of the scientific knowledge underlying educational practices, programs, and strategies, Educating Children with Autism presents valuable information for parents, administrators, advocates, researchers, and policy makers.

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